Office of Strategic Services

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Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services Insignia.svg
OSS insignia[1]
Agency overview
Formed June 13, 1942
Preceding agency
Dissolved September 20, 1945
Superseding agency
Employees 13,000 estimated[2]
Agency executives

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)[3] to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning. On December 14, 2016, the organization was collectively honored with a Congressional Gold Medal.[4]

Origin[edit]

Prior to the formation of the OSS, the various departments of the executive branch, including the State, Treasury, Navy, and War Departments conducted American intelligence activities on an ad hoc basis, with no overall direction, coordination, or control. The US Army and US Navy had separate code-breaking departments: Signal Intelligence Service and OP-20-G. (A previous code-breaking operation of the State Department, the MI-8, run by Herbert Yardley, had been shut down in 1929 by Secretary of State Henry Stimson, deeming it an inappropriate function for the diplomatic arm, because "gentlemen don't read each other's mail."[5]) The FBI was responsible for domestic security and anti-espionage operations.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt was concerned about American intelligence deficiencies. On the suggestion of William Stephenson, the senior British intelligence officer in the western hemisphere, Roosevelt requested that William J. Donovan draft a plan for an intelligence service based on the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) and Special Operations Executive (SOE). After submitting his work, "Memorandum of Establishment of Service of Strategic Information," Colonel Donovan was appointed "coordinator of information" on July 11, 1941, heading the new organization known as the office of the Coordinator of Information (COI).

William J. Donovan

Thereafter the organization was developed with British assistance; Donovan had responsibilities but no actual powers and the existing US agencies were skeptical if not hostile. Until some months after Pearl Harbor, the bulk of OSS intelligence came from the UK. British Security Coordination (BSC) trained the first OSS agents in Canada, until training stations were set up in the US with guidance from BSC instructors, who also provided information on how the SOE was arranged and managed. The British immediately made available their short-wave broadcasting capabilities to Europe, Africa, and the Far East and provided equipment for agents until American production was established.[6]

The Office of Strategic Services was established by a Presidential military order issued by President Roosevelt on June 13, 1942, to collect and analyze strategic information required by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to conduct special operations not assigned to other agencies. During the war, the OSS supplied policymakers with facts and estimates, but the OSS never had jurisdiction over all foreign intelligence activities. The FBI was left responsible for intelligence work in Latin America, and the Army and Navy continued to develop and rely on their own sources of intelligence.

Activities[edit]

General William J. Donovan reviews Operational Group members in Bethesda, Maryland prior to their departure for China in 1945.
OSS missions and bases in East Asia

For the duration of World War II, the Office of Strategic Services was conducting multiple activities and missions, including collecting intelligence by spying, performing acts of sabotage, waging propaganda war, organizing and coordinating anti-Nazi resistance groups in Europe, and providing military training for anti-Japanese guerrilla movements in Asia, among other things.[7] At the height of its influence during World War II, the OSS employed almost 24,000 people.[8]

From 1943–1945, the OSS played a major role in training Kuomintang troops in China and Burma, and recruited Kachin and other indigenous irregular forces for sabotage as well as guides for Allied forces in Burma fighting the Japanese Army. Among other activities, the OSS helped arm, train, and supply resistance movements in areas occupied by the Axis powers during World War II, including Mao Zedong's Red Army in China (known as the Dixie Mission) and the Viet Minh in French Indochina. OSS officer Archimedes Patti played a central role in OSS operations in French Indochina and met frequently with Ho Chi Minh in 1945.[9]

One of the greatest accomplishments of the OSS during World War II was its penetration of Nazi Germany by OSS operatives. The OSS was responsible for training German and Austrian individuals for missions inside Germany. Some of these agents included exiled communists and Socialist party members, labor activists, anti-Nazi prisoners-of-war, and German and Jewish refugees. The OSS also recruited and ran one of the war's most important spies, the German diplomat Fritz Kolbe.

OSS 1st Lieutenant George Musulin behind enemy lines in German-occupied Serbia, as a Chetnik, during his first mission in November 1943. His second mission was Operation Halyard.

