click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Odometer

An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car. The device may be mechanical, or a combination of the two; the noun derives from the Ancient Greek word ὁδόμετρον, hodómetron, from ὁδός, hodós and μέτρον, métron. Early forms of the odometer existed in the ancient Greco-Roman world as well as in ancient China. In countries using Imperial units or US customary units it is sometimes called a mileometer or milometer, the former name being prevalent in the United Kingdom and among members of the Commonwealth; the first evidence for the use of an odometer can be found in the works of the ancient Roman Pliny and the ancient Greek Strabo. Both authors list the distances of routes traveled by Alexander the Great as by his bematists Diognetus and Baeton. However, the high accuracy of the bematists's measurements rather indicates the use of a mechanical device. For example, the section between the cities Hecatompylos and Alexandria Areion, which became a part of the silk road, was given by Alexander's bematists as 529 English miles long, with a deviation of 0.2% from the actual distance.

From the nine surviving bematists' measurements in Pliny's Naturalis Historia eight show a deviation of less than 5% from the actual distance, three of them being within 1%. Since these minor discrepancies can be adequately explained by slight changes in the tracks of roads during the last 2300 years, the overall accuracy of the measurements implies that the bematists must have used a sophisticated device for measuring distances, although there is no direct mention of such a device. An odometer for measuring distance was first described by Vitruvius around 27 and 23 BC, although the actual inventor may have been Archimedes of Syracuse during the First Punic War. Hero of Alexandria describes a similar device in chapter 34 of his Dioptra; the machine was used in the time of Roman Emperor Commodus, although after this point in time there seems to be a gap between its use in Roman times and that of the 15th century in Western Europe. Some researchers have speculated that the device might have included technology similar to that of the Greek Antikythera mechanism.

The odometer of Vitruvius was based on chariot wheels of 4 ft diameter turning 400 times in one Roman mile. For each revolution a pin on the axle engaged a 400 tooth cogwheel thus turning it one complete revolution per mile; this engaged another gear with holes along the circumference, where pebbles were located, that were to drop one by one into a box. The distance traveled would thus be given by counting the number of pebbles. Whether this instrument was built at the time is disputed. Leonardo da Vinci tried to build it himself according to the description, but failed. However, in 1981 engineer Andre Sleeswyk built his own replica, replacing the square-toothed gear designs of da Vinci with the triangular, pointed teeth found in the Antikythera mechanism. With this modification, the Vitruvius odometer functioned perfectly; the odometer was independently invented in ancient China by the prolific inventor and early scientist Zhang Heng of the Han Dynasty. By the 3rd century, the Chinese had termed the device as the'jì lĭ gŭ chē', or'li-recording drum carriage'.

Chinese texts of the 3rd century tell of the mechanical carriage's functions, as one li is traversed, a mechanical-driven wooden figure strikes a drum, when ten li is traversed, another wooden figure would strike a gong or a bell with its mechanical-operated arm. Despite its association with Zhang Heng or the Ma Jun, there is evidence to suggest that the invention of the odometer was a gradual process in Han Dynasty China that centered around the huang men court people that would follow the musical procession of the royal'drum-chariot'; the historian Joseph Needham asserts that it is no surprise this social group would have been responsible for such a device, since there is other evidence of their craftsmanship with mechanical toys to delight the emperor and the court. There is speculation that some time in the 1st century BC, the beating of drums and gongs were mechanically-driven by working automatically off the rotation of the road-wheels; this might have been the design of one Loxia Hong, yet by 125 AD the mechanical odometer carriage in China was known.

The odometer was used in subsequent periods of Chinese history. In the historical text of the Jin Shu, the oldest part of the compiled text, the book known as the Cui Bao, recorded the use of the odometer, providing description; the passage in the Jin Shu expanded upon this, explaining that it took a similar form to the mechanical device of the south-pointing chariot invented by Ma Jun. As recorded in the Song Shi of the Song Dynasty, the odometer and south-pointing chariot were combined into one wheeled device by engineers of the 9th century, 11th century, 12th century; the Sunzi Suanjing, dated from the 3rd century to 5th century, presented a mathematical problem for students involving the odometer. It involved a given distance between two cities, the small distance needed

