Spin bowling is a bowling technique in cricket and the bowler is referred to as a spinner. The main aim of spin bowling is to bowl the cricket ball with rapid rotation so that when it bounces on the pitch it will deviate from its normal straight path, thus making it difficult for the batsman to hit the ball cleanly; the speed the ball travels is not critical, is slower than that for fast bowling. A typical spin delivery has a speed in the range 70–90 km/h. However, in 2010 Shahid Afridi of Pakistan bowled the fastest spin delivery of 134 km/h in a T20 match against New Zealand. Spin bowling is divided into four different categories, depending on the particular physical technique used. There is no overlap between the two basic biomechanical techniques of wrist spin and finger spin. Off break – Right-handed with finger spin technique. Left-arm orthodox spin – Left-handed with finger spin technique. Leg break – Right-handed with wrist spin technique. Left-arm unorthodox spin – Left-handed with wrist spin technique.
Depending on technique, a spin bowler uses either predominant wrist or finger motion to impart spin to the ball around a horizontal axis, at an oblique angle to the length of the pitch. This sort of spin means it is possible for the Magnus effect to cause the ball to deviate sideways through the air, before it bounces; such deviation is called drift. The combination of drift and spin can make the ball's trajectory complex, with a change of direction at the bounce; this variety of trajectories achievable by a spin bowler can bewilder poor batsmen. Spin bowlers are given the task of bowling with an old, worn cricket ball. A new cricket ball better suits the techniques of fast bowling than spin bowling, while a worn one grips the pitch better and achieves greater spin. Spin bowlers are more effective in a game, as the pitch dries up and begins to crack and crumble; this again produces greater deviation. Spin bowlers that open the bowling are rare, but became a more a viable option with the introduction of Twenty20 cricket when pitch conditions are in their favour, the ball generally drifts more in the air.
Both finger spin and wrist spin bowlers use a range of different angles of spin to confuse the batsman and dismiss him. Many of these variations have direct equivalents in the other discipline, but the names used for the various deliveries may be different. In recent times, spin bowling has been a forte of the bowlers from the South Asian sub-continent; the primary reason for, that the pitches in the sub-continent provide more help to the spin bowlers. The faster the pitch degenerates, the earlier the spinners come into the picture. Australian and South African pitches are very hard and bouncy, helping the fast bowlers more, they do not break up much during the duration of the match. In contrast, pitches in the sub-continent are not that hard, they are not held together by the grass as much. In general, leg-spin is considered to be one of the toughest types of bowling in which to keep control of the ball, but it is effective in picking off wickets, it is customary among cricket commentators to describe and judge the quality of spin bowling in terms of the characteristics flight, bounce and dip.
All these are arts to require lots of practice. The basic trajectory of spin bowling is two-lines-at-an-angle, but the above characteristics modify this'normal' trajectory into more complex shapes. Turn: How much the ball turns after pitching, it depends on the direction of revolutions of the ball. The movement and rotation of the ball varies, depending on the position of the finger. An occasional unexpected straight ball can usefully be included in an attack, but spin variation is the main technique used to deceive the batsman and take wickets. A high rate of turn is above 33 rev/second, or 2000 rpm, which Graeme Swann spin over 2000 rpm, the most amongst English spinners until Liam Dawson topped 35 rev/second, or 2100 rpm; the slower the ball, it tends to deviate more. For an offspinner, you will have to bowl from a wider of off-stump to get the ball to turn into the right-handed batsman and force them to nick off the edge to a fielder or into the top of off stump. Bounce: Getting the ball to bounce more than normal, so that the ball meets the batsman at a greater height than expected.
