|Coordinates (Bhubaneswar): Coordinates:|
|Statehood||1 April 1936 |
|• Body||Government of Odisha|
|• Governor||Ganeshi Lal|
|• Chief Minister||Naveen Patnaik (BJD)|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (147 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||21 Lok Sabha; |
10 Rajya Sabha
|• High Court||Orissa High Court, Cuttack, Odisha|
|• Total||155,707 km2 (60,119 sq mi)|
|• Density||300/km2 (760/sq mi)|
|• Total||₹4.16 lakh crore (US$60 billion)|
|• Per capita||₹80,991 (US$1,200)|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-OR|
|HDI rank||25th (2015)|
|Symbols of Odisha|
|Song||Bande Utkala Janani|
|Bird||Peacock Mayura (ମୟୂର)|
|Tree||Indian Fig tree|
Odisha (//, /
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha; the modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with ₹4.16 lakh crore (US$60 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹81,000 (US$1,200). Odisha ranks 25th among Indian states in human development index.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Subdivisions
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Education
- 10 Culture
- 11 Tourism
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" (also "Udra Bibhasha" or "Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, which is dated to 1025. Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region 'Odra Rashtra' as Odisha; the inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya.
The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010. On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament, also passed the bill and the amendment.
Prehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans. Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Mahabharata, Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta; the Sabar people of Odisha have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.
Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his reign. According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected; the resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have deeply affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism.
By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler, he also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Samudragupta and Shashanka, it was also a part of Harsha's empire.
Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar, they were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri (c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple (c. 1250).
The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom; the region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, who is considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I, then governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal, they agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the region.
The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War; the northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.
The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths. Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. There was a view among some sections of population that Odia was not a separate language rather a dialect of Bengali.This view ultimately precipitated Odia nationalism. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912, the Bihar and Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936, Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces; the new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor. Following India's independence, on 15 August 1947, 27 princely states signed the document to join Orissa.
Odisha lies between the latitudes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of 155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a coastline of 450 km. In the eastern part of the state lies the coastal plain, it extends from the Subarnarekha River in the north to the Rushikulya river in the south. The lake Chilika is part of the coastal plains; the plains are rich in fertile silt deposited by the six major rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi and Rushikulya. The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a Food and Agriculture Organization-recognised rice gene bank and research institute, is situated on the banks of Mahanadi in Cuttack.
Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and broad valleys have been made in them by rivers; these valleys have fertile soil and are densely populated. Odisha also has plateaus and rolling uplands, which have lower elevation than the plateaus; the highest point in the state is Deomali at 1,672 metres. The other high peaks are: Sinkaram (1,620 m), Golikoda (1,617 m), and Yendrika (1,582 metres).
The state experiences four meteorological seasons: winter (January to February), pre-monsoon season (March to May), south-west monsoon season (June to September) and north east monsoon season (October–December). However, locally the year is divided into six traditional seasons (or rutus): Grishma (summer), Barsha (rainy season), Sharata (autumn), Hemanta (winter),Sheeta(cool season) and Basanta (spring), .
|Mean Temp and Precipitation of Selected Weather Stations|
|Max (C)||Min (C)||Rainfall (mm)||Max (C)||Min (C)||Rainfall (mm)||Max (C)||Min (C)||Rainfall (mm)||Max (C)||Min (C)||Rainfall (mm)|
According to a Forest Survey of India report released in 2012, Odisha has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state's total area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2), medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without closed canopy; 20,477 km2) and scrub forest (4,734 km2); the state also has bamboo forests (10,518 km2) and mangroves (221 km2). The state is losing its forests to timber smuggling, mining, industrialisation and grazing. There have been attempts at conservation and reforestation.
Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha's evergreen and moist forests are suitable habitats for wild orchids. Around 130 species have been reported from the state. 97 of them are found in Mayurbhanj district alone. The Orchid House of Nandakanan Biological Park hosts some of these species.
