United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
Singju is a dish from Manipur. It originated with the Meitei culture but has been adopted by most of the ethnic communities of the state and in some neighbouring states of Northeast India. Served as a spicy side dish, it is a popular as an afternoon or evening snack. Given that its main ingredients are seasonal vegetables, Singju has many variations. However, there are two main types: Non-Veg; the veg version of this dish is reserved for ritual occasions where there meat/fish consumption is prohibited. Non-Veg is the more popular version, includes the traditional fermented fish, Ngari. Manipur, being one of the most ancient independent kingdoms of South Asia, before becoming a part of India in 1949, has many distinctive local customs and traditions, owing to various influences throughout time; the word "Singju" comes from two words - "Manaa-Masing" and "Suba". "Manaa-Masing" means "Suba" means combining. Therefore, in rapid pronunciation the word "Manaa-Masing" drops to "Sing" and the word "Suba" transform to "Ju" for the better pronouncement.
As a result, the word, "Singju" was born. Singju is a versatile dish that may be made non-vegetarian. There are two distinct ways. A veggie singju is served in ritual feasts of the Meitei which are observed at home courtyards or shrine yards, or community complexes, it can be eaten at family homes too, but people prefer the non-veg versions in a non-ritual context. In this form of the dish, the main ingredients are perilla seeds, chanaa powder, salt and various green leafy vegetables. A non-veg version of singju is eaten at home, sold in restaurants all over Manipur, in some other areas of India as well; the tag "non-veg" is because of the use of the fermented fish ingredient Ngari. Because of this, it can not be served at ritual feasts of the community. In this type, the main ingredients are Ngari, salt and green leafy vegetables. Any vegetable can be used to make singju. Popular additions include: Lotus stem Stink Bean Cabbage Cauliflower Hawai Debi or Tebi Hawai Maton Unripe Papaya Banana Flower Rice Bean Onion Morok Metpa or Ametpa is another singju like dish.
Morok means chilli and Metpa/Ametpa meaning crush. It are not served at rituals. Like singju, it can be prepared in two ways and non-veg, the former is eaten during the mourning period until the shraddha ceremony or on days when people skip any type of fish/meat due to religious beliefs, it is made by frying red chillies and onions as opposed to the usual steamed or roasted fermented fish and chillies eaten everyday. Cuisine of Manipur Eromba Poke - a similar dish from Hawaii, United States
Northeast India is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country. It comprises eight states – Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura; the Siliguri Corridor in West Bengal, with a width of 21 to 40 kilometres, connects the North Eastern Region with East India. The region shares an international border of 5,182 kilometres with several neighbouring countries – 1,395 kilometres with Tibet Autonomous Region, China in the north, 1,640 kilometres with Myanmar in the east, 1,596 kilometres with Bangladesh in the south-west, 97 kilometres with Nepal in the west, 455 kilometres with Bhutan in the north-west, it comprises an area of 262,230 square kilometres 8 percent of that of India, is one of the largest salients in the world. The states of North Eastern Region are recognised under the North Eastern Council, constituted in 1971 as the acting agency for the development of the north eastern states. Long after induction of NEC, Sikkim formed part of the North Eastern Region as the eighth state in 2002.
India's Look-East connectivity projects connect Northeast India to China and ASEAN. The earliest settlers may have been Austroasiatic languages and Tibeto-Burman languages speakers from Southeast Asia, followed by Tibeto-Burmese from China and by 500 B. C. Indo-Aryans speakers from Gangetic Plains. Due to the bio- and crop diversity of the region, archaeological researchers believe that early settlers of Northeast India had domesticated several important plants. Writers believe that the 100 BC writings of Chinese explorer, Zhang Qian indicate an early trade route via Northeast India; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mention a people called Sêsatai in the region, who produced malabathron, so prized in the old world. In the early historical period, Kamarupa straddled most of present-day Northeast India, besides Bhutan and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Xuanzang, a travelling Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Kamarupa in the 7th century, he described the people as "short in stature and black-looking", whose speech differed a little from mid-India and who were of simple but violent disposition.
He wrote that the people in Kamarupa knew of Sichuan, which lay to the kingdom's east beyond a treacherous mountain. For many of the tribal peoples, their primary identification is with subtribes and villages, which have distinct dialects and cultures; the northeastern states were established during the British Raj of the 19th and early 20th centuries, when they became isolated from traditional trading partners such as Bhutan and Myanmar. Many of the peoples in present-day Mizoram and Nagaland converted to Christianity under the influence of British missionaries. In the early 19th century, both the Ahom and the Manipur kingdoms fell to a Burmese invasion; the ensuing First Anglo-Burmese War resulted in the entire region coming under British control. In the colonial period, North East India was made a part of Bengal Province from 1839 to 1873, when Assam became its own province. In 1926,it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma except Assam and Arunachal Pradesh until 1948,January 4.