Sometimes, if the ball spins horizontally, the batsman will not be able to make contact with the ball and it may hit the stumps before the second bounce. Drift: Getting the ball to move sideways while in air. Late drift causes the batsman to cover the wrong line and the ball may catch the edge of the bat. Dip: Getting the ball to pitch at a shorter distance than normal. Late dip causes the batsman to misjudge the length of the ball. Flight: throwing the ball up a bit more than normal, so that its time in the air before pitching is longer. A slow ball with extra flight may deceive the batsman into thinking it is slower than it is and therefore mistiming his shot; this is effective for offspinners. A spin bowler relies on tricks during flight to produce turn, bounce and dip, or combinations of them. Cricket terminology Seam bowling Swing bowling Surya Prakash Chaturvedi,Bharat
Saeed Ajmal is a Pakistani cricket coach and former cricketer, who played all forms of the game. He is a right-arm off-spin bowler. Regarded as one of the best spinners in the world of his era, Ajmal was rated the best ODI and T20I bowler in the world and second in Tests at various times between 2011 and 2014. At domestic level in Pakistan he represented Faisalabad, with whom he won the 2005 ABN-AMRO Twenty-20 Cup. Ajmal made his One Day International debut for Pakistan in July 2008 at the age of 30, a year played his first Test. In 2009 he was reported for having a suspect bowling action, but after being cleared he helped Pakistan win the 2009 ICC World Twenty20. Ajmal played for Worcestershire as an overseas player in English domestic cricket in 2011. From November 2011 to December 2014, Ajmal was ranked by the International Cricket Council as the number one bowler in ODIs, he reached the same ranking in T20Is between October and December 2012, while his highest Test ranking was second between January and July of the same year.
He is one of four Test bowlers that made their debut after the age of thirty to take more than 100 test wickets, along with Clarrie Grimmett, Dilip Doshi and Ryan Harris. On 28 January 2012, in his 20th Test, Ajmal became the quickest Pakistani to take 100 Test wickets, he holds the record of leading wicket taker in Twenty20 International cricket before Shahid Afridi broke this record. He was signed by Adelaide Strikers for the 2012 Big Bash League in Australia. In 2014 he was banned by the ICC because of an illegal bowling action. Saqlain Mushtaq worked with Ajmal to correct his bowling action. On 27 December 2014, Saeed Ajmal withdrew his name from the Pakistani World Cup squad for the ICC Cricket World Cup 2015 after he was unable to rectify his bowling action. In the honour of his services for the country he received Sitara-e-Imtiaz by President of Pakistan Mamnoon Hussain on 23 March 2015, it is the third highest civilian award of Pakistan. On 13 November 2017, Ajmal announced his retirement from all forms of cricket.
On 29 November 2017, he played his final match, playing for Faisalabad against Lahore Whites, in the semi-finals of the 2017–18 National T20 Cup. Ajmal is a spin bowling coach of PSL team Islamabad United. Saeed Ajmal has played for Faisalabad since his debut in 1995 at the age of 18. Ajmal represented the Faisalabad Wolves in the 2005 ABN-AMRO Twenty-20 Cup, his team won the final in which he was man of the match; when Faisalabad won the final of the ABN-AMRO Patron's Cup in March 2006 Ajmal was named the tournament's best bowler and was given a Rs 25,000 prize. He has represented Khan Research Laboratories, who were runners-up in the final of the 2008/09 Quaid-i-Azam Trophy. Ajmal has played for Islamabad. Pakistan hosted the Asia Cup in June 2008, he made his debut against India on 2 July 2008. Ajmal took a single wicket, that of Yusuf Pathan, from his ten overs while conceding 47 runs as Pakistan won by eight wickets, before taking 2/19 in a ten-wicket victory over Bangladesh, although the team had no chance of progressing to the competition's final.
In November that year Pakistan travelled to the United Arab Emirates to face the West Indies in a three-match ODI series. Ajmal and Afridi were the team's only spin options. Ajmal's next match the third ODI against Sri Lanka in January 2009. In April Pakistan faced Australia in the UAE in five ODIs. Playing in all five matches Ajmal took four wickets at an average of 39.50. He was picked for the Sri Lankan series in Sri Lanka where he had made solid performances in the Test matches, being picked ahead of Danish Kaneria in two of the matches. In April 2009, Ajmal was reported by umpires for having a suspect bowling action. An independent test the following month demonstrated that Ajmal's arm flexed within the 15-degree tolerance allowed by the International Cricket Council; that year, the Pakistan Cricket Board named a pool of 30 players from which they would choose their final squad for the 2009 ICC World Twenty20, held in June. Left out, Ajmal was one of three players added to the list, replacing players who were dropped because they were contracted with the controversial Indian Cricket League.
