The Byzantine Rite known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek/Byzantine Catholic churches, in a modified form, Byzantine Rite Lutheranism. Its development began during the fourth century in Constantinople and it is now the second most-used ecclesiastical rite in Christendom after the Roman Rite; the Byzantine Rite was developed and used in Greek language and with introduction of Eastern Orthodoxy to other ethnic groups it was translated into local languages and continued further development. Most important non-Greek variants of Byzantine Rite are: Byzantine-Slavonic and Byzantine-Georgian; the rite consists of the divine liturgies, canonical hours, forms for the administration of sacred mysteries and the numerous prayers and exorcisms developed by the Church of Constantinople. Involved are the specifics of church architecture, liturgical music and traditions which have evolved over the centuries in the Eastern Orthodox Church and which are associated with this rite.
Traditionally, the congregation stands throughout the whole service, an iconostasis separates the sanctuary from the nave of the church. The faithful are active in their worship, making frequent bows and prostrations, feeling free to move about the temple during the services. Traditionally, the major clergy and monks neither shave nor cut their hair or beards. Scripture plays a large role in Byzantine worship, with not only daily readings but many quotes from the Bible throughout the services; the entire psalter is read each week, twice weekly during Great Lent. Fasting is stricter than in the Roman Rite. On fast days, the faithful give up not only meat, but dairy products, on many fast days they give up fish and the use of oil in cooking; the rite observes four fasting seasons: Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles' Fast and Dormition Fast. In addition, most Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are fast days and many monasteries observe Monday as a fast day. There are two ancient liturgical traditions from which all of the Eastern Rites developed: the Alexandrian Rite in Egypt and the Antiochene Rite in Syria.
These two Rites developed directly from practices of the Early Church. Of these two traditions, the Rite of Constantinople developed from the Antiochene Rite. Prior to the see of Constantinople's elevation to the dignity of patriarch by the Second Ecumenical Council in 381, the primary jurisdiction in Asia Minor was the Patriarchate of Antioch. With the council's elevation of Constantinople to primacy in the East, with the words "The Bishop of Constantinople... shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome. Because the Rite of Constantinople evolved as a synthesis of two distinct rites — cathedral rite of Constantinople called the "asmatiki akolouthia" and the monastic typicon of the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified near Jerusalem — its offices are developed and quite complex. Further developments continued to occur, centered around Constantinople and Mount Athos. Monasticism played an important role in the development of the rituals. In Constantinople, the work of the monastery of the Studion enriched the liturgical traditions with regard to the Lenten observance.
Iconography continued to develop and a canon of traditional patterns evolved which still influences Eastern religious art to this day. Historical events have influenced the development of the liturgy; the great Christological and Trinitarian controversies of Late Antiquity are reflected in the glorifications of the Trinity heard in the numerous ekphonies encountered during the services. In response to Nestorius' attack on giving the title of Theotokos to the Virgin Mary, the Byzantines increased the use of the term in the liturgy, now every string of hymns ends with one in her honour, called a theotokion. All liturgical rites develop over time; as new saints are canonized, new hymns are composed. The rite profits from the fact that the Christian East is not so centralized in ecclesiastical polity as the West; this allows for greater diversity, as members of one church visit another, a natural cross-pollination occurs with resultant enrichment on all sides. In spite of its great emphasis on tradition, the Byzantine Rite comprises a growing and expanding ritual, with room for local practice.
The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the older of its two main Divine Liturgies to St. Basil the Great, Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia; this tradition is confirmed by the witness of several ancient authors, some of whom were contemporaries. It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy of his Church, that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time. St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea. and other contemporary witnesses attest his arrangement of the services. Basil had as his goal the streamlining of the services to make them more cohesive and attractive to the faithful, he worked to reform the clergy and improve the moral life of Christians. He wrote a number of new prayers; the most important work attributed to him is the Divine Liturgy of St. Basil, he took as his basis the Liturgy of St. James as it was celebrated at his time in the r
Solemn Mass is the full ceremonial form of the Tridentine Mass, celebrated by a priest with a deacon and a subdeacon, requiring most of the parts of the Mass to be sung, the use of incense. It is called High Mass or Solemn High Mass. However, in the United States the term "High Mass" is used to describe the less elaborate Missa Cantata, which lacks deacon and subdeacon and some of the ceremonies connected with them; this article deals with Solemn Mass as celebrated according to the Tridentine use. These terms distinguish the form in question from that of Missa Cantata; the parts assigned to the deacon and subdeacon are done by priests in vestments proper to those roles. A Solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop has its own particular ceremonies and is referred to as a Solemn Pontifical Mass; the terms "Solemn Mass", "Solemn High Mass" and "High Mass" are often used within Anglo-Catholicism, in which the ceremonial, sometimes the text, are based on those of the Sarum Rite or the Tridentine Mass. Lutherans sometimes use the term "High Mass" to describe a more solemn form of their Divine Service celebrated in a manner similar to that of Roman Catholics.
