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Off the Wall

Off the Wall is the fifth solo studio album by American singer Michael Jackson, released on August 10, 1979 by Epic Records. It was Jackson's first album released through Epic Records, the label he recorded under until his death in 2009, the first produced by Quincy Jones, whom he met while working on the 1978 film The Wiz. Several critics observed that Off the Wall was crafted from disco, funk, R&B, soft rock and Broadway ballads, its lyrical themes include escapism, loneliness and romance. Between 1972 and 1975, Jackson released a total of four solo studio albums with Motown as part of The Jackson 5 franchise. In 1978, Jackson starred as Scarecrow in the film musical The Wiz; the musical scores were arranged by Jones, who formed a partnership with Jackson during the film's production and agreed to produce Off the Wall. Before recording the project, Jackson desired to create a record not sounding like a Jacksons record but rather showcasing creative freedom and individualism. Regarding his new image for the Off the Wall era, Jackson's manager stated, "The tuxedo was the overall plan for the Off the Wall project and package.

The tuxedo was our idea, the socks were Michael'". Off the Wall peaked at number three on the Billboard 200 and number one on the Billboard R&B Albums chart, staying at number one on the latter for 16 weeks, it was an enormous critical success and was ranked third in the Billboard Year-End Albums of 1980. Five singles were released from the album. Jackson wrote three songs himself, including the Billboard Hot 100 number one single "Don't Stop'Til You Get Enough", Jackson's first solo number-one single since "Ben", seven years prior, it was a worldwide hit. The second single from the album, "Rock with You" peaked atop the chart. With the title track and "She's Out of My Life" reaching the top 10 of the chart, Jackson became the first solo artist to have four singles from the same album peak inside the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100. Off the Wall was a significant departure from Jackson's previous work for Motown and was hailed as a major breakthrough for him. In retrospect, writers have hailed it a landmark of disco's peak and one of the greatest albums of all time.

It is often debated by critics between itself and Thriller as Jackson's best album. The album has sold over 20 million copies worldwide, making it one of the best-selling albums of all time. In August 2009, it was certified 8× Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. At the 22nd Grammy Awards, it was nominated for two Grammy Awards, with Jackson winning Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male for "Don't Stop'Til You Get Enough", his first Grammy Award. In 2008, Off the Wall was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. Between 1972 and 1975, Michael Jackson released a total of four solo studio albums with Motown; these were released as part of The Jackson 5 franchise, produced successful singles such as "Got to Be There", "Ben" and a remake of Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin". The Jackson 5's sales, began declining in 1973, the band members chafed under Motown's strict refusal to allow them creative control or input. Although the group scored several top 40 hits, including the top five disco single "Dancing Machine" and the top 20 hit "I Am Love", The Jackson 5 left Motown in 1975.

The Jackson 5 signed a new contract with CBS Records in June 1975, first joining the Philadelphia International Records division and Epic Records. As a result of legal proceedings, the group was renamed The Jacksons. After the name change, the band continued to tour internationally, releasing five more studio albums between 1976 and 1984. During that period, Michael was not only the lead singer, but the chief songwriter for the group, writing or co-writing such hits as "Shake Your Body", "This Place Hotel" and "Can You Feel It". In 1978, Jackson starred as Scarecrow in the film musical The Wiz; the musical scores were arranged by Quincy Jones, who formed a partnership with Jackson during the film's production and agreed to produce the singer's solo album Off the Wall. Jackson was dedicated to the role, watched videotapes of gazelles and panthers in order to learn graceful movements for his part. Jones recalled working with Jackson as one of his favorite experiences from The Wiz, spoke of Jackson's dedication to his role, comparing his acting style to Sammy Davis, Jr.

