The Odrysian Kingdom was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading to parts of Southeastern Romania, parts of Northern Greece and parts of modern-day European Turkey, it is suggested. Instead, the kings may have moved between residences; the capital was the city of Odryssa. Another royal residence believed to have been constructed by Cotys I is in the village of Starosel, while in 315 BC Seuthopolis was built as a capital. An early capital was Vize; the kingdom broke up and Kabyle was a co-capital by the end of the 4th century BC. The Odrysians were one of the most powerful Thracian tribes that dwelled in the plain of the Hebrus river; this would place the tribe in the modern border area between Southeastern Bulgaria, Northeastern Greece and European Turkey, centered around the city of Edirne. The river Artescus passed through their land as well. Xenophon writes that the Odrysians held horse races and drank large amounts of wine after the burial of their dead warriors.
Thucydides writes on their custom, practised by most Thracians, of giving gifts for getting things done, refuted by Heraclides. Herodotus was the first writer to mention the Odrysae. Thrace had been part of the Persian empire since 516 BC during the rule of Darius the Great, was re-subjugated by Mardonius in 492 BC. During Persian rule, it was made part of the Skudra satrapy. Parts were occupied by Scythians and Greek colonists earlier besides the numerous invasions; the Odrysian state was the first Thracian kingdom that acquired power in the region, by the unification of many Thracian tribes under a single ruler, King Teres in the 470s BC after the Persian defeat in Greece. During the reign of Teres or Sitalces the state was at its zenith and extended from the Black Sea to the east, Danube to the north, the region populated with the tribe called Triballi to the north-west, the basin of the river Strymon to the south-west and towards the Aegean—present-day Bulgaria, Romanian Dobruja, Turkish East Thrace and Greek Western Thrace between the Hebrus and the Strymon, except the Aegean and Black seas coasts occupied by Greek cities.
Sovereignty was never exercised over all of its lands. Historian Z. H. Archibald writes: The Odrysians created the first state entity which superseded the tribal system in the east Balkan peninsula, their kings were known to the outside world as kings of Thrace, although their power did not extend by any means to all Thracian tribes. Within the confines of their kingdom the nature of royal power remained fluid, its definition subject to the dictates of geography, social relationships, circumstance This large territory was populated with a number of Thracian and Daco-Moesian tribes that united under the reign of a common ruler, began to implement common internal and external policies; these were favorable conditions for overcoming the tribal divisions, which could lead to the formation of a more stable ethnic community. This was not realised and the period of power of the Odrysian kingdom was brief. Despite the attempts of the Odrysian kings to bolster their central power, the separatist tendencies were strong.
Odrysian military strength was based on intra-tribal elites making the kingdom prone to fragmentation. Some tribes were rioting and tried to separate, while others remained outside the borders of the kingdom. At the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 4th century BC, as a result of conflicts, the Odrysian kingdom split into three parts; the political and military decline continued, while Macedonia was rising as a dangerous and ambitious neighbour. According to the Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides, a royal dynasty emerged from among the Odrysian tribe in Thrace around the end of the 5th century BC, which came to dominate much of the area and peoples between the Danube and the Aegean for the next century. Writers, royal coin issues, inscriptions indicate the survival of this dynasty into the early 1st century AD, although its overt political influence declined progressively first under Persian, Macedonian Roman, encroachment. Despite their demise, the period of Odrysian rule was of decisive importance for the future character of south-eastern Europe, under the Roman Empire and beyond.