Simlipal National Park is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve spread over 2,750 km2 of the northern part of Mayurbhanj district, it has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The sal tree is the primary tree species there; the park has 55 mammals, including barking deer, Bengal tiger, common langur, four-horned antelope, Indian bison, Indian elephant, Indian giant squirrel, Indian leopard, jungle cat, sambar deer, and wild boar. There are 304 species of birds in the park, such as the common hill myna, grey hornbill, Indian pied hornbill and Malabar pied hornbill, it also has 60 species of reptiles, notable among which are the king cobra and tricarinate hill turtle. There is also a mugger crocodile breeding program in nearby Ramtirtha; the Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary is a 190 km2 protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80 elephants, but by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika, Nayagarh district, and Athagad; some elephants have died in conflicts with villagers, while some have died during migration from being electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the protected area, they are killed by poachers. Besides elephants, the sanctuary also has Indian leopards, jungle cats and chitals.
The Bhitarkanika National Park in Kendrapara District covers 650 km2, of which 150 km2 are mangroves; the Gahiramatha beach in Bhitarkanika is the world's largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles. Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in the state are Rushikulya, in Ganjam district, and the mouth of the Devi river; the Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large population of salt-water crocodiles. In winter, the sanctuary is also visited by migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in the sanctuary are the black-crowned night heron, darter, grey heron, Indian cormorant, Oriental white ibis, purple heron, and sarus crane; the possibly endangered horseshoe crab is also found in this region.
Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha with an area of 1,105 km2, it is connected to the Bay of Bengal by a 35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the Mahanadi delta. In the dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season, the rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity. Birds from places like the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, other parts of Russia, Central Asia, South-East Asia, Ladakh and the Himalayas migrate to the lagoon in winter. Among the birds spotted there are Eurasian wigeon, pintail, bar-headed goose, greylag goose, flamingo, mallard and Goliath heron; the lagoon also has a small population of the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins. The state's coastal region has also had sightings of finless porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, humpback dolphin and spinner dolphin in its waters.
Satapada is situated close to the northeast cape of Chilika Lake and Bay of Bengal, it is famous for dolphin watching in their natural habitat. There is a tiny island en-route for watching dolphins, where tourists often take a short stop. Apart from that, this island is also home for tiny red crabs.
Government and politics
The main parties active in the politics of Odisha are the Biju Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party. Following the Odisha State Assembly Election in 2014, the Naveen Patnaik-led Biju Janata Dal stayed in power for the fifth consecutive term.
The Odisha state has a unicameral legislature; the Odisha Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members, and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker, or by the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor of Odisha; the governor is appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the Chief Minister; the Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The 147 elected representatives are called Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs. One MLA may be nominated from the Anglo-Indian community by the governor; the term of the office is for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term.
Odisha Has been divided into 30 districts; these 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are North, South and Central, with their headquarters at Sambalpur, Berhampur and Cuttack respectively; each division consists of ten districts, and has as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner (RDC). The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is that between that of the district administration and the state secretariat; the RDCs report to the Board of Revenue, which is headed by a senior officer of the Indian Administrative Service.
|Northern Division (HQ – Sambalpur)||Central Division (HQ – Cuttack)||Southern Division (HQ – Berhampur)|
Each district is governed by a Collector and District Magistrate, who is appointed from the Indian Administrative Service; the Collector and District Magistrate is responsible for collecting the revenue and maintaining law and order in the district. Each District is separated into Sub-Divisions, each governed by a Sub-Collector and Sub-Divisional Magistrate; the Sub-Divisions are further divided into Tahasils. The Tahasils are headed by Tahasildar. Odisha has 58 Sub-Divisions, 317 Tahasils and 314 Blocks. Blocks consists of Panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.
The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar; the other major cities are Cuttack, Rourkela, Berhampur and Sambalpur. Municipal Corporations in Odisha include Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Berhampur, Sambalpur and Rourkela.