Critics panned The Wiz upon its October 1978 release, but Jackson's performance as the Scarecrow was one of the only positively reviewed elements of the film, with critics noting that Jackson possessed "genuine acting talent" and "provided the only genuinely memorable moments." Of the results of the film, Jackson stated: "I don't think it could have been any better, I don't". In 1980, Jackson stated that his time working on The Wiz was "my greatest experience so far... I'll never forget that"; when Jackson began the Off the Wall project he was not sure. Jackson's father Joseph approved of the project and allowed him to record it on the condition that it didn't interfere with group business. Despite his brothers' desire to work with him, Jackson wanted to make the album independently of his family, his brother Randy still contributed percussion to "Don't Stop'Til You Get Enough". J

Laxey Car Sheds

Laxey Car Shed is a storage facility for the Manx Electric Railway in the village of Laxey on the Isle of Man. It serves as an intermediate stopping place on the line, being the last before reaching the mid-way point of the village station, it is used to store service cars of the tramway and for many years was a storage site for unused passenger cars and trailers. It is notable for a disastrous fire that destroyed all contents in 1930, accounting for the only major loss of rolling stock that the railway has encountered, save for the 10-13 Class Trams which were short-lived and converted early on; the shed was fitted with four tracks and limited clearance but now houses three tracks, the site of the fourth having been given over to road vehicle storage. The shed was used for the storage of a steam locomotive during the successful Year Of Railways in 1993 and subsequent events, at this time a longer headshunt was installed to facilitate the shunting of rolling stock. In 1999 the roof was removed and all stored stock taken out for off-site storage remaining in this state for some time until, in 2008 action was taken to re-clad the structure, now a functioning shed once more, the work being completed by 2009 with a three-road shed, one road being a cement surface to house the line's road vehicles.

The running lines beside the shed are bisected by a public footpath and as such a diminutive stopping place exists here, having the same name as the sheds but with no nameboard to the effect. On occasion the shed and nearby substation are open to the public and on these occasions a shuttle service is operated from Laxey Station to avoid people walking over the nearby Glen Roy viaduct. Manx Electric Railway Stations Mike Goodwyn. Manx Electric. Platform Five. ISBN 978-1-872524-52-8. Keith Pearson. 100 Years Of Manx Electric Railway. Leading Edge. ISBN 0-948135-38-7. Robert Hendry. Manx Electric Album. Hillside Publishing. ISBN 0-9505933-0-3. Norman Jones. Isle Of Man Tramways. Foxline Publishing. ISBN 1-870119-32-0. Manx Manx Electric Railway Stopping Places Manx Electric Railway Society Island Island Images: Manx Electric Railway Pages Jon Wornham Official Tourist Department Page Isle Of Man Heritage Railways

Bruce Shapiro

Bruce Shapiro is an American journalist and author. He is executive director of the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma, a resource center and think tank for journalists who cover violence and tragedy, based at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. In 2014 he received the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies Public Advocacy Award recognizing "outstanding and fundamental contributions to the social understanding of trauma." Shapiro is a contributing editor at The Nation magazine and provides a weekly report on U. S. politics and culture to the Australian radio program Late Night Live. In addition to his leadership of the Dart Center he is adjunct professor at Columbia Journalism School, where he teaches ethics and serves as Senior Advisor for Academic Affairs, a lecturer at Yale University, where he has taught investigative journalism since 1994. Shapiro serves on the board of directors and executive committee of the Global Investigative Journalism Network, on the international advisory board of the Judith Neilson Institute for Journalism and Ideas in Australia and on the advisory board of the Rory Peck Trust based in London.

Shapiro, Bruce. Shaking the Foundations: 200 Years of Investigative Journalism in America. Nation Books. ISBN 1-56025-433-5. Shapiro, Bruce. Legal Lynching: The Death Penalty and America's Future; the New Press. ISBN 1-56584-685-0. Appearances on C-SPAN Author page at The Nation

Anthony England

Anthony England is an English professional rugby league footballer who plays as a prop for the Bradford Bulls in the Betfred Championship. He has played for the Castleford Tigers in National League One, Gateshead Thunder in National League Two and the Co-operative Championship. England played for the Dewsbury Rams and Featherstone Rovers in the Championship, the Warrington Wolves and Wakefield Trinity in the Super League. England was born in West Yorkshire, England. Wakefield Trinity profile Profile at SL profile In The Spotlight: Wakefield Trinity’s Anthony England

