Oedipus Rex known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles, first performed around 429 BC. To the ancient Greeks, the title was Oedipus, as it is referred to by Aristotle in the Poetics, it is thought to have been renamed Oedipus Tyrannus to distinguish it from another of Sophocles's plays, Oedipus at Colonus. In antiquity, the term "tyrant" referred to a ruler with no legitimate claim to rule, but it did not have a negative connotation. Of Sophocles's three Theban plays that have survived, that deal with the story of Oedipus, Oedipus Rex was the second to be written. However, in terms of the chronology of events that the plays describe, it comes first, followed by Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone. Prior to the start of Oedipus Rex, Oedipus has become the king of Thebes while unwittingly fulfilling a prophecy that he would kill his father and marry his mother, Jocasta; the action of Sophocles's play concerns Oedipus's search for the murderer of Laius in order to end a plague ravaging Thebes, unaware that the killer he is looking for is none other than himself.
At the end of the play, after the truth comes to light, Jocasta hangs herself while Oedipus, horrified at his patricide and incest, proceeds to gouge out his own eyes in despair. Oedipus Rex is regarded by many scholars as the masterpiece of ancient Greek tragedy. In his Poetics, Aristotle refers several times to the play in order to exemplify aspects of the genre. Many parts or elements of the myth of Oedipus occur before the opening scene of the play, although some are alluded to in the text. Oedipus is the king and queen of Thebes; the misfortunes of his house are the result of a curse laid upon his father for violating the sacred laws of hospitality. In his youth, Laius was the guest of Pelops, the king of Elis, he became the tutor of Chrysippus, the king's youngest son, in chariot racing. Laius seduced or abducted and raped Chrysippus, who according to some versions, killed himself in shame; this murder cast all of his descendants. When his son is born, the king consults an oracle as to his fortune.
To his horror, the oracle reveals that Laius "is doomed to perish by the hand of his own son". Laius binds the infant's feet together with a pin, orders Jocasta to kill him. Unable to kill her own son, Jocasta orders a servant to slay the infant for her; the servant exposes the infant on a mountaintop, where he is found and rescued by a shepherd. The shepherd names the child Oedipus, "swollen feet", as his feet had been bound by Laius; the shepherd brings the infant to Corinth, presents him to the childless king Polybus, who raises Oedipus as his own son. As he grows to manhood, Oedipus hears a rumour that he is not the son of Polybus and his wife, Merope, he asks the Delphic Oracle who his parents are. The Oracle seems to ignore this question, telling him instead that he is destined to "mate with own mother, shed/With own hands the blood of own sire". Desperate to avoid this terrible fate, who still believes that Polybus and Merope are his true parents, leaves Corinth for the city of Thebes. On the road to Thebes, Oedipus encounters Laius and his retainers, the two quarrel over whose chariot has the right of way.
The Theban king moves to strike the insolent youth with his sceptre, but Oedipus, unaware that Laius is his true father, throws the old man down from his chariot, killing him. Thus, Laius is slain by his own son, the prophecy that the king had sought to avoid by exposing Oedipus at birth is fulfilled. Before arriving at Thebes, Oedipus encounters the Sphinx, a legendary beast with the head and breast of a woman, the body of a lioness, the wings of an eagle; the Sphinx was sent to the road approaching Thebes as a punishment from the gods, would strangle any traveler who failed to answer a certain riddle. The precise riddle asked by the Sphinx varied in early traditions, is not stated in Oedipus Rex, as the event precedes the play. Oedipus guesses, "man", who crawls on all fours as an infant, walks upright in maturity, leans on a stick in old age. Bested by the prince, the Sphinx throws herself from a cliff. Oedipus' reward for freeing Thebes from the Sphinx is its kingship, the hand of the dowager queen, Jocasta.