In 1943, the Office of Strategic Services set up operations in Istanbul.[10] Turkey, as a neutral country during the Second World War, was a place where both the Axis and Allied powers had spy networks. The railroads connecting central Asia with Europe, as well as Turkey's close proximity to the Balkan states, placed it at a crossroads of intelligence gathering. The goal of the OSS Istanbul operation called Project Net-1 was to infiltrate and extenuate subversive action in the old Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires.[10]

The head of operations at OSS Istanbul was a banker from Chicago named Lanning "Packy" Macfarland, who maintained a cover story as a banker for the American lend-lease program.[11] Macfarland hired Alfred Schwarz, a Czechoslovakian engineer and businessman who came to be known as "Dogwood" and ended up establishing the Dogwood information chain.[12] Dogwood in turn hired a personal assistant named Walter Arndt and established himself as an employee of the Istanbul Western Electrik Kompani.[12] Through Schwartz and Arndt the OSS was able to infiltrate anti-fascist groups in Austria, Hungary, and Germany. Schwartz was able to convince Romanian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Swiss diplomatic couriers to smuggle American intelligence information into these territories and establish contact with elements antagonistic to the Nazis and their collaborators.[13] Couriers and agents memorized information and produced analytical reports; when they were not able to memorize effectively they recorded information on microfilm and hid it in their shoes or hollowed pencils.[14] Through this process information about the Nazi regime made its way to Macfarland and the OSS in Istanbul and eventually to Washington.

While the OSS "Dogwood-chain" produced a lot of information, its reliability was increasingly questioned by British intelligence. By May 1944, through collaboration between the OSS, British intelligence, Cairo, and Washington, the entire Dogwood-chain was found to be unreliable and dangerous.[14] Planting phony information into the OSS was intended to misdirect the resources of the Allies. Schwartz's Dogwood-chain, which was the largest American intelligence gathering tool in occupied territory, was shortly thereafter shut down.[15]

The OSS purchased Soviet code and cipher material (or Finnish information on them) from émigré Finnish army officers in late 1944. Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Jr., protested that this violated an agreement President Roosevelt made with the Soviet Union not to interfere with Soviet cipher traffic from the United States. General Donovan might have copied the papers before returning them the following January, but there is no record of Arlington Hall receiving them, and CIA and NSA archives have no surviving copies. This codebook was in fact used as part of the Venona decryption effort, which helped uncover large-scale Soviet espionage in North America.[16]

Weapons and gadgets[edit]

OSS T13 Beano Grenade and compass hidden in a button, CIA Museum

The OSS espionage and sabotage operations produced a steady demand for highly specialized equipment.[7] General Donovan invited experts, organized workshops, and funded labs that later formed the core of the Research & Development Branch. Boston chemist Stanley P. Lovell became its first head, and Donovan humorously called him his "Professor Moriarty".[17]:101 Throughout the war years, the OSS Research & Development successfully adapted Allied weapons and espionage equipment, and produced its own line of novel spy tools and gadgets, including silenced pistols, lightweight sub-machine guns, "Beano" grenades that exploded upon impact, explosives disguised as lumps of coal ("Black Joe") or bags of Chinese flour ("Aunt Jemima"), acetone time delay fuses for limpet mines, compasses hidden in uniform buttons, playing cards that concealed maps, a 16mm Kodak camera in the shape of a matchbox, tasteless poison tablets ("K" and "L" pills), and cigarettes laced with tetrahydrocannabinol acetate (an extract of Indian hemp) to induce uncontrollable chattiness.[17][18][19]

The OSS also developed innovative communication equipment such as wiretap gadgets, electronic beacons for locating agents, and the "Joan-Eleanor" portable radio system that made it possible for operatives on the ground to establish secure contact with a plane that was preparing to land or drop cargo. The OSS Research & Development also printed fake German and Japanese-issued identification cards, and various passes, ration cards, and counterfeit money.[20]

On August 28, 1943, Stanley Lovell was asked to make a presentation in front of a not very friendly audience of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, since the U.S. top brass were largely skeptical of all OSS plans beyond collecting military intelligence and were ready to split the OSS between the Army and the Navy.[21]:5–7 While explaining the purpose and mission of his department and introducing various gadgets and tools, he reportedly casually dropped into a waste basket a Hedy, a panic-inducing explosive device in the shape of a firecracker, which shortly produced a loud shrieking sound followed by a deafening boom. The presentation was interrupted and did not resume since everyone in the room fled. In reality, the Hedy, jokingly named after Hollywood movie star Hedy Lamarr for her ability to distract men, later saved the lives of some trapped OSS operatives.[22]:184–185

Not all projects worked. Some ideas were odd, such as producing pathogenic synthetic goat dung in PROJECT Capricious (1942) to spread anthrax by using flies among German troops in Spanish Morocco to prevent Spain from joining the Axis powers. Donovan was not informed about PROJECT Capricious due to its uttermost secrecy; the Germans eventually departed Spain and Operation Capricious was aborted.[23]:150–151 There were also ideas to introduce estrogen into Hitler's food to deprive him of his trademark mustache and—recognizable to all Germans—baritone voice. A more deadly plot included hiding a capsule with mustard gas in flowers to cause blindness among Nazi generals inside the German High Command Headquarters.[23]:149 Stanley Lovell was later quoted saying, "It was my policy to consider any method whatever that might aid the war, however unorthodox or untried".[24]

In 1939, a young physician named Christian J. Lambertsen developed an oxygen rebreather set (the Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit) and demonstrated it to the OSS—after already being rejected by the U.S. Navy—in a pool at a hotel in Washington D.C., in 1942.[25][26] The OSS not only bought into the concept, they hired Lambertsen to lead the program and build up the dive element for the organization.[26] His responsibilities included training and developing methods of combining self-contained diving and swimmer delivery including the Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit for the OSS "Operational Swimmer Group".[25][27] Growing involvement of the OSS with coastal infiltration and water-based sabotage eventually led to creation of the OSS Maritime Unit.