Wild fisheries

A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population, harvested for its commercial value. Fisheries can be freshwater, they can be wild or farmed. Wild fisheries are sometimes called capture fisheries; the aquatic life they support is not controlled in any meaningful way and needs to be "captured" or fished. Wild fisheries exist in the oceans, around coasts and continental shelves, they exist in lakes and rivers. Issues with wild fisheries are pollution. Significant wild fisheries have collapsed or are in danger of collapsing, due to overfishing and pollution. Overall, production from the world's wild fisheries has levelled out, may be starting to decline; as a contrast to wild fisheries, farmed fisheries can operate in sheltered coastal waters, in rivers and ponds, or in enclosed bodies of water such as tanks. Farmed fisheries are technological in nature, revolve around developments in aquaculture. Farmed fisheries are expanding, Chinese aquaculture in particular is making many advances.

The majority of fish consumed by humans continues to be sourced from wild fisheries. As of the early 21st century, fish is humanity's only significant wild food source. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the world harvest by commercial fisheries in 2010 consisted of 88.6 million tonnes of aquatic animals captured in wild fisheries, plus another 0.9 million tons of aquatic plants. This can be contrasted with 59.9 million tonnes produced in fish farms, plus another 19.0 million tons of aquatic plants harvested in aquaculture. Worldwide, freshwater lakes have an area of 1.5 million square kilometres. Saline inland seas add another 1.0 million square kilometres. There are 28 freshwater lakes with an area greater than 5,000 square kilometres, totalling 1.18 million square kilometres or 79 percent of the total. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment. Wild fisheries flourish in oceans and rivers, the introduction of contaminants is an issue of concern as regards plastics, heavy metals, other industrial and agricultural pollutants which do not disintegrate in the environment.

Land run-off and industrial and domestic waste enter rivers and are discharged into the sea. Pollution from ships is a problem. Marine debris is human-created waste. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines washing aground where it is known as beach litter. Eighty percent of all known marine debris is plastic - a component, accumulating since the end of World War II. Plastics accumulate. Discarded plastic bags, six pack rings and other forms of plastic waste which finish up in the ocean present dangers to wildlife and fisheries. Aquatic life can be threatened through entanglement and ingestion. Nurdles known as mermaids' tears, are plastic pellets under five millimetres in diameter, are a major contributor to marine debris, they are used as a raw material in plastics manufacturing, are thought to enter the natural environment after accidental spillages. Nurdles are created through the physical weathering of larger plastic debris, they resemble fish eggs, only instead of finding a nutritious meal, any marine wildlife that ingests them will starve, be poisoned and die.

Many animals that live on or in the sea consume flotsam by mistake, as it looks similar to their natural prey. Plastic debris, when bulky or tangled, is difficult to pass, may become permanently lodged in the digestive tracts of these animals, blocking the passage of food and causing death through starvation or infection. Tiny floating particles resemble zooplankton, which can lead filter feeders to consume them and cause them to enter the ocean food chain. In samples taken from the North Pacific Gyre in 1999 by the Algalita Marine Research Foundation, the mass of plastic exceeded that of zooplankton by a factor of six. More reports have surfaced that there may now be 30 times more plastic than plankton, the most abundant form of life in the ocean. Toxic additives used in the manufacture of plastic materials can leech out into their surroundings when exposed to water. Waterborne hydrophobic pollutants collect and magnify on the surface of plastic debris, thus making plastic far more deadly in the ocean than it would be on land.