Examples of similarities include vestments and incense. Lutheran congregations in North America celebrate High Mass more or less, but use the term "Mass". Solemn or High Mass is the full form of Tridentine Mass and elements of the abbreviated forms can be explained only in its light: This high Mass is the norm. Thus, the rubrics of the Ordinary of the Mass always suppose. Low Mass, said by a priest alone with one server, is a shortened and simplified form of the same thing, its ritual can be explained only by a reference to high Mass. For instance, the celebrant goes over to the north side of the altar to read the Gospel, because, the side to which the deacon goes in procession at high Mass. Since its 1970 revision, the Roman Missal no longer categorizes Mass as High or Low, distinguishes Mass only as celebrated with a congregation or with participation by only one minister, as celebrated with or without concelebrating priests, it recommends singing at all Masses, for instance: "Although it is not always necessary to sing all the texts that are of themselves meant to be sung, every care should be taken that singing by the ministers and the people is not absent in celebrations that occur on Sundays and on holy days of obligation".
The distinction between High and Low Mass is observed where the Tridentine form of the Roman Rite continues to be used. The term "High Mass" is sometimes encountered both in Anglican and certain Roman Catholic circles, to describe any Mass celebrated with greater solemnity. In the sacristy, before vesting, all three sacred ministers wash their hands; the sacred ministers recite certain prayers. First, the amice is kissed and placed on top of the head while reciting one of the prayers during vesting, it is tied around the shoulders on top of the cassock. Next the alb is put on; the cincture, a long cloth cord called a girdle, is tied around the waist. The subdeacon completes his vesting by placing the maniple on his left arm, securing it either with pins or with the ribbons or elastic inside, the tunicle over all; the deacon places his stole over his left shoulder and binds it in place, at his right hip, with the cincture or girdle. He puts on the maniple and his dalmatic; the priest celebrant does the same except that he crosses his stole in front of him at the waist, binding it with the girdle or cincture.
After the maniple he puts on a cope. Following the Asperges, the celebrant, assisted by the acolytes, removes the cope and puts on the chasuble; the servers of the Mass and the clergy sitting in the liturgical choir stalls are vested in cassock and surplice or cotta, though in some places acolytes wore simple albs and cinctures instead. Anyone ordained to the subdiaconate or above wears the biretta while sitting. Members of religious orders in habit have on a surplice over the habit. If it is part of their "choir dress", they use the biretta. If not they use
Summorum Pontificum is an apostolic letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued in July 2007, which specified the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may celebrate Mass according to what he called the "Missal promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962", administer most of the sacraments in the form used before the liturgical reforms that followed the Second Vatican Council. The document was dated 7 July 2007 and carried an effective date of 14 September 2007. Pope Benedict released an explanatory letter at the same time; the document superseded the letter Quattuor Abhinc Annos of 1984 and the motu proprio Ecclesia Dei of 1988, which had allowed individual bishops, under certain conditions, to establish places where Mass could be said using the 1962 Missal. It granted greater freedom for priests to use the Tridentine liturgy in its 1962 form, stating that all priests of the Latin rite Church may celebrate Mass with the 1962 Missal privately, it provided that "in parishes where a group of the faithful attached to the previous liturgical tradition stably exists, the parish priest should willingly accede to their requests to celebrate Holy Mass according to the rite of the 1962 Roman Missal" and should "ensure that the good of these members of the faithful is harmonised with the ordinary pastoral care of the parish, under the governance of the bishop".