2008 Democratic Party (HK) leadership election

The Democratic Party leadership election was held on 14 December 2008 for the 30-member 8th Central Committee of the Democratic Party in Hong Kong, including chairman and two vice-chairman posts. Incumbent Chairman Albert Ho re-elected uncontestedly, while Sin Chung-kai and Emily Lau defeated Andrew Cheng as the two Vice-Chairmen; the Central Committee was elected by the party congress. All public office holders, including the members of the Legislative Council and District Councils, are eligible to vote in the party congress; every 30 members can elect a delegate who holds one vote in the congress. The Democratic Party formally merged with the Frontier in November 2008; the Convenor of the Frontier, Emily Lau Wai-hing contested for the Vice-Chair post with incumbent Vice-Chairman Sin Chung-kai as Albert Ho's cabinet, while Albert Ho sought for re-election for his second term. Another incumbent Vice-Chairman said he would give up his post to Emily Lau, in order to show spirit of solidarity and cooperation between the merged parties.

Reformist legislator Andrew Cheng Kar-foo decided to run for the Vice-Chairman post on 26 November, stating that he would like to lead the party with Albert Ho and Emily Lau. Albert Ho was re-elected Chairman with 93% confident votes. Emily Lau and Sin Chung-kai were elected with 228 and 205 votes while Andrew Cheng got 132 votes. Cheng expected his loss to the Mainstreamers, admitting his political ideas not being accepted by the majority was the cause of the failure. 10 of the 27 Central Committee members were newcomers, 4 of them were former members of the Frontier. Only Yam Kai-bong in the Reformist faction was elected, Michael Yung Ming-chau and Kwan Wing-yip were both defeated. Being the first Chairwoman of the party, Emily Lau said she hope to help strengthening the democratic movement, to see universal suffrage being implemented as soon as possible, to take back party members' Home Return Permits, she said her demand for dialogue with the central government remained unchanged. The elected members of the 8th Central Committee are listed as following: Chairman: Albert Ho Vice-Chairpersons: Emily Lau, Sin Chung-kai Secretary: Cheung Yin-tung Treasurer: Tsui Hon-kwong Executive Committee Members: Central Committee Members

Ian Lucas (rugby league)

Ian Lucas is an antique dealer, former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1980s and 1990s, coached in the 1990s. He played at representative level for Great Britain, at club level for Wigan, as a prop, i.e. number 8 or 10, coached at club level for Leigh. Ian Lucas won caps for Great Britain while at Wigan in 1991 against France, in 1992 against Australia. Lucas played left-prop, i.e. number 8, in Wigan's 22-17 victory over Salford in the 1988 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1988–89 season at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Sunday 23 October 1988. Lucas played left-prop, i.e. number 8, in Wigan's 24-12 victory over Halifax in the 1989–90 Regal Trophy Final during the 1989–90 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 13 January 1990. Lucas was an interchange/substitute in Wigan’s 8-2 victory over Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles in the 1987 World Club Challenge at Central Park, Wigan on 7 October 1987. During the 1991–92 Rugby Football League season, he played for defending champions Wigan from the interchange bench in their 1991 World Club Challenge victory against the visiting Penrith Panthers.

He was selected to go on the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. During the 1992–93 Rugby Football League season Lucas played from the interchange bench for defending RFL champions Wigan in the 1992 World Club Challenge against the visiting Brisbane Broncos.! Great Britain Statistics at englandrl.co.uk Statistics at wigan.rlfans.com

Patrick M. Walsh

Patrick Michael Walsh is a former United States Navy four-star admiral who last served as the 59th Commander of the U. S. Pacific Fleet from September 25, 2009 to January 20, 2012, he served as the 35th Vice Chief of Naval Operations from April 5, 2007 to August 13, 2009, as Commander of the U. S. Naval Forces Central Command and Commander, U. S. 5th Fleet from October 2005 to February 27, 2007. He retired from the Navy with over 34 years of service. Walsh graduated with honors from Jesuit College Preparatory in Dallas and was the second student in the sixty-year history of the school to receive both the Distinguished Graduate and Distinguished Alumnus awards, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1977 with a Bachelor of Science degree. He attended graduate studies in the International Relations curriculum at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, as part of the Admiral Arthur S. Moreau Scholarship Program. Walsh graduated first in his class and received a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy degree, entered the Doctorate Program with distinction and subsequently received a PhD After designation as a Naval Aviator, Walsh began operational flying with the "Golden Dragons" of Attack Squadron 192, deployed to the Indian Ocean aboard the aircraft carrier USS America and was selected by Commander, Light Attack Wing Pacific, as the Junior Officer/Tailhook Pilot of the Year.

