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October Crisis

The October Crisis occurred in October 1970 in the province of Quebec in Canada in the Montreal metropolitan area. Members of the Front de libération du Québec kidnapped the provincial Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte and British diplomat James Cross. In response, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act; the kidnappers murdered Laporte and negotiations led to Cross's release and the kidnappers' exile to Cuba. The Premier of Quebec Robert Bourassa and the Mayor of Montreal Jean Drapeau supported Trudeau's invocation of the War Measures Act, which limited civil liberties; the police were enabled with far-reaching powers, they arrested and detained, without bail, 497 individuals, all but 62 of whom were released without charges. The Government of Quebec requested military aid to the civil power, Canadian Forces deployed throughout Quebec. At the time, opinion polls throughout Canada, including in Quebec, showed widespread support for the use of the War Measures Act.

The response, was criticized at the time by prominent politicians such as René Lévesque and Tommy Douglas. The events of October 1970 galvanized opposition to the use of violence in efforts to gain Quebec sovereignty and accelerated the movement towards electoral means of attaining greater autonomy and independence, including support for the sovereigntist Parti Québécois, which formed the provincial government in 1976. From 1963 to 1970 the Quebec nationalist group Front de libération du Québec detonated over 950 bombs. While mailboxes in the affluent and predominantly Anglophone city of Westmount, were common targets, the largest single bombing was of the Montreal Stock Exchange on February 13, 1969, which caused extensive damage and injured 27 people. Other targets included Montreal City Hall, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, armed forces recruiting offices, railway tracks, army installations. FLQ members, in a strategic move, had stolen several tons of dynamite from military and industrial sites, financed by bank robberies, they threatened through their official communication organ, known as La Cognée, that more attacks were to come.

By 1970, 23 members of the FLQ were including four convicted of murder. On February 26, 1970, two men in a panel truck, including Jacques Lanctôt, were arrested in Montreal when they were discovered with a sawed-off shotgun and a communiqué announcing the kidnapping of the Israeli consul. In June, police raided a home in the small community of Prévost, north of Montreal in the Laurentian Mountains, found firearms, ammunition, 300 pounds of dynamite and the draft of a ransom note to be used in the kidnapping of the United States consul. October 5: Montreal, Quebec: Two members of the "Liberation Cell" of the FLQ kidnap British diplomat James Cross from his home; the kidnappers are disguised as delivery men bringing a package for his recent birthday. Once the maid lets them in, they pull out a revolver and kidnap Cross; this is followed by a communique to the authorities containing the kidnappers' demands, which include the exchange of Cross for "political prisoners", a number of convicted or detained FLQ members, the CBC broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto.

The terms of the ransom note are the same as those found in June for the planned kidnapping of the U. S. consul. At this time, the police do not connect the two. October 8: Broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto in all French- and English-speaking media outlets in Quebec. October 10: Montreal, Quebec: Members of the Chenier Cell approach the home of the Deputy Premier of the province of Quebec, Pierre Laporte, while he is playing football with his nephew on his front lawn. Members of the "Chenier cell" of the FLQ kidnap Laporte. October 11: The CBC broadcasts a letter from captivity from Pierre Laporte to the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa. October 12: General Gilles Turcot sends troops from the Royal 22e Régiment to guard federal property in the Montreal region, by request of the federal government. Lawyer Robert Lemieux is appointed by the FLQ to negotiate the release of James Cross and Pierre Laporte; the Quebec Government appoints Robert Demers. October 13: Prime Minister Trudeau is interviewed by the CBC with respect to the military presence.

In a combative interview, Trudeau asks Tim Ralfe, what he would do in his place. When Ralfe asks Trudeau how far he would go, Trudeau replies, "Just watch me". October 14: Sixteen prominent Quebec personalities, including René Lévesque and Claude Ryan, call for negotiating "exchange of the two hostages for the political prisoners". FLQ's lawyer Robert Lemieux urges Université de Montréal students to boycott classes in support of FLQ. October 15: Quebec City: The negotiations between lawyers Lemieux and Demers are put to an end; the Government of Quebec formally requests the intervention of the Canadian army in "aid of the civil power" pursuant to the National Defence Act. All three opposition parties, including the Parti Québécois, rise in the National Assembly and agree with the decision. On the same day, separatist groups are permitted to speak at the Université de Montréal. Robert Lemieux organizes a 3,000 student rally in Paul Sauvé Arena to show support for the FLQ; the rally frightens many Canadians, who view it as a possible prelude to outright insurrection in Quebec.