After Indian Independence from British Rule in 1947, the Northeastern region of British India consisted of Assam and the princely states of Manipur and Tripura. Subsequently, Nagaland in 1963, Meghalaya in 1972, Arunachal Pradesh in 1975 and Mizoram in 1987 were formed out of the large territory of Assam. Manipur and Tripura remained as Union Territories of India between 1956 until 1972, when they attained fully-fledged statehood. Sikkim was integrated as the eighth North Eastern Council state in 2002; the city of Shillong served. It remained as the capital of undivided Assam until formation of the state of Meghalaya in 1972; the capital of Assam was shifted to Dispur, a part of Guwahati, Shillong was designated as the capital of Meghalaya. The Seven Sister States is a popular term for the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura prior to inclusion of the state of Sikkim into the North Eastern Region of India; the sobriquet'Land of the Seven Sisters' was coined to coincide with the inauguration of the new states in January 1972 by Jyoti Prasad Saikia, a journalist in Tripura, in the course of a radio talk show.
He compiled a book on the interdependence and commonness of the Seven Sister States, named it the Land of Seven Sisters. It has been because of this publication that the nickname has caught on. In 1944, the Japanese planned a daring attack on India. Traveling through Burma, its forces were stopped at Imphal by British and Indian troops; this marked the furthest western expansion of the Japanese Empire. Arunachal Pradesh, a state in the Northeastern tip of India, is claimed by China as South Tibet. Sino-Indian relations degraded, resulting in the Sino-Indian War of 1962; the cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured much of the NEFA created by India in 1954, but on 21 November 1962, China declared a unilateral ceasefire, withdrew its troops 20 kilometres behind the McMahon Line. It returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963; the Northeast region can be physiographically categorised into the Eastern Himalaya, th
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 genera including such well-known and economically important plants such as ajwain, anise, caraway, celery, coriander, dill, hemlock, cow parsley, parsley and sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct; the family Apiaceae includes a significant number of phototoxic species and a smaller number of poisonous species. Some species in the family Apiaceae are cytotoxic. Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as Bupleurum fruticosum, their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. The leaves may be sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are sheathing and the leaves may be perfoliate.
The leaf blade is dissected, ternate or pinnatifid, but simple and entire in some genera, e.g. Bupleurum, their leaves emit a marked smell when crushed, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some species. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence, the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, that may be simple or more compound umbelliform cymes; the flowers are perfect and actinomorphic, but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in carrot and coriander, with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward. Some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or dioecious, with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx is highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, pink or purple; the flowers are nearly pentamerous, with five petals and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is variation in the functionality of the stamens within a single inflorescence.
Some flowers are functionally staminate. Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant is common; the gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. Stylopodia support two styles and secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, gnats, beetles and bees; the fruit is a schizocarp consisting of two fused carpels that separate at maturity into two mericarps, each containing a single seed. The fruits of many species are dispersed by wind but others such as those of Daucus spp. are covered in bristles, which may be hooked in sanicle Sanicula europaea and thus catch in the fur of animals. The seeds have an oily endosperm and contain essential oils, containing aromatic compounds that are responsible for the flavour of commercially important umbelliferous seed such as anise and coriander; the shape and details of the ornamentation of the ripe fruits are important for identification to species level. Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.
The name is derived from the type genus Apium, used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant. The alternative name for the family, derives from the inflorescence being in the form of a compound umbel; the family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison's 1672 Plantarum umbelliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published; the family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III system. It is related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited based on fruit morphology, the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses; the subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic. According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014, 434 genera are in the family Apiaceae.
The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, uses the family Apiaceae for food and host plants for oviposition. The 22-spot ladybird is commonly found eating mildew on these shrubs. Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. Parsnip and Hamburg parsley produce tap roots that are large enough to be useful as food. Many species produce essential oils in their leaves or fruits and as a result are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley, coriander and dill; the seeds may be used in cuisine, as with coriander, fennel and caraway. Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil, celery, sea holly, galbanum, anise, and
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
The Festival of Seven Herbs or Nanakusa no sekku is the long-standing Japanese custom of eating seven-herb rice porridge on January 7. The nanakusa are seven edible wild herbs of spring. Traditionally, they are: There is considerable variation in the precise ingredients, with common local herbs being substituted. On the morning of January 7, or the night before, people place the nanakusa, rice scoop, and/or wooden pestle on the cutting board and, facing the good-luck direction, chant "Before the birds of the continent fly to Japan, let's get nanakusa" while cutting the herbs into pieces; the chant may vary. The seventh of the first month has been an important Japanese festival since ancient times; the custom of eating nanakusa-gayu on this day, to bring longevity and health, developed in Japan from a similar ancient Chinese custom, intended to ward off evil. Since there is little green at that time of the year, the young green herbs bring color to the table and eating them suits the spirit of the New Year.
The spring-time nanakusa are mirrored by the Nanahana no sekku, the "seven flowers of autumn" or "festival of seven flowers"), which are bush clover, kudzu, large pink, yellow flowered valerian and Chinese bellflower. These seven autumn flowers provide visual enjoyment, their simplicity was much admired: they are small and dainty yet beautifully colored. They are named as typical autumn flowers in a verse from the Man'yōshū anthology; the Japanese parsley is one of the few non-toxic species of the Oenanthe genus, which are otherwise toxic. As this species is not found outside of Asia unless cultivated, one should always consider wild-growing varieties of water dropworts to be lethal in small amounts. Http://f3.aaa.livedoor.jp/~taamchai/japan/jp-flower1-2.htm http://www.transparent.com/japanese/jinjitsu-%E4%BA%BA%E6%97%A5/ http://sokettokun.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2009-01-07