In the tournament, Ajmal partnered Afridi. Pakistan won the tournament, Ajmal was the tournament's joint second highest wicket-taker with twelve dismissals from seven games. Ajmal's good form continued in the 2010 ICC World Twenty20 as he was Pakistan's leading wicket taker; however despite his good form he was known for conceding three sixes to Michael Hussey in what has been hailed as the most thrilling Twenty20 match of all time as Australia were in trouble and Ajmal was the unfortunate bowler who bowled that final over. Shortly after this the Pakistan team began a tour of England where they would face Australia in two Tests in July, subsequently play England in four Tests and five ODIs. Danish Kaneria was preferred to Ajmal in the first match against Australia, but after Pakistan lost the selectors considered dropping the leg-spinner and choosing Ajmal. In the event, Ajmal was not selected until the second Test against England, when Kaneria was dropped because he had been ineffective. Though Pakistan lost the match by nine wickets, Ajmal took his first five-wicket haul in Tests.
In Pakistan's second innings, with his team looking to set a target f
Graeme Peter Swann is a former English cricketer who played all three formats of the game. Born in Northampton, he attended Sponne School in Northamptonshire, he was a right-arm offspinner, a capable late-order batsman with four first-class centuries, fielded at second slip. After playing for his home county Northamptonshire, for whom he made his debut in 1997, he moved to Nottinghamshire in 2005. Swann played a single One Day International against South Africa in 2000, before losing his place in the squad. Seven years he was chosen to accompany England on its tour of Sri Lanka as the team's second spin bowler, alongside Monty Panesar, subsequently cemented a regular place in England's Test team, playing throughout England's 2–1 victory in the 2009 Ashes. In December 2009, he became the first English spinner to take 50 wickets in a calendar year, culminating in back-to-back man of the match awards in the first two Tests of the tour of South Africa and rising to third place in the world rankings for bowlers.
In March 2010, Swann became the first English off-spinner since Jim Laker to take 10 wickets in a match when he achieved the feat in England's victory in the first Test in Bangladesh. In May, he was named ECB Cricketer of the Year. In 2011 Swann was part of the England team that claimed the No. 1 ranking in Test cricket and between July and October that year was the No. 1 ranked bowler in ODIs. During the 2013–14 Ashes series loss, he retired from international cricket on 21 December 2013 with immediate effect. Swann began his domestic career for Northamptonshire; as a teenager, he was part of the U-19 World Cup winning side in 1998, a tournament that took part in South Africa. Against Leicestershire in 1998 he scored 92 and 111, his maiden first-class half-century and century. Touring South Africa and Zimbabwe with the England A-team that winter, Swann took 21 wickets at 25.61 and averaged 22 with the bat. Wisden commented, Swann did spin the ball appreciably and emerged as a definite candidate for elevation.
He had the potential to become a genuine allrounder, with a wide range of attractive strokes, though he needs to use them more selectively. In 1999, Swann was brought into the England squad for the final Test against New Zealand, he featured in an ODI against South Africa following an injury to Ashley Giles. This tour saw him miss the team bus once due to oversleeping. In domestic cricket, Swann scored his highest first-class score of 183 in 2002, sharing a partnership of 318 with Northants captain Mike Hussey, he moved to Nottinghamshire in 2005, finished the season of 2007 with 516 runs and 45 wickets, leading to his recall to the England side against Sri Lanka. While England fell in defeat during the first match, Swann hit 34 to help seal victory in the second, took four for 34 and hit 25 in the third as England took a two-one lead in the series. An unsuccessful tour of New Zealand followed, Swann was unable to occupy a place in the England ODI side, he remained in the squad but faced tough competition from Samit Patel, who had taken his first ODI five-wicket haul, against South Africa in his third match.