Teres' son, proved to be a good military leader, forcing the tribes that defected the alliance to acknowledge his sovereignty. The rich state that spread from the Danube to the Aegean built roads to develop trade and built a powerful army. In 429 BC, Sitalces allied himself with the Athenians and organized a massive campaign against the Macedonians, with a vast army from independent Thracian and Paeonian tribes. According to Thucydides, it included as many as 150,000 men, but was obliged to retire through the failure of provisions, the coming winter. Greek as a lingua franca had been spoken at least by some members of the royal household in the fifth century and became the language of administrators. After the kingdom had split itself in three semi-independent kingdoms Philip II of Macedon invaded and conquered much of Thrace; some Odrysian kings and other Thracian tribes were submitted and paid taxes at times during different periods to Philip II, Alexander the Great and Philip V. Two of the three kingdoms were forced into vassal status by Philip II in 352 BC, while in 342–341 BC he conquered the Odrysian
John Beach Litel was an American film and television actor. Litel was born in Wisconsin. During World War I, Litel was twice decorated for bravery. Back in the U. S. after the war, Litel enrolled in the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and began his stage career. His Broadway credits include Sweet Aloes, Hell Freezes Over, Life's Too Short, Strange Gods, Before Morning, Lilly Turner, Ladies of Creation, Back Seat Drivers, The Half Naked Truth, The Beaten Track and Irene. In 1929, he began appearing in films. Part of the "Warner Bros. Stock Company" beginning in the 1930s, he appeared in dozens of Warner Bros. films and was in over 200 films during his entire career. He played supporting roles such as hard-nosed cops and district attorneys, he was Nancy Drew's Attorney Father, Carson Drew in four films in 1938 and 1939. Among his other films are They Drive by Night, Knute Rockne, All American, They Died with Their Boots On, Scaramouche, his final film role was in Nevada Smith. In the second season of the Disney series Zorro, he played the Governor of California in several episodes.
During 1960 and 1961, he was seen as Dan Murchison in nine episodes of the ABC western television series, Stagecoach West, starring Wayne Rogers and Robert Bray. He appeared in many other series as well, including the role of Captain David Rowland in the episode "Don't Get Tough with a Sailor" on the ABC/Desilu western series The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp starring Hugh O'Brian. In the story line, Rowland, a former captain in the United States Navy, is a wealthy Arizona Territory rancher who operates his own law and private jail near the Mexican border, he appeared as Mr. Crenshaw in the episode "The Giant Killer" of the ABC/Warner Brothers western series Sugarfoot with Will Hutchins in the title role. In the segment, Patricia Barry plays the widowed Doreen Bradley who, with the assistance of Sugarfoot, exposes to a grateful town the corruption and cowardice of Lou Stoner, a leading candidate for a territorial governorship. Others in the segment are Dorothy Provine, Russ Conway, child actor Jay North.
He guest starred in two episodes of the TV series Bonanza: in 1959, he appeared in the episode "Enter Mark Twain" as the local Judge Jeremy Clarence Billington and in 1961 he played the role of Mayor George Goshen in the episode "The Tin Badge". Litel appeared as Bob Cummings's boss Mr. Thackery in the TV series The Bob Cummings Show in the early/mid-1950s. Cummings played Robert S. Beanblossom on the show. Litel died at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles in 1972. John Litel on IMDb John Litel at the Internet Broadway Database John Litel at Find a Grave
The Green Party of Tennessee is a state-level political party in Tennessee, is a member of the Green Party of the United States. The party formed in 2001. In a joint lawsuit filed on January 23, 2008 by the Libertarian and Constitution Parties of Tennessee against the State of Tennessee, a 1972 state law that limited state ballot access was challenged and overturned; the law had required a petition with signatures amounting to 2.5% of the most recent gubernatorial votes be submitted to the State Board of Elections 120 days before the election in which parties wished to have their party listed on the state ballot. In the September 20, 2010 ruling, U. S. District Court Judge William Joseph Haynes struck down the petition deadline, the precise wording of the petition requirements and the volume of signatures required. In 2012, the Green Party along with the Constitution Party of Tennessee won a court victory and gained ballot access. Official website
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 2002 South Australian state election, held on 9 February 2002. Carolyn Pickles MLC Michael Armitage MHA Steve Condous MHA Graham Ingerson MHA John Olsen MHA John Oswald MHA David Wotton MHA Legh Davis MLC Trevor Griffin MLC Jamie Irwin MLC Sitting members are shown in bold text. Successful candidates are highlighted in the relevant colour. Where there is possible confusion, an asterisk is used. Sitting members are shown in bold text. Tickets that elected at least one MLC are highlighted in the relevant colour. Successful candidates are identified by an asterisk. Eleven seats were up for election. Labor were defending four seats; the Liberals were defending six seats. The Democrats were defending one seat
Isabel Bayón Gamero, known in flamenco dance circles as Isabel Bayón, is a flamenco dancer and teacher of flamenco dance, winner of the Spanish National Dance Award in 2013 in the category of interpretation. Nowadays, she combines her artistic career and teaching in the María de Ávila Royal Dance Conservatory in Madrid, she has taken part of in many flamenco festivals of dance and music not only in Spain, but in many other countries. Isabel Bayón was born in Seville in 1969, she started her connection with dancing at the age of five in Matilde Coral Dance Academy. She continued her studies in this field until she graduated with a degree in Spanish dance in the conservatories of Seville and Córdoba when she was 16 years old. Moreover, she learned other dance styles, such as ballet, regional dance or contemporary dance. In the'70s, she performed for the first time in her career, her debut was in a tribute show to El Bailarín, released by himself. In 1979, she took part as a guest artist in the Flamenco Dance Congress Tribute to Antonio Mairena.