He reported to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 5 as an Operational Test Director until selection to the Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, "Blue Angels," where he flew the Left Wingman and Slot Pilot positions. When he returned to the fleet, Walsh joined the "Golden Warriors" of Strike-Fighter Squadron 87 as the Operations Officer and flew combat missions in support of Operations Desert Storm and Provide Comfort from the carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt. Walsh commanded the "Gunslingers" of Strike-Fighter Squadron 105 for missions in support of Operations Southern Watch and Deny Flight from USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, he commanded Carrier Air Wing 1 for deployment in support of Operation Southern Watch aboard USS John F. Kennedy, he commanded Carrier Group Seven of the John C. Stennis Strike Group for a deployment to the western Pacific Ocean. Most he commanded U. S. Naval Forces Central Command and U. S. 5th Fleet, while commanding the Combined Maritime Forces conducting Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom and maritime security operations in the Central Command area of responsibility.

Walsh was a Special Assistant to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget as a White House Fellow. He chaired the Department of Leadership and Law at the U. S. Naval Academy, served as the Executive Assistant to the Chief of Naval Personnel, reported to the Joint Staff for his first flag assignment as the Deputy Director for Strategy and Policy, he served concurrently as the Director, Navy Quadrennial Defense Review and Director, Navy Programming Division. On February 3, 2009, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates selected Walsh to conduct a 30-day review of operations at the U. S. detention center at Guantanamo Bay, following President Barack Obama's order that the detention center be closed within one year. Naval Aviator Badge Presidential Service Badge Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Navy document "Admiral Patrick M. Walsh"

Manchenahalli

Manchenahalli is a town in the southern state of Karnataka, India. On 31 October 2019, the chief minister of Karnataka state, Shree B S Yediyurappa promoted Manchenahalli as Taluk, it is located in the Gauribidanur taluk of Chikkaballapur district in Karnataka. It is located 14 km from 10 km from Muddenahalli-Kanivenarayanapura; the town houses a Jain shrine called Manchenahalli Jain Temple devoted to Shri Kodi Brahmadeva, Also a dam is attached to this temple. A tourist hub is located in nearby Minikanagurki. It's near to Srinivasasagara As of 2001 India census, Manchenahalli had a population of 7205 with 3657 males and 3548 females. Chickballapur Districts of Karnataka http://Kolar.nic.in/

Winwood (album)

Winwood is the first compilation album of music featuring Steve Winwood. This two-record set was issued in 1971 by United Artists Records and features music which Winwood performed with The Spencer Davis Group, Powerhouse and Blind Faith. UA Records issued this album after Winwood's band Traffic left UA when their home label Island Records set up their own American operation. Issued without Winwood's authorization as catalogue number UAS-9950, it was taken off the market after legal action by Winwood and Island Records, it was reissued with minor changes as catalogue number UAS-9964. Out of print, it was issued on CD by Universal Music of Japan for the Japanese market. "Keep On Running" – 2:42 "Somebody Help Me" – 1:57 "Goodbye Stevie" – 2:22 "Cross Roads" – 2:32 "Gimme Some Lovin'" – 2:53 "I'm A Man" – 2:48 "Can't Get Enough of It" – 3:37 "Stevie's Blues" – 3:50 "Paper Sun" – 3:26 "Heaven Is in Your Mind" – 4:11 "Coloured Rain" – 2:44 "Dear Mr. Fantasy" – 5:33 "Smiling Phases" – 2:36 "Dealer" – 3:10 "Medicated Goo" – 3:35 "Forty Thousand Headmen" – 3:11 "Vagabond Virgin" – 5:10 "Sea of Joy" – 5:19 "Empty Pages" – 4:30 "Stranger to Himself" – 3:45 "Freedom Rider" – 5:25