Following a loss of form by Monty Panesar, alongside whom Swann had played for Northamptonshire, Swann made his Test debut against India in December 2008, made an immediate impact, dismissing Gautam Gambhir with his third delivery and Rahul Dravid with his sixth, both lbw, thus becoming only the second player in Test history after Richard Johnson to take two wickets in his first Test over. In the Third Test in the West Indies in February 2009, he was brought back into the Test fold following the poor form of Panesar, in this match collected his first five-wicket haul in a Test, 5 for 57 in the West Indies' first innings, including two wickets in two balls; this was the second-best performance by any spinner in Antigua. Swann collected five wickets in the first of the West Indian innings in the Fourth Test. In addition to a score of 63 not out batting at 9, he took six more wickets in the first home Test of 2009, again against the West Indies, at Lord's; this included three for sixteen in five overs in the first innings, removing Devon Smith, Shivnarine Chanderpaul and Brendan Nash.
At the end of the one-day series against the same opposition, the England players were permitted to rejoin their counties in the build-up to the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 tournament. Swann gave a good account of himself in the World Twenty20, bowling tidily for his five wickets "while showing the passion for playing for his country that," according to journalist Nick Hoult, "endears him to England supporters." Swann had done enough in the year preceding the 2009 Ashes to be considered England's premier spinner, overtaking Panesar. The pertinent question was not whether Swann would play, but which of Panesar and Adil Rashid, the other two spinners in the England squad, would play with him, he went on to play in all five matches of the series. Panesar was selected for the first Test, but his bowling did not impress and he was dropped for the remainder of the series, leaving Swann as England's only slow bowler. In the first Test at Sophia Gardens, Swann hit a first-innings 47 not out from 40 balls.
His bowling was anodyne, failing to pick up a wicket in 38 overs in Australia's only innings, in which they amassed 674 for 6 declared with four centurions, but his second-innings 31 helped England salvage a draw, as Australia were unable to take the final English wicket with Panesar and James Anderson at the crease. At Lord's, Swann was part of England's first-innings slide from 302 for 3 to 425 all out, was only required to bowl one
Glossary of cricket terms
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding. Cricket is known for its rich terminology; some terms are thought to be arcane and humorous by those not familiar with the game. Across the line A batsman plays across the line when he moves his bat in a direction lateral to the direction of the incoming ball. Agricultural shot A swing across the line of the ball played without much technique. One that results in a chunk of the pitch being dug up by the bat, or that winds up with the ball going to cow corner. A type of a slog. Air When a spin bowler delivers a ball with a more looping trajectory than usual, he is said to be giving the ball some air. In combination with top spin, the objective is to lure the batsman into misreading the length of the ball.
In combination with off spin or leg spin, the objective is to give the ball more time to drift. All out When an innings ends due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or unable to bat because of injury or illness. All-rounder Traditionally, a player adept at both bowling. Good all-rounders in the modern game include Shane Watson, Ben Stokes, Shakib Al Hasan; some recent sources regard a wicket-keeper/batsman as another type of all-rounder, but this usage is not universal. Anchor A top-order batsman capable of batting for a long time. Batsmen at numbers 3 or 4 play such a role if there is a batting collapse. An anchor plays defensively, is the top scorer in the innings. Angler A type of late-swing delivery used by Bart King in the early 1900s. King, a right-arm fast bowler, delivered his inswinger with the right arm raised over the left ear, concealed the seam of the ball by starting his action with the ball held in both hands, in the manner of baseball pitchers.