Thus, unknown to all of the characters, the prophecy has been fulfilled. Oedipus, King of Thebes, sends his brother-in-law, Creon, to ask advice of the oracle at Delphi, concerning a plague ravaging Thebes. Creon returns to report that the plague is the result of religious pollution, since the murderer of their former king, has never been caught. Oedipus vows to curses him for causing the plague. Oedipus summons the blind prophet Tiresias for help; when Tiresias arrives he claims to know the answers to Oedipus's questions, but refuses to speak, instead telling him to abandon his search. Oedipus is enraged by Tiresias' refusal, verbally accuses him of complicity in Laius' murder. Outraged, Tiresias tells the king. Oedipus cannot see how this could be
Kraft is a composition for solo ensemble and orchestra by the Finnish composer Magnus Lindberg. The work was commissioned by the Helsinki Festival and was first performed on September 4, 1985 by the Toimii ensemble and the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Esa-Pekka Salonen; the piece was awarded the International Rostrum of Composers in 1986 and won the Nordic Council Music Prize in 1988. Kraft has a duration of 25 minutes and is composed in two numbered movements, it was composed between 1983 and 1985. Lindberg described the electronic elements of the piece in the score program notes, writing: All the musical material of the piece has been prepared with a micro-computer, with programmes written in FORTH allowing a flexible control of rhythm and chord processes; the programme is based on a formalization of rules for creation of rhythmic events and temporal processes, an environment allowing a graphical output for metric notation. Similar rule-based programmes control the creation of harmonic material by a comparison to defined and accepted chordal successions given by the composer.
He added, "The control of amplification and spatialization of the soloists during the performance is done with an application written in PreFORM and running on a Macintosh computer allowing a precise control of movement in the hall in real time." The work is scored for an ensemble of soloists and a large orchestra consisting of four flutes, alto flute, three oboes, cor anglais, three clarinets, bass clarinet, alto saxophone, three bassoons, four horns, four trumpets, four trombones, four percussionists, two harps and strings. The soloists comprise a clarinet, two percussionists, cello, a sound controller, the conductor. Kraft has been praised by music critics. Reviewing the New York City premiere, Anthony Tommasini of The New York Times called it "a sound barrage for large orchestra" and wrote, "Though Kraft bustles with heady, impish music, it is a brilliant, serious-minded contemporary work." Tommasini continued, "Kraft begins with spasms of thick chords that disintegrate, until only scraggly lines for cello and clarinet are audible.
The piece evolves in blocks of sound and changing episodes. At one point there is a kind full of brassy slides and swelling strings. At another, the music erupts in slashing bursts that dissolve into gentle gong tones coming from all around the hall like pagoda music." He added, "Though Mr. Lindberg devised the rhythmic relationships in Kraft through mathematical formulas, I could believe that he had written the piece intuitively, since it comes across as spontaneous and keeps you wondering what will happen next."Nick Kimberley of The Observer praised the work, observing, "Its circus aspects at all times served the musical logic. The initial sonic cataclysm splinters into tiny barely audible fragments that Lindberg reassembles. A bridging episode for flutes and percussion radiates stillness before Lindberg fashions a final cathartic explosion." Ivan Hewett of BBC Music Magazine opined, "Magnus Lindberg is a composer who likes extremes. Whenever his music visits the middle range of gesture and dynamic, you can be pretty sure that it’s only a stage on some compelling journey to the outer regions, either of high, whispering delicacy, or of growling, brass- and gong-coloured tumult.
His idiom is revealed at its most persuasive in his orchestral piece Kraft." The music critic Andrew Clements remarked, "With explosive gestures, vivid sonorities and a huge battery of percussion arrayed around the auditorium, Kraft still packs a powerful punch, though now it appears more generalised and less discriminating in its harmonic organisation than Lindberg."However, Arnold Whittall of Gramophone gave the work only lukewarm marks, saying, "...despite the bravura of the confrontations it contrives between the orchestra and a team of clarinet, cello and percussion soloists, the effect remains unashamedly earth-bound: sometimes dense to the point of congestion, other times fragmented, but not quite coming into focus in the way the more regular rhythmic patterns and rooted harmonic processes of the works make possible."