The Latin Liturgy of the Pontificale Romanum is allowed for the celebration of all the seven Sacraments. In the same article 9, it is allowed for the Roman Breviary to the clergymen ordered in sacris. In his accompanying letter, Pope Benedict explained that his action was aimed at broadly and generously providing for the rituals which nourished the faithful for centuries and at "coming to an interior reconciliation in the heart of the Church" with Traditionalist Catholics in disagreement with the Holy See, such as the members of the Society of St. Pius X, he stated that, while it had first been thought that interest in the Tridentine Mass would disappear with the older generation that had grown up with it, some young persons too have "felt its attraction and found in it a form of encounter with the mystery of the Eucharist suited to them." In view of fears expressed while the document was in preparation, he took pains to emphasize that his decision in no way detracts from the authority of the Second Vatican Council and that, not only for juridical reasons, but because the requisite "degree of liturgical formation and some knowledge of the Latin language" are not found often, the Mass of Paul VI remains the "normal" or "ordinary" form of the Roman Rite Eucharistic liturgy.
As is customary for papal documents, the motu proprio is referred to by its incipit, the opening words of the original text: Summorum Pontificum. "Supreme Pontiff" is a title of the popes, the opening sentence states that it has always been a concern "of the Supreme Pontiffs" that the Church should offer fitting worship to God. Pope Benedict XVI released the document after "much reflection, numerous consultations, prayer." In article 1 of the document, he spoke of "the typical edition of the Roman Missal, promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962", as "never abrogated". In the letter he specified this as "never juridically abrogated". In article 2 he stated that, "in Masses celebrated without a congregation, any Catholic priest of the Latin rite, whether secular or regular, may use either the Roman Missal published in 1962 by Blessed Pope John XXIII or the Roman Missal promulgated in 1970 by Pope Paul VI, may do so on any day, with the exception of the Easter Triduum". For such a celebration with either Missal, the priest needs no permission from the Apostolic See or from his own Ordinary."
In article 4, he said that these Masses celebrated without a congregation "may be attended by members of the lay faithful who spontaneously request to do so, with respect for the requirements of law". Regarding public Masses, the Pope asked parish priests and rectors of churches to permit, at the request of a group of the faithful attached to the previous liturgical tradition stably existing in the parish, celebration of a Tridentine Mass on weekdays, but one such Mass on Sundays and feasts, by a priest, qualified and, not excluded by law, to grant permission if requested "in special circumstances such as marriages, funerals or occasional celebrations, e.g. pilgrimages". Apart from celebration of Mass, Pope Benedict authorised parish priests, to grant, "after careful consideration" and "if advantageous for the good of souls", permission to use the older ritual in the administration of Baptism, Marriage and Anointing of the Sick, he allowed bishops, on the same condition, to use the earlier Pontifical in administering Confirmation, permitted clergy to use the 1962 edition of the Roman Breviary.
Bishops may establish "personal parishes" or appoint chaplains for administering the sacraments according to the old form. The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, whose role the document confirmed, was given authority to ensure observance of the rules laid down in the document. Stable groups of the kind mentioned in article 5 whose parish priest does not grant them their request should inform the diocesan bishop, asked to satisfy their desire. If he does not wish to do so, they should inform the Pontifical Commission, to which a bishop who does not have the means to respond to their wish can have recourse for advice and assistance; the Pope clarified that, as a result of his motu proprio, "the last version of
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of late antiquity. English dictionary definitions of Late Latin date this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, continuing into the 7th century in the Iberian Peninsula; this somewhat ambiguously defined version of Latin was used between the eras of Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about when Classical Latin should end or Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not the same as Vulgar Latin; the latter served as ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains classical in its overall features, depending on the author who uses it; some Late Latin writings are more literary and classical, but others are more inclined to the vernacular. Late Latin is not identical to Christian patristic Latin, used in the theological writings of the early Christian fathers.
While Christian writings used a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote extensively in Late Latin in the early part of the period. Late Latin formed when mercenaries from non-Latin-speaking peoples on the borders of the empire were being subsumed and assimilated in large numbers, the rise of Christianity was introducing a heightened divisiveness in Roman society, creating a greater need for a standard language for communicating between different socioeconomic registers and separated regions of the sprawling empire. A new and more universal speech evolved from the main elements: Classical Latin, Christian Latin, which featured sermo humilis in which the people were to be addressed, all the various dialects of Vulgar Latin; the linguist Antoine Meillet wrote, "Without the exterior appearance of the language being much modified, Latin became in the course of the imperial epoch a new language", and, "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary".