It is unclear whether angler referred to his outswinger. Appeal A bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Phrased in the form of howzat Common variations include'Howzee?', or turning to the umpire and shouting. The umpire cannot give a batsman out unless the fielding side appeals if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met. However, batsmen who are out will leave the field without waiting for an appeal. Approach The motion of the bowler before bowling the ball, it is known as the run-up. The ground a bowler runs on during his run up. Arm ball A deceptive delivery bowled by an off spin bowler, not spun, so that, it travels straight on. A good bowler's arm ball might swing away from the batsman in the air. Around the wicket or round the wicket A right-handed bowler passing to the right of the non-striker's stumps in his run-up, vice versa for a left-handed bowler. Compare with over the wicket; the Ashes The perpetual prize in England v Australia Test match series.
The Ashes originated as a result of a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, in 1882 after a match at The Oval in which Australia beat England on an English ground for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, the body would be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia; the English press dubbed the next English tour to Australia as the quest to regain The Ashes. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to England captain Ivo Bligh by a group of Melbourne women; the contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of an item of a bail. Asking rate The run rate at which the team batting second needs to score to catch the opponents' score in a limited overs game. Same as'required run rate'. Attacking field A fielding configuration in which more fielders are close in to the pitch so as to take catches and dismiss batsmen more at the risk of allowing more runs to be scored should the ball get past them. Attacking shot An strong hit by the batsman designed to score runs.
Average A bowler's bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman's batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed. Away swing see out swing Back foot In a batsman's stance, the back foot is the foot, closest to the stumps. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground. Unless the bowler is bowling off the wrong foot, the bowling foot is the back foot. Back foot contact The position of the bowler at the moment when his back foot lands on the ground just before releasing the ball Back foot shot A shot played with the batsman's weight on his back foot. Back spin A delivery with a backward spin, so that after pitching the ball slows down, or bounces lower and skids on to the batsman. Backing up 1; the non-striking batsman leaving his crease during the delivery in order to shorten the distance to complete one run.
A batsman "backing up" too far runs the risk of being run out, either by a fielder in a conventional run out, or – in a "Mankad" – by the bowler. 2. A fielder w
Deshabandu Muttiah Muralitharan is a former Sri Lankan cricketer, rated the greatest Test match bowler by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack in 2002. He retired from Test cricket in 2010, registering his 800th and final wicket on 22 July 2010 from his final ball in his last Test match. Muralitharan holds the world record for the most wickets in one-day cricket. In 2017, he became the only Sri Lankan to be inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame, he won the Ada Derana Sri Lankan of the Year in 2017. Murali became the highest wicket-taker in Test cricket when he overtook the previous record-holder Shane Warne on 3 December 2007. Muralitharan had held the record when he surpassed Courtney Walsh's 519 wickets in 2004, but he suffered a shoulder injury that year and was overtaken by Warne. Averaging over six wickets per Test, Muralitharan is one of the most successful bowlers in the game. Muralitharan held the number one spot in the International Cricket Council's player rankings for Test bowlers for a record period of 1,711 days spanning 214 Test matches.
Muralitharan took the wicket of Gautam Gambhir on 5 February 2009 in Colombo to surpass Wasim Akram's ODI record of 502 wickets. Muralitharan's career was beset by controversy over his bowling action for much of his international career. Due to an unusual hyperextension of his congenitally bent arm during delivery, his bowling action was called into question on a number of occasions by umpires and sections of the cricket community. After biomechanical analysis under simulated playing conditions, Muralitharan's action was cleared by the International Cricket Council, first in 1996 and again in 1999. Former Australian Test player Bruce Yardley, who himself was an off spinner in his day, was assigned with the task of ensuring Muralitharan bowled all his deliveries with the same vigour as he would do so in match conditions when tested in 2004. Muralitharan had not commenced bowling the doosra at this time; the legality of his doosra was first called into question in 2004. This delivery was found to exceed the ICC elbow extension limit by nine degrees, five degrees being the limit for spinners at that time.