Kathmandu Medical College And Teaching Hospital is a medical school located in Kathmandu the capital city of Nepal. Established in 1997, KMC is a private medical college in Nepal; the college is permanently affiliated to Kathmandu University and recognised by the Medical Council of Nepal, Sri Lankan Medical Council, General Medical Council and Medical Council of India. Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital has been listed in the WHO's World Directory of Medical Schools electronic format as from June 2002. Following full recognition by NMC, KMCTH is listed in the International Medical Education Directory. KMC is an Associate Member of the Network Towards Unity for Health that has its headquarters at Glent in Belgium. Kathmandu Medical College functions from two complexes - basic sciences at Duwakot and clinical sciences at Sinamangal; the main hospital is located in Sinamangal near to The Tribhuvan International Airport. Besides a community hospital is built near the basic science campus in Duwakot.
Emergency service and General OPD Service is started in first and second floor of the 11-storeyed building of Duwakot. Post-Graduation MBBS BDS Bsc. in Nursing KMC is a private college in Nepal affiliated To KU. Many unofficial ranking of medical colleges of Nepal, puts KMC at 3rd place after one governmental and one semigovernmental institute. Around 100 students are enrolled annually among which 10 are selected from Ministry Of Education, Nepal under Scholarship category; the rest 90 are selected from merit basis of KUMET exam. The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery is a four and a half year integrated program followed by a compulsory internship training of one year; the standards and criteria adopted by KMC are in strict adherence to the requirements of Nepal Medical Council and Kathmandu University. The first two academic years focus on basic medical science with interdepartmental integration as well as clinical and community correlation. A holistic approach to health and health care system in Nepal is taken.
The course starts in August every academic year. Kathmandu Medical College & Teaching Hospital is situated at 184 Baburam Acharya Sadak Sinamangal, Nepal. There are 900 beds including cabin. KMC has 24 hours Emergency/Pathology services/X-Ray services, CT-Scan, USG, TMT, PFT, colonoscopy, laryngoscope, Endoscopic/Bronchoscopy services, laparoscopy, ICU,CCU, NICU, Major and Minor operation facilities - 9 operation theatres including one in Emergency Lab facilities are available. Newly constructed OB/Gyn operation theater and Neurosurgery operation theatre are running from 2071 BS. Special clinics like Cardiodiabetic and Well Baby Care clinics are operated. Childhood Asthma Clinic, Hemophilia Care Clinic and many other superspeciality clinic are in operation. Complexes on sinamangal continues to expand after the addition of Dr. Pushkar Nath Pant memorial building, which houses paying OPDs, paying wards and two new audio visual equipped lecture halls of 150 capacity. New exterior design of the two buildings at the gate gives the hospital a different look than before.
Around 100 students are enrolled Annually for MBBS program. Candidates who have completed 17 years of age at the time of their applications and who fulfill the following criteria are eligible to apply for the MBBS programme at KMC. Completed 10+2 years of education or Intermediate of Science or equivalent, with English, Biology and Chemistry as main subjects and having secured not less than 50% marks in the subjects mentioned above put together and an overall aggregate of 50%. Or Completed the Bachelor of Science degree recognised by the University, with one of the following subjects viz. Physics, Biology and at least one other prescribed science subject of study up to the ancillary level and having scored not less than an overall aggregate of 50% marks, provided that such candidates shall have passed the earlier qualifying examination with the subjects of English, Biology and Chemistry. Applications from eligible students for the MBBS programme should be made during the months of April to August each year.
Resident Nepali students are required to have passed KUMET examination and should submit the application form and relevant documents to Kathmandu Medical College. Non Resident Nepali students and foreign students may forward their application together with attested copies of their testimonials addressed to the principal of Kathmandu Medical College; the MD was started from 2003. MD/MS in clinical areas Medicine, Pediatric, Gyane/Obs and Anesthesia started from February 2009. Newly qualified graduates of Kathmandu Medical College can sit for Part-1 examination being conducted in October and March. After passing the examination, fellowship is available at Kathmandu Medical College in five different areas. Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital is recognized as a center for the training of fellowship of the college of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan in five specialties. Candidates who have passed the CPSP part-1 should apply to Kathmandu Medical College for a post at the teaching hospital.