Other municipalities of Odisha include Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Barbil, Bargarh, Baripada, Belpahar, Bhadrak, Bhawanipatna, Biramitrapur, Boudh, Byasanagar, Chhatrapur, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gopalpur, Gunupur, hinjilicut, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jeypore, Jharsuguda, Joda, Kendrapara, Kendujhar, Khordha, Konark, Koraput, Malkangiri, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Paradeep, Paralakhemundi, Phulbani, Puri, Rajgangpur, Rayagada, Sonepur, Sundargarh, Talcher and Umerkote.
Largest cities or towns in Odisha
As of the 2011 Census
Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs in rural areas.
Odisha is experiencing steady economic growth; the impressive growth in gross domestic product of the state has been reported by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth rate is above the national average; the central Government's Urban Development Ministry has recently announced the names of 20 cities selected to be developed as smart cities. The state capital Bhubaneswar is the first city in the list of smart Cities released in January 2016, a pet project of the Indian Government; the announcement also marked with sanction of Rs 50,802 crore over the five years for development.
Odisha has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors with investment proposals, it contains a fifth of India's coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of the chromite.
Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Odisha, too. Bandhabahal is a major area of open cast coal mines in Odisha; the state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, Reliance Power (Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US$13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda district.
In 2009 Odisha was the second top domestic investment destination with Gujarat first and Andhra Pradesh in third place according to an analysis of ASSOCHAM Investment Meter (AIM) study on corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth ₹. 2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state.
Odisha has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. Bhubaneswar is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India; some highways are getting expanded to four lanes. Plans for metro rail connecting Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack, a journey of 30 km, have also started.
Odisha has a total of two operational airports, 17 airstrips and 16 helipads; the airport at Jharsuguda was upgraded to a full-fledged domestic airport in May 2018. The government of Odisha also plans five greenfield airports at Angul, Dhamra, Kalinganagar, Paradip and Rayagada in an effort to boost intra-state and inter-state civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at Barbil, Gopalpur, Jharsuguda and Rourkela were also to be upgraded. Air Odisha, is Odisha's sole air charter company based in Bhubaneswar.
- Angul – Savitri Jindal Airport
- Bargarh – Sativata Airstrip
- Bhawanipatna – Utkela Airstrip
- Bhubaneswar – Biju Patnaik International Airport
- Brahmapur – Berhampur Airport
- Cuttack – Charbatia Air Base
- Jeypore – Jeypore Airport
- Jharsuguda – Veer Surendra Sai Airport
- Rourkela – Rourkela Airport
- Sambalpur – Hirakud Airstrip
- Port of Dhamara
- Port of Gopalpur
- Port of Paradip
- Port of Subarnarekha
- Port of Astarang
- Port of Chandipur
Major cities of Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of India by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway network in Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at Bhubaneswar and some parts under South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway.
According to the 2018 census of India, the total population of Odisha is 46,143,782, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680 (49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a 13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is 269 per km2.
The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate, according to the 2011 census.
The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 2004–2005 was 57.15% which was nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%. Since 2005 the state has reduced poverty rate dramatically by 24.6 percentage points.According to current estimate proportion of people living under poverty line was 32.6% 
Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a birth rate of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a death rate of 9.1 per 1,000 people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Odisha has a Human Development Index of 0.442 as of 2011.
The majority (over 94%) of people in the state of Odisha are Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example, Odisha is home to several Hindu figures. Sant Bhima Bhoi was a leader of the Mahima sect movement. Sarala Das, a Hindu Khandayat, was the translator of the epic Mahabharata in Odia. Chaitanya Das was a Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva was the author of the Gita Govinda.
The Odisha Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the government of Odisha to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the Harijans.
Perhaps the oldest scripture of Odisha is the Madala Panji from the Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa. In the modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a Brahmo Samajist and shaped modern Odia literature at the start of the 20th century.
Christians in Odisha account for about 2.8% of the population while Odia Muslims account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001. The Sikh, Buddhist and Jain communities together account for 0.1% of the population.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2019)
Odia is the official language along with English as central state communication. Odia is spoken as a native language by 82.7% of the population according to 2011 census. Other minority languages of the state are Hindi, Telugu, Santali, Kui, Urdu, Bengali and Ho.
- Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar(IIT BBS) at Bhubaneswar
- National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) at Bhubaneswar
- National Institute of Technology Rourkela (NIT) at Rourkela
- Indian Institute of Management (IIM-SB) at Sambalpur
- Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) at Brahmapur
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) at Bhubaneswar
- Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT) at Burla
- National Law University at Cuttack
- International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at Bhubaneswar
- Berhampur University at Brahmapur
- Biju Patnaik University of Technology at Rourkela
- Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College at Bhubaneswar
- Central University of Orissa at Koraput
- College of Agriculture, Bhawanipatna
- College of Basic Science and Humanities at Bhubaneswar
- College of Engineering and Technology at Bhubaneswar
- Dharanidhar College at Keonjhar
- Fakir Mohan University at Balasore
- Gangadhar Meher University at Sambalpur
- Government College of Engineering, Kalahandi at Bhawanipatna
- Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar at Bhubaneswar
- Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology at Sarang
- KIIT University at Bhubaneswar
- Khallikote University at Brahmapur
- Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital at Brahmapur
- National Institute of Science and Technology at Brahmapur
- North Orissa University at Baripada
- Odisha State Open University at Sambalpur
- Orissa Engineering College at Bhubaneswar
- Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology at Bhubaneswar
- College of Basic Science and Humanities, Bhubaneswar
- Parala Maharaja Engineering College at Brahmapur
- Rama Devi Women's University at Bhubaneswar
- Ravenshaw University at Cuttack
- Sambalpur University at Sambalpur
- Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College at Cuttack
- Siksha O Anusandhan University at Bhubaneswar
- Utkal University at Bhubaneswar
- Utkal University of Culture at Bhubaneswar
- Veer Surendra Sai Medical College at Burla
- Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
- Xavier University, Bhubaneswar
- Institute of Mathematics and Applications, Bhubaneswar
- Sri Sri University at Cuttack
- Centurion University at Jatni, Bhubaneswar
- National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research at Cuttack
- National Institute of Social Work and Social Science, Bhubaneswar (NISWASS)
- Pandit Raghunath Murmu Medical College and Hospital, Baripada 
- Saheed Laxman Nayak Medical College and Hospital, Koraput 
Entry to various institutes of higher education especially into engineering degrees is through a centralised Odisha Joint Entrance Examination, conducted by the Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT), Rourkela, since 2003, where seats are provided according to order of merit. Few of the engineering institutes enroll students by through Joint Entrance Examination. For medical courses, there is a corresponding All India Pre Medical Test.
Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries; the kitchen of the Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world, with 1,000 chefs, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people each day.
The syrupy dessert Pahala rasagola made in Odisha is known throughout the world. Chhenapoda is another major Odisha sweet cuisine, which originated in Nayagarh. Dalma (a mix of dal and selected vegetables) is widely known cuisine, better served with ghee.
Odissi (Orissi) dance and music are classical art forms. Odissi is the oldest surviving dance form in India on the basis of archaeological evidence. Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years, and finds mention in the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni, possibly written c. 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly became extinct during the British period, only to be revived after India's independence by a few gurus.
The Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar has a 150-foot (46 m) high deula while the Jagannath Temple, Puri is about 200 feet (61 m) high and dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the Konark Sun Temple, the largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle" exists today, and it is still staggering in size, it stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha architecture. Sarala Temple, regarded as one of the most spiritually elevated expressions of Shaktism is in Jagatsinghpur district, it is also one of the holiest places in Odisha and a major tourist attraction. Maa Tarini Temple situated in Kendujhar district is also a famous pilgrimage destination; every day thousands of coconuts are given to Maa Tarini by devotees for fulfilling their wishes.