Based on official studies into bowling actions, which revealed that 99% of bowlers whose actions were examined exceeded the elbow flexion limits, ICC revised the limits applying to all bowlers in 2005. The new limit of 15-degrees, one degree greater than Muralitharan was bowling his doosra, allowed him to continue without being called for throwing from on. In February 2009, after becoming cricket's highest wicket-taker in both forms of the game Muttiah Muralitharan hinted that he might retire at the conclusion of the 2011 World Cup, he want to play more. But after the next World Cup, I will have nothing left to achieve in the game; the World Cup should mark the end of my career." Muralitharan announced his retirement from Test cricket after the first Test against India at Galle which commenced on 18 July 2010. During that match he captured 8 wickets and became the first to reach the milestone of taking 800 Test wickets by dismissing Pragyan Ojha, he was the sixth international franchise player signed to the Caribbean Premier League and the first Sri Lankan player to be named to the new Twenty20 tournament.
Muralitharan was born 17 April 1972 to a Hill Country Tamil Hindu family in Sri Lanka. The eldest of the four sons to Sinnasamy Muttiah and Lakshmi. Muralitharan's father Sinnasamy Muttiah, runs a successful biscuit-making business. Muralitharan's paternal grandfather Periyasamy Sinasamy came from South India to work in the tea plantations of central Sri Lanka in 1920. Sinasamy returned to the country of his birth with his daughters and settled in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India. However, his sons, including Muralitharan's father Muttiah, remained in Sri Lanka; when he was nine years old, Muralitharan was sent to St. Anthony's College, Kandy, a private school run by Benedictine monks, he began his cricketing career as a medium pace bowler but on the advice of his school coach, Sunil Fernando, he took up off-spin when he was fourteen years old. He soon impressed and went on to play for four years in the school First XI. In those days he batted in the middle order. In his final two seasons at St Anthony's College he took over one hundred wickets and in 1990/1 was named as the'Bata Schoolboy Cricketer of the Year'.
After leaving school he joined Tamil Union Cricket and Athletic Club and was selected for the Sri Lanka A tour of England in 1991. He failed to capture a single wicket. On his return to Sri Lanka he impressed against Allan Border's Australian team in a practice game and went on to make his Test debut at R. Premadasa Stadium in the Second Test Match of the series; when his grandfather died at the age of 104 in July 2004, Muralitharan returned home from a tour of India to attend his funeral. Periyasamy Sinasamy's first wish to see Muralitharan claiming the world record for the most Test wickets was realised, but not his desire to live to see his grandson married. Muralitharan's grandmother had died one month earlier at the age of 97. Muralitharan's manager, Kushil Gunasekera stated that "Murali's family is knit and united, they respect traditional values. The late grandfather enjoyed a great relationship with Murali."Muralitharan married Madhimalar Ramamurthy, a Chennai native, on 21 March 2005.
Madhimalar is the daughter of late Dr S. Ramamurthy of Malar Hospitals, his wife Dr Nithya Ramamurthy, their first child, was born in January 2006. Muttiah Muralitharan holds Overseas Citizenship of India (OC
Swing bowling is a technique used for bowling in the sport of cricket. Practitioners are known as swing bowlers. Swing bowling is classed as a subtype of fast bowling; the essence of swing bowling is to get the cricket ball to deviate sideways as it moves through the air towards or away from the batsman. To do this, the bowler makes use of six factors: The raised seam of the cricket ball The angle of the seam to the direction of travel The wear and tear on the ball The polishing liquid used on the ball The speed of the delivery The bowler's actionThe asymmetry of the ball is encouraged by the constant polishing of one side of the ball by members of the fielding team, while allowing the opposite side to deteriorate through wear and tear. With time, this produces a marked difference in the aerodynamic properties of the two sides. Both turbulent and laminar airflow contribute to swing. Air in laminar flow separates from the surface of the ball earlier than air in turbulent flow, so that the separation point moves toward the front of the ball on the laminar side.