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern concepts. A notice in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of the publication of Andrews' Freund's Lexicon of the Latin Language in 1850 mentions that the dictionary divides Latin into ante-classic, quite classic, Augustan, post-Augustan and post-classic or late Latin, which indicates the term was in professional use by English classicists in the early 19th century. Instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century; the term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel's first edition of History of Roman Literature defined an early period, the Golden Age, the Silver Age and goes on to define other ages first by dynasty and by century. In subsequent editions he subsumed all periods under three headings: the First Period, the Second Period and the Third Period, "the Imperial Age", subdivided into the Silver Age, the 2nd century, Centuries 3–6 together, a recognition of Late Latin, as he sometimes refers to the writings of those times as "late."
Imperial Latin went on into English literature. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin. Politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed. Subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works; the Silver Age was extended the final four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author, its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange. The multi-volume set had many expansions by other authors subsequently; the title varies somewhat. It has been translated by expressions of different meanings.
The uncertainty is understanding what media, "middle", infima, "low", mean in this context. The media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Cange's own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, "writers of the middle age." Cange's Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, dipping into the classical period if a word originated there. Either media et infima Latinitas refers to one age, which must be the middle age covering the entire post-classical range, or it refers to two consecutive periods, infima Latinitas and media Latinitas. Both interpretations have their adherents. In the former case the infimae appears extraneous; the two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, translated into English as "Low Latin". Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero, he has said in the Preface that he rejects the a
Liturgy of Preparation
The Liturgy of Preparation Prothesis or Proskomedia, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist. The Liturgy of Preparation is done before the public part of the Divine Liturgy begins, symbolizes the "hidden years" of Christ's earthly life. Only specific elements may be offered at the Divine Liturgy: The bread used for the Liturgy is referred to as prosphora. A prosphoron is a round loaf of leavened bread baked in two layers to represent the two natures of Christ, it has a square seal on the top side which has inscribed on it a cross and the Greek letters IC XC and NIKA. The portion of the loaf, cut out along this seal is the Lamb, from which all are communicated, therefore must be proportionately large for the number of communicants. Prosphora must be made using only the finest wheat flour, water and yeast, it should be freshly baked and without blemish. The Greeks use one large loaf for the Liturgy of Preparation, with a large round seal on it inscribed not only with the square seal mentioned above, but markings indicating where the portions for the Theotokos, the Ranks, the Living and Dead are removed.
Those churches which follow Slavic usage use five small loaves, recalling the five loaves from which Christ fed the multitude. All are stamped with a small square seal, though special seals for the Theotokos are sometimes used. In all traditions, only the Lamb is consecrated, other portions which are removed from the prosphora are memorials, but are never to be used for Communion; the Wine used must be red grape wine, it must be fermented. Orthodox tend to favor altar wine, somewhat sweet, though this is not a requirement; these elements are referred to collectively as the "Gifts", both before and after the Consecration. The Priest's Service Book states that, before celebrating the Divine Liturgy, the priest must be reconciled to all men, keep his heart from evil thoughts, be fasting since midnight; the same rules apply to the deacon. The beginning of the Liturgy of Preparation should be timed so that it is concluded before the Reader finishes reading the Third Hour and Sixth Hour; the priests and deacons celebrating the liturgy stand together in front of the holy doors of the iconostasis, venerate the icons, say special entrance prayers before they enter into the altar.
At the end of these prayers, they bow to the throne of the bishop who oversees the church, or, if it is a monastery, the abbot, acknowledging the authority of their spiritual superiors, without whose permission they may not celebrate the divine services. They venerate the holy table and put on their vestments. Before putting on each vestment the priest says a prayer drawn from the Psalms, bless the vestment, kiss the cross, sewn onto it; the deacon brings his vestments to the priest to bless and kisses the priest's hand and withdraws to vest, saying the same prayers for the sticharia as the priest and kissing the cross on each vestment. Each subdeacon and server vesting bring his sticharion to the priest for him to bless, kisses the cross on it before vesting. If a bishop is present, the clergy bring their vestments for him to bless before putting them on. After vesting, the priest and deacon wash their hands, saying the Prayer of the Washing of Hands They go to the Prothesis where the Gifts are to be prepared.
If there are several priests concelebrating only one—traditionally, the most junior— celebrates the Proskomedia. Others may assist in taking out particles for the dead. In the Greek traditions all particles are taken from one large prosphoron, stamped with a seal that serves as a template, but in the Slavic traditions there are several prosphora, from which particles are taken as described below; the priest takes a prosphoron and blesses it three times, making the sign of the cross over it with the liturgical spear. Cutting on all four sides of the square seal on the prosphoron, he removes a cube, taking from both layers of the loaf, places it in the center of the diskos, he cuts the underside of the Lamb, making a cross turns the Lamb right side up and pierces it with the spear, saying the words from the Gospel.. The deacon mingles a little water with the wine, poured in the chalice and presents it to the priest for him to bless; the deacon pours the wine and water into the chalice, as the priest says, "Blessed be the union of Thy holy things and and unto the ages of ages.