Odisha's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems; this creates treasure troves of flora and fauna that are inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitarkanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem; the bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake (Asia's largest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral parts of eco-tourism in Odisha, arranged by Odisha Tourism. Daringbadi is a hill station in the Kandhamal district of Odisha. Chandipur, a calm and serene site, is mostly unexplored by tourists; the unique specialty of this beach is the ebb tides that recede up to 4 km and tend to disappear rhythmically.
The share of foreign tourists’ arrival in the state is below one percent of total foreign tourist arrivals at all India level.
- Bibliography of India
- Cinema of Odisha
- Culture of Odisha
- Festivals of Odisha
- Index of India-related articles
- List of Odia writers
- Odia literature
- Odisha Government Schemes List
- Odissi music
- Outline of India
- Western Odisha
- India – Wikipedia book
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Ganeshi Lal sworn in as new governor of Odisha". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 29 May 2018. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Our Parliament" (PDF). Lok Sabha. Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "MOSPI Gross State Domestic Product". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. 1 March 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "State of Literacy" (PDF). Census of India. p. 110. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- "Odisha (əˈdɪsə)". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. The 'sha' spelling comes about from the historical or Sanskritic letter śa (ଶ), however all Odia sibilants today are realised as sa (ସ).
- Jones, Daniel (2003) . Roach, Peter; Hartmann, James; Setter, Jane (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-12-539683-2.
- "Coastal security". Odisha Police. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "ST & SC Development, Minorities & Backward Classes Welfare Department:: Government of Odisha". www.stscodisha.gov.in. Archived from the original on 1 September 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times of India. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language". The Times of India. 14 March 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Detail History of Orissa". Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006.
- "Utkala Dibasa hails colours, flavours of Odisha". The Times of India. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "The National Anthem of India" (PDF). Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Rabindra Nath Chakraborty (1985). National Integration in Historical Perspective: A Cultural Regeneration in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 17–. GGKEY:CNFHULBK119. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Ravi Kalia (1994). Bhubaneswar: From a Temple Town to a Capital City. SIU Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8093-1876-6. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Patel, C.B (April 2010). Origin and Evolution of the Name ODISA (PDF). Bhubaneswar: I&PR Department, Government of Odisha. pp. 28, 29, 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- Pritish Acharya (11 March 2008). National Movement and Politics in Orissa, 1920–1929. SAGE Publications. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-321-0001-0. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Amid clash, House passes Bills to rename Orissa, its language". The Hindu. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Parliament passes bill to change Orissa's name". NDTV. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Amalananda Ghosh (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. BRILL. p. 24. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- Subodh Kapoor, ed. (2004). An Introduction to Epic Philosophy: Epic Period, History, Literature, Pantheon, Philosophy, Traditions, and Mythology, Volume 3. Genesis Publishing. p. 784. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
Finally Srutayudha, a valiant hero, was son Varuna and of the river Parnasa.
- Devendrakumar Rajaram Patil (1946). Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. p. 46. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Dance bow (1965.3.5)". Pitt Rivers Museum. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Rabindra Nath Pati (1 January 2008). Family Planning. APH Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-313-0352-8. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Suhas Chatterjee (1 January 1998). Indian Civilization And Culture. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 68. ISBN 978-81-7533-083-2. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 66. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- Mookerji Radhakumud (1995). Asoka. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 214. ISBN 978-81-208-0582-8. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 153. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- Austin Patrick Olivelle Alma Cowden Madden Centennial Professor in Liberal Arts University of Texas (19 June 2006). Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Oxford University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-19-977507-1. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Reddy (1 December 2006). Indian Hist (Opt). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. A254. ISBN 978-0-07-063577-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Indian History. Allied Publishers. p. 74. ISBN 978-81-8424-568-4. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Ronald M. Davidson (13 August 2013). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-231-50102-6. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- R. C. Majumdar (1996). Outline of the History of Kalinga. Asian Educational Services. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-206-1194-8. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Roshen Dalal (18 April 2014). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books Limited. p. 559. ISBN 978-81-8475-396-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-132923-1. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.