On the turbulent flow side it remains towards the back, inducing a greater lift force on the turbulent airflow side of the ball. The calculated net lift force is not enough to account. Additional force is provided by the pressure-gradient force. To induce the pressure-gradient force the bowler must create regions of high and low static pressure on opposing sides of the ball; the ball is "sucked" from the region of high static pressure towards the region of low static pressure. The Magnus effect uses the same force but by manipulating spin across the direction of motion. A layer of fluid, in this case air, will have a greater velocity when moving over another layer of fluid than it would have had if it had been moving over a solid, in this case the surface of the ball; the greater the velocity of the fluid, the lower its static pressure. When the ball is new the seam is used to create a layer of turbulent air on one side of the ball, by angling it to one side and spinning the ball along the seam.
This changes the separation points of the air with the ball. The next layer of air will have a greater velocity over the side with the turbulent air due to the greater air coverage and as there is a difference in air velocity, the static pressure of both sides of the ball are different and the ball is both'lifted' and'sucked' towards the turbulent airflow side of the ball; when the ball is older and there is an asymmetry in roughness the seam no longer causes the pressure difference, can reduce the swing of the ball. Air turbulence is no longer used to create separation point differences and therefore the lift and pressure differences. On the rough side of the ball there are pits in the ball's surface; these irregularities act in the same manner as the dimples of a golf ball: they trap the air, creating a layer of trapped air next to the rough side of the ball, which moves with the surface of the ball. The smooth side does not trap a layer of air; the next layer of air outward from the ball will have a greater velocity over the rough side, due to its contact with a layer of trapped air, rather than solid ball.
This lowers the static pressure relative to the shiny side. If the scratches and tears cover the rough side of the ball, the separation point on the rough side will move to the back of the ball, further than that of the turbulent air, thereby creating more lift and faster air flow; this is. If the seam is used to create the turbulent air on the rough side, the tears will not fill as as they would with laminar flow, dampening the lift and pressure differences. Reverse swing occurs in the same manner as conventional swing, despite popular misconception. Over time the rough side becomes too rough and the tears become too deep – this is why golf ball dimples are never below a certain depth, so "conventional" swing weakens over time; when polishing the shiny side of the ball, numerous liquids are used, such as sweat, sunscreen, hair gel and other illegal substances like Vaseline. These liquids penetrate the porous surface of the leather ball. Over time the liquid expands and stretches the surface of the ball and creates raised bumps on the polished side, due to the non-uniform nature of the expansion.
The valleys between the bumps hold the air in the same manner as the tears on the rough side. This creates a layer of air over the shiny side, moving the separation point towards the back of the ball on the shiny side; the greater air coverage is now on the shiny side, giving rise to more lift and faster secondary airflow on that side. There is therefore lower static pressure on the shiny side, causing the ball to swing towards it, not away from it as in conventional swing; the rough side tears hold the air more than the shiny side valleys, so to maintain the air within the valleys the initial air layer must have a high velocity, why reverse swing is but not achieved by fast bowlers. Due to the less static nature of the initial air layer it takes longer for the swing to occur, why it occurs in the delivery; this is why reverse swing can occur in the same delivery. Cold and humid weather are said to enhance swing. Colder air is denser and so may affect the differential forces the ball experiences in flight.
When looking at humidity, changes between 0% and 40% humidity appear to ha
Harbhajan Singh Plaha known as Harbhajan or Bhajji, is an Indian international cricketer, who plays all forms of the game cricket. A specialist spin bowler, he has the second-highest number of Test wickets by an off spinner, behind Sri Lanka's Muttiah Muralitharan, he is the former captain of IPL team Mumbai Indians and Punjab for the 2012–13 Ranji Trophy season. Singh made his Test and One Day International debuts in early 1998, his career was affected by investigations into the legality of his bowling action, as well as several disciplinary incidents. However, in 2001, with leading leg spinner Anil Kumble injured, Harbhajan's career was resuscitated after Indian captain Sourav Ganguly called for his inclusion in the Border-Gavaskar Trophy team. In that series victory over Australia, Harbhajan established himself as the team's leading spinner by taking 32 wickets, becoming the first Indian bowler to take a hat trick in Test cricket, he is an Officer in the Punjab Police and has held the rank of a Superintendent of police, reporting to Punjab Police HQ at Barnala.
