SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Oenothera

Oenothera is a genus of about 145 species of herbaceous flowering plants native to the Americas. It is the type genus of the family Onagraceae. Common names include evening primrose and sundrops, they are not related to the true primroses. The species vary in size from small alpine plants 10 centimeters tall, such as O. acaulis from Chile, to vigorous lowland species growing to 3 meters, such as O. stubbei from Mexico. The leaves form a basal rosette at ground spiral up to the flowering stems; the blades are dentate or lobed. The flowers of many species open in the evening, hence the name "evening primrose", they may open in under a minute. Most species have yellow flowers, but some have white, pink, or red. Most native desert species are white. Oenothera caespitosa, a species of western North America, produces white flowers that turn pink with age. One of the most distinctive features of the flower is the stigma, which has four branches in an X shape. Oenothera flowers are pollinated by insects, such as bees.

Like many other members of the Onagraceae, the pollen grains are loosely held together by viscin threads, so only insects that are morphologically specialized to gather this pollen can pollinate the flowers. Bees with typical scopa cannot hold it; the flowers open at a time when most bee species are inactive, so the bees which visit Oenothera are vespertine temporal specialists: bees that forage in the evening. The seeds ripen from late summer to fall. Oenothera are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the large white-lined sphinx; the flower moths Schinia felicitata and S. florida both feed on the genus, the former is limited to O. deltoides. In the wild, some species of evening primrose act as primary colonizers appearing in cleared areas, they germinate in disturbed soils, can be found in habitat types such as dunes, railway embankments, waste areas. They are casual and are out competed by other species. Based on observations of evening primroses, a study discovered that within minutes of sensing the sound waves of nearby bee wings through flower petals, the concentration of the sugar in the plant's nectar was increased by an average of 20 percent.

Experiments were conducted on flowers with the petals removed. No change in nectar production was noted, indicating that it is indeed the flowers that have the job of the ears; the genus Oenothera may have originated in Mexico and Central America, spread farther north in North America and into South America. With the advent of international travel, species are now found in most temperate regions of the world. In Europe alone there are about 70 introduced species of Oenothera. During the Pleistocene era a succession of ice ages swept down across North America, with intervening warm periods; this occurred four times, the genus experienced four separate waves of colonization, each hybridizing with the survivors of previous waves. This formed the present-day subsection Euoenothera; the group is genetically and morphologically diverse and the species are interfertile, so the species boundaries have been disputed amongst taxonomists. The pattern of repeated colonizations resulted in a unique genetic conformation in the Euoenothera whereby the chromosomes at meiosis can form circles rather than pairs.

This is the result of several reciprocal translocations between chromosomes such that the pairing occurs only at the tips. This phenomenon has non-Mendelian genetic consequences; this resulted in the evolution of many sympatric races in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Analysis of the cytology of these races and of artificial hybrids between them increased understanding of the genetic and geographic evolution of the Euoenothera; this subject was a major area of genetic research during the first half of the 20th century. The appearance of sudden changes in Oenothera lamarckiana led the pioneering geneticist Hugo de Vries to propose the theory of mutationism in 1901; this asserted that speciation was driven by sudden large mutations able to produce new varieties in a single step. The understanding that the observed changes in hybrids of the plant were caused by chromosome duplications rather than gene mutation did not come until much later. Evening primroses were assigned to the genus Onagra, which gave the family Onagraceae its name.

Onagra was first used in botany in 1587, in English in Philip Miller's 1754 Gardeners Dictionary: Abridged. The modern name Oenothera was published by Carolus Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae, its etymology is uncertain, but is believed to be derived from the Greek words ονος θηρας, meaning "donkey catcher", or οινος θηρας, meaning "wine seeker". Evening primrose is a soothing remedy for coughs associated with colds, it has been used for mental depression, its effectiveness due to a stimulating effect on the liver, digestive apparatus. It can be made into an ointment useful for rashes and other skin irritations; the entire plant is edible. Evening Primrose is sedative; the drug extracted from this plant... has been tested in various directions, has been employed with success in the teatment of gastro-intestinal disorders of a functional origin and whooping cough. It has proved of service in dydpepsia, torpor of the liver, in certain female complaints, such as pelvic fullness. There is little evidenc

Raul Rojas

Raul Rojas was a Mexican American featherweight boxer. He accumulated a record of 38 wins, 7 losses and 2 draws. On March 28, 1968, Rojas defeated Enrique Higgins to win the WBA Featherweight Title, which Vicente Saldivar had vacated after announcing his retirement, he lost the title on September 1968 to Shozo Saijo. Rojas was inducted into the California Boxing Hall of Fame. Rojas grew up as a gangster, leading the group "Little Roy's Gang". Two of his brothers were sent to San Quentin State Prison, while Rojas spent time at the California Division of Juvenile Justice, he once said that "If it were not for boxing, I'd either be in San Quentin or would have made the trip to the gas chamber." He died of natural causes at the age of 70. He was survived by daughters Guadalupe. Professional boxing record for Raul Rojas from BoxRec Raul Rojas on IMDb

Litchborough

Litchborough is an historic village and civil parish in South Northamptonshire, England. At the time of the 2001 census, the parish's population was 300 people, increasing to 321 at the 2011 Census. More recent new build housing has increased the number of dwellings to 111 and the population to 449, it is about 4 miles north-west of Towcester, 2 miles off the A5 on the Banbury Road. The Church of England parish church is dedicated to St Martin; the village has a popular pub, the Old Red Lion. Litchborough Hall is the home of Bob Heygate, High Sheriff of Northamptonshire in 1997 and who, with cousin Paul Heygate and runs the landmark Heygates Mill at Bugbrooke and the Fine Lady Bakery at Banbury; the village has a well supported Parish Council chaired by Tim Sykes of the Old Rectory, a businessman who chaired the hostel sector hospitality company Beds & Bars. Gareth Lugar-Mawson, a retired High Court Judge who has served in Hong Kong and Brunei serves on the Parish Council. There is an informative village community website - litchborough.org.uk - with local news, details of events and Parish Council information