This Congress and its performances took place in the Reales Alcázares of Seville. During the'80s, she was soloist flamenco dancer in the First Biennial of Flamenco in Seville with her show Flamenco Vivo, she had started her tour with this show in Italy at the time, hand in hand with the artists Manolo Marín and Milagros Mengíbar. In 1984, she took part in Madrid Flamenco Summit, organized by the Spanish Ministry of Culture in the capital of Spain. In 1990, she was accepted as a soloist flamenco dancer in Manolo Marín's Company, acting in the show called "A Contratiempo". Two years she joined as a soloist flamenco dancer to the show "Azabache", performed during the Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992. In 1994, she joined the Andalusian Dance Company, the Company directed by Mario Maya. With it, she was on tour around Europe and Spain during 1995 with the shows De lo Flamenco and Réquiem. In 1996, she was accepted in the Flamenco Company "Escena Flamenca", in which she performed the show "Picasso Flamenco", a tribute to the painter from Malaga.
She was invited by the flamenco singer Miguel Poveda to join him in the Festival Grec in Barcelona, in 1997. She took part as a guest artist in La huella de la Argentinita, led by José Luis Ortiz, she performed in El Flamenco viene del sur in collaboration with Israel Galván, a show released in Teatro Central of Seville in 1998. In 1999, she collaborated as a choreographer in two shows: The first one was "Oripandó" for the National Ballet of Spain, led by Aida Gómez; the second one was a piece of the show "Encuentro" for the Andalusian Dance Company, in which she took part as a guest artist in the show "Elegía Andaluza". In 2000 she took part as guest artist in the show Bachdaliana from Fernando Romero's Company for the 11th Biennial of Flamenco of Seville. In the context of the 12th Biennial of Flamenco of Seville, in 2002, the dancer introduced her own flamenco dance company, named Isabel Bayón Compañía Flamenca. There, she released her show Del Alma. Afterwards, she took that show to the Jerez Flamenco Festival and to the Torino Flamenco Festival, in Italy.
In the 13th Biennial of Flamenco of Seville she starred and choreographed the show La Mujer y el Pelele, led by Pepa Gamboa. In 2005, she took part as a guest artist in the shows "Notas al Pié", from Javier Barón's Company, released in Jerez Flamenco Festival. In the same year, she participated in the show Y la Batita de Cola, released in the New World Flamenco Festival in San Francisco. In 2006, within the 14th Biennial of Flamenco of Seville she received a Giraldillo Award for the best show, called "La Puerta Abierta". In 2007 she set up the Flamenco Dance Academy ADOS together with Ángel Atienza, the current Academy director. In the same year, she started to teach in the María de Ávila Royal Dance Conservatory in the Community of Madrid. In 2008 she was awarded again with another Giraldillo Award in the 15th Biennial of Flamenco of Seville, this time in the Magical Moment Biennial in 2008, happened during her show La tórtola Valencia for the beginning and development of the last soleá, in special collaboration with Matilde Coral and Miguel Poveda.