A finger injury in mid-2003 sidelined him for much of the following year, allowing Kumble to regain his position as the first choice spinner in Tests and ODI's. Harbhajan reclaimed a regular position in the team upon his return in late 2004, but found himself watching from the sidelines in Test matches outside the Indian subcontinent with only one spinner, being used. Throughout 2006 and into early 2007, Harbhajan's accumulation of wickets fell and his bowling average increased, he was criticised for bowling defensively with less loop. Following India's first-round elimination from the 2007 Cricket World Cup, Harbhajan was replaced by other spinners in the national squad for both formats, he became the subject of more controversy. In early 2008, he was given a ban by the International Cricket Council for racially vilifying Andrew Symonds; the ban was revoked upon appeal, but in April, Harbhajan was banned from the 2008 Indian Premier League and suspended from the ODI team by the Board of Control for Cricket in India for slapping Sreesanth after a match.
He appeared in Ring Ka King. He was in the World Cup-winning team of 2011 Cricket World Cup, he was conferred the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour, in 2009. Harbajan Singh was born into a Sikh family, he is the only son of Sardar Sardev Singh Plaha, a businessman who owned a ball bearing and valve factory. Growing up with five sisters, Harbhajan was in line to inherit the family business, but his father insisted that he concentrate on his cricket career and represent India. Harbhajan was trained as a batsman by his first coach Charanjit Singh Bhullar, but converted to spin bowling after his coach's untimely death saw him turn to the tutelage of Davinder Arora. Arora credits Harbhajan's success to a work ethic that included a three-hour training session in the morning, followed by an afternoon session lasting from 3 pm until after sunset. Following the death of his father in 2000, Harbhajan became the family head, by 2001 had organised marriages for three of his sisters. In 2002 he ruled out his own marriage until at least 2008.
In 2005 he again fended off marriage rumours linking him to a Bangalore-based bride, stating that he would only make a decision "after a couple of years", that he would be seeking a Punjabi bride selected by his family. In a country where cricketers are idolised, Harbhajan's performances have brought him government accolades and lucrative sponsorships. Following his performance against Australia in 2001, the Government of Punjab awarded him Rs. 5 lakhs, a plot of land, an offer to become a Deputy Superintendent of Police in Punjab Police, which he accepted. Despite having a job with the constabulary, Harbhajan sustained minor injuries in March 2002 in an altercation with police outside the team hotel in Guwahati; the scuffle broke out when Harbhajan remonstrated with officers after they refused to allow a photographer into the hotel. Harbhajan injured his elbow when he was struck by the police. Extensive negotiations from local officials and organisers were required to dissuade Harbhajan and captain Sourav Ganguly from leaving the area after Ganguly said that the Indian team would abandon the scheduled match against Zimbabwe.
Singh was caught at Auckland airport for failing to declare. His only excuse was, he was fined $200 on the spot. One of his common nicknames, outside India, is The Turbanator, deriving from his skill as a bowler in terminating the innings of the opposing team, the fact that, as a Sikh, he wears a turban whenever he plays. Among Indians, Harbhajan is more known as bhajji, it was estimated in 2005 that Harbhajan was the most recognised and commercially viable Indian cricketer after Sachin Tendulkar, in part due to his colourful personality and iconic turban, as well as his reputation for enjoying the celebrity social scene. His signing for English county team Surrey in 2005, based at The Oval in London, was attributed to his marketability. Harbhajan had generated a large personal following in the western London suburb of Southall, which boasts a majority Punjabi Sikh population, when he lived there in 1998 while training under Fred Titmus. In 2006 Harbhajan's endorsements generated controversy when he appeared without his turban in an advertisement for Royal Stag whisky.
This angered many orthodox Sikhs, leading to anti-Harbhajan protests in the Sikh holy city of Amritsar, with effigies o