Amen." Next the priest takes up the second prosphoron, blesses it with the spear, cuts a large, triangular particle from it, which he places on the diskos next to the Lamb in commemoration of the Theotokos. This loaf is sometimes sealed with her monogram. Next, the priest takes up the prosphoron of the Nine Ranks. From this loaf are taken smaller triangular particles in commemoration of the various ranks of saints. There are some differences between the Greek and the Slavic texts as to which particular saints are named, but the intent is that all of the saints are included. Saint John the Forerunner and the Patron Saint of the church or monastery are always named; the number nine was chosen because, the traditional number of the ranks of angels. These nine particles are placed to the left of the Lamb (i.e. to the prie
The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activity reflecting praise, supplication or repentance, it forms a basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Technically liturgy forms a subset of ritual; the word liturgy, sometimes equated in English as "service", refers to a formal ritual, which may or may not be elaborate, enacted by those who understand themselves to be participating in a action with the divine. Not every religious ritual is a liturgy. A daily activity such as the Muslim salah and Jewish synagogue services would be ritual but not liturgy; the word liturgy, derived from the technical term in ancient Greek, which means "work of the people" is a literal translation of the two words "litos ergos" or "public service". In origin it signified the expensive offerings wealthy Greeks made in service to the people, thus to the polis and the state.
Through the leitourgia, the rich carried a financial burden and were correspondingly rewarded with honours and prestige. The leitourgia were assigned by the polis, the State and Roman Empire and became obligatory in the course of the 3rd century A. D; the performance of such supported the patron's standing among the popular at large. The holder of a Hellenic leitourgia was not taxed a specific sum, but was entrusted with a particular ritual, which could be performed with greater or lesser magnificence; the chief sphere remained that of civic religion, embodied in the festivals: M. I. Finley notes "in Demosthenes' day there were at least 97 liturgical appointments in Athens for the festivals, rising to 118 in a Panathenaic year." However groups of rich citizens were assigned to pay for expenses such as civic amenities and payment of warships. Under the Roman Empire, such obligations, known as munera, devolved into a competitive and ruinously expensive burden, avoided when possible; these included a wide range of expenses having to do with civic infrastructure and amenities.
Buddhist liturgy is a formalized service of veneration and worship performed within a Buddhist Sangha community in nearly every traditional denomination and sect in the Buddhist world. It is done once or more times a day and can vary among the Theravada and Vajrayana sects; the liturgy consists of chanting or reciting a sutra or passages from a sutras, a mantra, several gathas. Depending on what practice the practitioner wishes to undertake, it can be done at a temple or at home; the liturgy is always performed in front of an object or objects of veneration and accompanied by offerings of light, incense and food. Jewish liturgy are the prayer recitations; these prayers with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. In general, Jewish men are obligated to pray three times a day within specific time ranges. While, according to the Talmud, women are only required to pray once daily, as they are exempted from obligations that are time dependent. Traditionally, three prayer services are recited daily: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light", Mincha or Minha, the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, Arvit or Maariv, from "nightfall".
Additional prayers: Musaf are recited by Orthodox and Conservative congregations on Shabbat, major Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh. A fifth prayer service, Ne'ila, is recited only on the Day of Atonement. In Christianity, a distinction is made between "liturgical" and "non-liturgical" churches based on how elaborate or antiquated the worship. Others object to this usage, arguing that this terminology obscures the universality of public worship as a religious phenomenon, thus the open or waiting worship of Quakers is liturgical, since the waiting itself until the Holy Spirit moves individuals to speak is a prescribed form of Quaker worship, sometimes referred to as "the liturgy of silence". In Christianity, the term "the liturgy" refers to a standardised order of events observed during a religious service, be it a sacramental service or a service of public prayer. In the Catholic tradition, liturgy is the participation of the people in the work of God, the saving work of Jesus Christ. In the liturgy, Christ continues the work of redemption.
The term "liturgy" in Greek means "work for the people", but a better translation is "public service" or "public work", as made clear from the origin of the term as described above. The early Christians adopted the word to describe their principal act of worship, the Sunday service; this service, liturgy, or ministry is a duty for Christians as a priestly people by their baptism into Christ and participation