During ¡FLAMENCO! Dance Festival of Rome, in 2009, she gave a masterclass and performed in two shows: "Tan Solo Flamenco" and "La Puerta Abierta", she released in the Biennial of Flamenco of Seville her show En la horma de sus. This show made her be awarded again with this time for the dancing. In February 2011 she received the special Award "Day of Andalusia" for her professional career within the flamenco world. In 2012 she got involved in the show Lo Real/ Le réel/ The Real, choreographed by Israel Galván and released in the Royal Theatre of Madrid; this show was performed in the 4th Dutch Flamenco Biennale of The Netherlands in 2013. There, Isabel gave a masterclass; the flamenco dancer released in February of the same year a new show from her own company called "Caprichos del Tiempo". This show
USS Chara was an Andromeda-class attack cargo ship named after a star in the constellation Canes Venatici. She was converted to an ammunition ship and redesignated. Chara was launched on 15 March 1944 by Drydock Co.. Kearny, New Jersey, under a Maritime Commission contract, sponsored by Mrs. E. P. McHugh, acquired by the Navy on 16 March 1944, commissioned on 14 June 1944, Commander C. B. Hamblett, USNR, in command. Chara cleared Norfolk 22 July 1944 for Pearl Harbor, her initial combat action came on 20 October when she hove to in Leyte Gulf, with the Southern Attack Force, swiftly landed troops and cargo in the momentous assault, the first step in the liberation of the Philippines. Chara withdrew on 24 October, she returned to New Guinea to reload essential supplies which she delivered to support the continuing land Battle of Leyte on 18 November. After rehearsal landings in New Guinea, staging at Manus, Chara cleared on 31 December 1944 for the assault on Lingayen; as TF 97 penetrated Philippine waters, on 8 January 1945, a Japanese kamikaze attack was hurled at them and succeeded in damaging one escort carrier of the group.
On board Chara, three men were wounded, one fatally, as a result of the heavy anti-aircraft fire thrown up by the task force. The assaults were made on 9 January and 10 January, Chara's men landing their troops and cargo despite heavy surf conditions and a beach so difficult that the Japanese never anticipated an amphibious assault in the location. Chara remained in the Leyte area, participating in the landings on San Antonio on 26 January, until 26 March, when she steamed from San Pedro Bay combat-loaded for the beaches of Okinawa. Once again at Okinawa, her men worked skillfully in an amphibious assault, as Chara landed troops and heavy equipment on 1 April 1945, she remained off Okinawa in this invasion, famous for the Japanese desperation kamikaze attacks, to unload reinforcements and additional equipment until 6 April. After overhaul in the States and a return to Okinawa with cargo on 5 July, Chara returned to San Francisco where she loaded supplies for the Philippines, calling en route for additional supplies at Pearl Harbor, thus beginning a period of cargo operations in the Philippines and to Japan in support of the occupation.
She returned to the States in December 1945 continued to support forces in the Far East until 1950, carrying men and cargo for the Naval Transportation Service, after 1 October 1949, for the Military Sea Transportation Service. With the outbreak of the Korean War, Chara was transferred to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, for duty as an ammunition ship and transferring all types of ammunition at sea to fleet units, she cleared San Francisco on 16 September 1950 to replenish TF 77 and support the evacuations of Hungnam and Wonsan before returning to San Francisco for overhaul on 26 March 1951. In her second Korean tour, 19 July 1951 to 18 May 1952, she joined the Mobile Logistics Support Force in operations in the Wonsan-Songjin bomb-line triangle, in emergency lifts of Korean POWs from Koje-do to Ulsan. Another tour of providing at-sea replenishment of ammunition preceded the end of hostilities. Chara alternated duty in the western Pacific with training and upkeep on the west coast. In December 1954 and January 1955, she took part in the evacuation of the Tachen Islands.
Active through 1958, Chara was placed out of commission in reserve at Astoria, Oregon, on 21 April 1959. She was converted to an ammunition ship at Willamette Iron and Steel Works in Portland and recommissioned as AE-31 on 25 June 1966. After sea trials in July, 1966 she supported Operation Rolling Thunder in Vietnam; this included underway replenishment of aircraft carriers both off Vietnam and off the United States Coast. During an underway replenishment, her decks would be loaded with palettes of bombs six feet high, in her cargo hold were 3,000 pound bombs used for airstrikes. During this time her US operational bases were in Vallejo, San Francisco Bay and Indian Island, Puget Sound. Chara was decommissioned in March 1972, struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 10 March 1972, she was sold for scrap on 12 November 1972. Chara received four battle stars for service during World War II, seven for service during the Korean War, eight for service in Vietnam; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Chara at NavSource Naval History USS Chara web site Military.com: USS Chara 51 Years of AKAs