- Orissa General Knowledge. Bright Publications. p. 27. ISBN 978-81-7199-574-5. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- L.S.S. O'Malley (1 January 2007). Bengal District Gazetteer : Puri. Concept Publishing Company. p. 33. ISBN 978-81-7268-138-8. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Sailendra Nath Sen (2010). An Advanced History of Modern India. Macmillan India. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-230-32885-3. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Devi, Bandita (January 1992). Some Aspects of British Administration in Orissa, 1912–1936. Academic Foundation. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7188-072-0. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- William A. Dando (13 February 2012). Food and Famine in the 21st Century [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-59884-731-4. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- J. K. Samal; Pradip Kumar Nayak (1 January 1996). Makers of Modern Orissa: Contributions of Some Leading Personalities of Orissa in the 2nd Half of the 19th Century. Abhinav Publications. p. 32. ISBN 978-81-7017-322-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Indo-Aryan Languages, Vol. I, 1872, pp. 117-18.
- K.S. Padhy (30 July 2011). Indian Political Thought. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 287. ISBN 978-81-203-4305-4. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Usha Jha (1 January 2003). Land, Labour, and Power: Agrarian Crisis and the State in Bihar (1937–52). Aakar Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-81-87879-07-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Bandita Devi (1 January 1992). Some Aspects of British Administration in Orissa, 1912–1936. Academic Foundation. p. 214. ISBN 978-81-7188-072-0. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Hubback's memoirs: First Governor Of State Reserved Tone Of Mild Contempt For Indians". The Telegraph (India). 29 November 2010. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- B. Krishna (2007). India's Bismarck, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Indus Source. pp. 243–244. ISBN 978-81-88569-14-4. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Geography of Odisha". Know India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Cuttack". Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Socio-economic Profile of Rural India (series II).: Eastern India (Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh). Concept Publishing Company. 2011. p. 73. ISBN 978-81-8069-723-4. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901–2000 data" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Study shows Odisha forest cover shrinking". The Times of India. 16 February 2012. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Underutilized and Underexploited Horticultural Crops. New India Publishing. 1 January 2007. p. 116. ISBN 978-81-89422-60-8. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Orchid House a haven for nature lovers". The Telegraph (India). 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Similipal Tiger Reserve". World Wide Fund for Nature, India. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Banished from their homes". The Pioneer. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Away from home, Chandaka elephants face a wipeout". The New Indian Express. 23 August 2013. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Sharad Singh Negi (1 January 1993). Biodiversity and Its Conservation in India. Indus Publishing. p. 242. ISBN 978-81-85182-88-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Venkatesh Salagrama (2006). Trends in Poverty and Livelihoods in Coastal Fishing Communities of Orissa State, India. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-92-5-105566-3. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Olive Ridley turtles begin mass nesting". The Hindu. 12 February 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Mass nesting of Olive Ridleys begins at Rushikulya beach". The Hindu. 15 March 2004. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Bhitarkanika Park to be Closed for Crocodile Census". The New Indian Express. 3 December 2013. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Bird Count Rises in Bhitarkanika". The New Indian Express. 14 September 2014. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Concern over dwindling horseshoe crab population". The Hindu. 8 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Pushpendra K. Agarwal; Vijay P. Singh (16 May 2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 984. ISBN 978-1-4020-5180-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Number of birds visiting Chilika falls but new species found". The Hindu. 9 January 2013. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Chilika registers sharp drop in winged visitors". The Hindu. 13 January 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Two new species of migratory birds sighted in Chilika Lake". The Hindu. 8 January 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Dolphin population on rise in Chilika Lake". The Hindu. 18 February 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Maiden Dolphin Census in State's Multiple Places on Cards". The New Indian Express. 20 January 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- P.K. Dash; Santilata Sahoo; Subhasisa Bal (2008). "Ethnobotanical Studies on Orchids of Niyamgiri Hill Ranges, Orissa, India". Ethnobotanical Leaflets (12): 70–78. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Chandan Sengupta; Stuart Corbridge (28 October 2013). Democracy, Development and Decentralisation in India: Continuing Debates. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-136-19848-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "BJD's landslide victory in Odisha, wins 20 of 21 Lok Sabha seats". IBNLive. 