Hydrophobic contaminants are known to bioaccumulate in fatty tissues, biomagnifying up the food chain and putting great pressure on apex predators. Some plastic additives are known to disrupt the endocrine system when consumed, others can suppress the immune system or decrease reproductive rates. Apart from plastics, there are particular problems with other toxins which do not disintegrate in the marine environment. Heavy metals are metallic chemical elements that have a high density and are toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Examples are mercury, nickel and cadmium. Other persistent toxins are PCBs, DDT, furans and phenols; such toxins can accumulate in the tissues of many species of aquatic life in a process called bioaccumulation. They are known to accumulate in benthic environments, such as estuaries and bay muds: a geological record of human activities of the last century; some specific examples are Chinese and Russian industrial pollution such as phenols and heavy metals in the Amur River have devastated fish stocks and damaged its estuary soil.

Wabamun Lake in Al


Granada, locally is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro, it sits at an average elevation of 738 m above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census, the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport; the Alhambra, an Arab citadel and palace, is located in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Islamic historical legacy with its many cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the tourist cities of Spain.

The Almohad influence on architecture is preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Moorish and Morisco construction. Granada is well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has an estimated 82,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city; the pomegranate is the heraldic device of Granada. The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 BC and experienced Roman and Visigothic influences; the most ancient ruins found in the city belong to an Iberian oppidum called Ilturir, in the region known as Bastetania. This oppidum changed its name to Iliberri, after the Roman conquest of Iberia, to Municipium Florentinum Iliberitanum; the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in AD 711, brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established al-Andalus. Granada's historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة; the word Gárnata means "hill of strangers". Because the city was situated on a low plain and, as a result, difficult to protect from attacks, the ruler decided to transfer his residence to the higher situated area of Gárnata.

In a short time this town was transformed into one of the most important cities of al-Andalus. In the early 11th century, after the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Berber Zawi ben Ziri established an independent kingdom for himself, the Taifa of Granada, his surviving memoirs – the only ones for the Spanish "Middle Ages" – provide considerable detail for this brief period. The Zirid Taifa of Granada was a Jewish state in all but name, it was the center of scholarship. Early Arabic writers called it "Garnata al-Yahud".... Granada was in the eleventh century the center of Sephardic civilization at its peak, from 1027 until 1066 Granada was a powerful Jewish state. Jews did not hold the foreigner status typical of Islamic rule. Samuel ibn Nagrilla, recognized by Sephardic Jews everywhere as the quasi-political ha-Nagid, was king in all but name; as vizier he made policy and—much more unusual—led the army.... It is said that Samuel's strengthening and fortification of Granada was what permitted it to survive as the last Islamic state in the Iberian peninsula.

All of the greatest figures of eleventh-century Hispano-Jewish culture are associated with Granada. Moses Ibn Ezra was from Granada. Ibn Gabirol’s patrons and hosts were the Jewish viziers of Granada, Samuel ha-Nagid and his son Joseph; when Joseph took over after his father's death, he proved to lack his father's diplomacy, bringing on the 1066 Granada massacre, which ended the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. By the end of the 11th century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach the hill of the future Alhambra, included the Albaicín neighborhood; the Almoravids ruled Granada from 1090 and the Almohad dynasty from 1166. In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince Idris al-Ma'mun, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last and longest reigning Muslim dynasty in the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Fernando III of Castile becoming the Emirate of Granada in 1238.

According to some historians, Granada was a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile from that year. It provided connections with Muslim and Arab trade centers for gold from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb, exported silk and dried fruits produced in the area; the Nasrids supplied troops from the Emirate and mercenaries from North Africa for service to Castile. Ibn Battuta, a famous traveller and an authentic historian, visited the Kingdom of Granada in 1350, he described it as a powerful and self-sufficient kingdom in its own right, although embroiled in skirmishes with the Kingdom of Castile. In his journal, Ibn Battuta called Granada the "metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities."During the Moor rule, Granada was a city with adherents to many religions and ethnicities who lived in separate quarters. During this Nasrid period there were 137 Muslim mosques in the Medina of Granada. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim ruler in Iberia, Emir Muhammad XII of Granada, known as "Boabdil" to the