October 16: Premier Bourassa formally requests that the government of Canada grant the government of Quebec "emergency powers" that allow them to "apprehe

University of Pretoria Faculty of Engineering, the Built Environment and Information Technology

The University of Pretoria Faculty of Engineering, the Built Environment and Information Technology educational programs stretch back to 1908 and consists of the School of Engineering, School for the Built Environment, School of Information Technology and the Graduate School of Technology Management. The university is the only African collaborator in the CDIO engineering initiative: Since 1997, the university as a whole has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark; the proposal for a university for the capital, first mooted in the Volksraad in 1889, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899. In 1902 after the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging, the Normal College for teacher training was established in Groenkloof, Pretoria and in 1904 the Transvaal Technical Institute, with emphasis on mining education, opened in Johannesburg. In 1906 the Transvaal Technical Institute changed its name to the Transvaal University College.

On 4 March 1908 when the Transvaal University College transferred its arts and science courses to its newly established Pretoria Campus the precursor to the university was established offering courses in languages and law. The Department of Architecture was established 1943; the School of Engineering offers the undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in chemical engineering and biosystems engineering, electrical and computer engineering and systems engineering, materials science and metallurgical engineering and aeronautical engineering, mining engineering and the postgraduate only engineering and technology management programmes. The School for the Built Environment offers the undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in architecture, landscape architecture, interior Architecture, quantity surveying, construction management, town and regional Planning; the School of Information Technology offers the undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the fields of computer science and information science.

The Graduate School of Technology Management offers the postgraduate programmes in the fields of technology, project management, engineering management, life cycle managementand asset management. Engineering programmes are accredited by the Engineering Council of South Africa and recognised internationally through the Washington Accord in Australia, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Ireland, Korea, New Zealand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America; the CDIO Initiative is an innovative educational framework for producing the next generation of engineers. The framework provides students with an education stressing engineering fundamentals set in the context of Conceiving — Designing — Implementing — Operating real-world systems and products. Throughout the world, CDIO Initiative collaborators have adopted CDIO as the framework of their curricular planning and outcome-based assessment. CDIO was formally founded by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the late 1990s. In 2000 it became an international collaboration, with universities around the world adopting the same framework.

The collaborators maintain a dialogue about what works and what doesn't and continue to refine the project. Determining additional members of the collaboration is a selective process managed a Council comprising original members and early adopters; the university organises the annual SAE International sanctioned student automotive engineering Baja SAE competition in South Africa sponsored by Sasol. All undergraduate student participate in a compulsory community based project module as part of the university's wider community engagement strategy; the module was a finalist for the 2010 MacJannet Prize for Global Citizenship. House EBIT provides a platform for social engagement, community outreach and student engagement with the faculty. League table rankingsThe QS World University Rankings ranks the faculty as follows: Recent awards won by architecture students include: Well known alumni include: Marius Kloppers is the international CEO of BHP Billiton, the world's largest mining company and named by CNN Money as the world's 18th most powerful person in business.

Calie Pistorius is a South African academic, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hull, United Kingdom

Steve Omischl

Steve Omischl is a Canadian freestyle skier. Omischl was born in Ontario. Omischl competes in aerials, made his World Cup debut in December 1999, finishing with a silver medal at an event in Blackcomb. Omischl earned five more podiums on the World Cup circuit before winning his first event in mid-2002. Along with a fellow olympian Jeff Bean, he participated in an episode of the hit show Mantracker where he defeated Terry Grant in the nerve-wracking chase. Over his career thus far, Omischl has placed on the podium at 40 World Cup events, claimed 20 titles, he has won four overall World Cup titles, finishing atop the aerials standings in 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009. He has won four medals at the World Championships, his lone gold came in 2005, most won a silver medal in 2009. Omischl has competed in three Olympic Games. In 2002 he ended up 11th in the final. In 2006, he was well positioned to make the final after the first jump, but a poor second jump left him in 20th place. Omischl was a member of the Canadian team at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

He was ranked 8th overall after the final. FIS profile