17 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Ada W. Finifter. Political Science. FK Publications. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-89597-13-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Rajesh Kumar. Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India. Universal Law Publishing. pp. 107–110. ISBN 978-93-5035-011-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Ramesh Kumar Arora; Rajni Goyal (1995). Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues. New Age International. pp. 205–207. ISBN 978-81-7328-068-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Subhash Shukla (2008). Issues in Indian Polity. Anamika Pub. & distributors. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-7975-217-3. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "About Department". Revenue & Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Laxmikanth. Governance In India. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited. pp. 6–17. ISBN 978-0-07-107466-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Administrative Unit". Revenue & Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Siuli Sarkar (9 November 2009). Public Administration in India. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 117. ISBN 978-81-203-3979-8. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- Public Administration Dictionary. Tata McGraw Hill Education. 2012. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-259-00382-0. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "GDP growth: Most states grew faster than national rate in 2012–13". The Financial Express. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Bhubaneswar leads Govt's Smart City list, Rs 50,802 crore to be invested over five years". The Indian Express. 29 January 2016. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "Indian states that attracted highest FDI". Rediff. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Rourkela Steel Plant". Sail.co.in. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Reliance to invest Rs 60,000-cr for Orissa power plant". dna. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Gujarat, Odisha and Andhra top 3 Domestic Investment Destinations of 2009". Assocham. 21 January 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- "NH 42". Odishalinks.com. 16 June 2004. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- "Odisha plans metro, signs contract for detailed project report preparation". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Ten-year roadmap for State's civil aviation". dailypioneer.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
at present there are 17 airstrips and 16 helipads in Odisha,
- "10-year roadmap set up to boost Odisha civil aviation". odishanow.in. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
Odisha has 17 airstrips and 16 helipads.
- "Odisha initiate steps for intra and inter state aviation facilities". news.webindia123.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
Odisha has 17 airstrips and 16 helipads
- "J'suguda Airport fit for 320 Airbus flight". The Pioneer. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "Odisha plans five new airports". The Hindu Business Line. 14 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Division, P. INDIA 2019: A REFERENCE ANNUAL. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. p. 701. ISBN 978-81-230-3026-5. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
- India. Parliament. Rajya Sabha (2012). Parliamentary Debates: Official Report. Council of States Secretariat. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
- Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
- "India States Briefs – Odisha". World Bank. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- "NITI Aayog report: Odisha tops in poverty reduction rate among other states". Pragativadi: Leading Odia Dailly. 30 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011; the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- P. 63 Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey, Volume 4 By Willem Adriaan Veenhoven
- P. 77 Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 30 By Scholastic Library Publishing
- Madhusudan Rao By Jatindra Mohan Mohanty, Sahitya Akademi
- "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Mahapatra, B. P. (2002). Linguistic Survey of India: Orissa (PDF). Kolkata, India: Language Division, Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Pandit Raghunath Murmu Medical College & Hospital". prmmchbaripada.in. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- "SLN Medical College & Hospital". slnmch.nic.in. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- "Biju Patnaik University of Technology". Bput.org. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- National Association on Indian Affairs; American Association on Indian Affairs (1949). Indian Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- S.P. Sharma; Seema Gupta (3 October 2006). Fairs & Festivals of India. Pustak Mahal. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-81-223-0951-5. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- Mitra Bishwabijoy (6 July 2015). "Who invented the rasgulla?". Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- "Chhenapoda". Simply TADKA. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Odissi Kala Kendra". odissi.itgo.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- Norenzayan, Ara (25 August 2013). Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict. Princeton University Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-4008-4832-4. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- "MTN 82:9–10 Olive ridley tagged in Odisha recovered in the coastal waters of eastern Sri Lanka". Seaturtle.org. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- General information