Facilities[edit]

At Camp X, near Whitby, Ontario, an "assassination and elimination" training program was operated by the British Special Operations Executive, assigning exceptional masters in the art of knife-wielding combat, such as William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes, to instruct trainees. Many members of the Office of Strategic Services also were trained there. It was dubbed "the school of mayhem and murder" by George Hunter White who trained at the facility in the 1950s.[28]

From these incipient beginnings, the OSS began to take charge of its own destiny, and opened camps in the United States, and finally abroad. Prince William Forest Park (then known as Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area) was the site of an OSS training camp that operated from 1942 to 1945. Area "C", consisting of approximately 6,000 acres (24 km2), was used extensively for communications training, whereas Area "A" was used for training some of the OGs (Operational Groups).[29] Catoctin Mountain Park, now the location of Camp David, was the site of OSS training Area "B" where the first Special Operations, or SO, were trained.[30] Special Operations was modeled after Great Britain's Special Operations Executive, which included parachute, sabotage, self-defense, weapons, and leadership training to support guerrilla or partisan resistance.[31] Considered most mysterious of all was the "cloak and dagger" Secret Intelligence, or SI branch.[32] Secret Intelligence employed "country estates as schools for introducing recruits into the murky world of espionage. Thus, it established Training Areas E and RTU-11 (“the Farm”) in spacious manor houses with surrounding horse farms." [33] Morale Operations training included psychological warfare and propaganda.[34] The Congressional Country Club (Area F) in Bethesda, Maryland, was the primary OSS training facility. The Facilities of the Catalina Island Marine Institute at Toyon Bay on Santa Catalina Island, Calif., are composed (in part) of a former OSS survival training camp. The National Park Service commissioned a study of OSS National Park training facilities by Professor John Chambers of Rutgers University.[35]

The main OSS training camps abroad were located initially in Great Britain, French Algeria, and Egypt; later as the Allies advanced, a school was established in southern Italy. In the Far East, OSS training facilities were established in India, Ceylon, and then China. The London branch of the OSS, its first overseas facility, was at 70 Grosvenor Street, W1.In addition to training local agents, the overseas OSS schools also provided advanced training and field exercises for graduates of the training camps in the United States and for Americans who enlisted in the OSS in the war zones. The most famous of the latter was Virginia Hall in France.[35]

The OSS's Mediterranean training center in Cairo, Egypt, known to many as the Spy School, was a lavish palace belonging to King Farouk's brother-in-law, called Ras el Kanayas.[36][37] It was modeled after the SOE's training facility STS 102 in Haifa, Palestine.[38] Americans whose heritage stemmed from Italy, Yugoslavia, and Greece were trained at the "Spy School"[39] and also sent for parachute, weapons and commando training, and Morse code and encryption lessons at STS 102.[40][41][42] After completion of their spy training, these agents were sent back on missions to the Balkans and Italy where their accents would not pose a problem for their assimilation.[43][44]

Personnel[edit]

The names of all 13,000 OSS personnel and documents of their OSS service, previously a closely guarded secret, were released by the US National Archives on August 14, 2008. Among the 24,000 names were those of Julia Child, Ralph Bunche, Arthur Goldberg, Saul K. Padover, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Bruce Sundlun, Rene Joyeuse MD and John Ford.[45][8][46] The 750,000 pages in the 35,000 personnel files include applications of people who were not recruited or hired, as well as the service records of those who served.[47]

OSS soldiers were primarily inducted from the United States Armed Forces. Nonetheless, Director William J. Donovan enlisted from the great cadre of men and women that embodied the United States of America. Other members included foreign nationals including displaced individuals from the former czarist Russia, an example being Prince Serge Obolensky.

Donovan sought independent thinkers, and in order to bring together those many intelligent, quick-witted individuals who could think out-of-the box, he cleverly chose them from all walks of life, backgrounds, without distinction to culture or religion. Donovan was quoted as saying, “I’d rather have a young lieutenant with enough guts to disobey a direct order than a colonel too regimented to think for himself.” In a matter of a few short months, he formed an organization which equalled and then rivalled Great Britain's Secret Intelligence Service and its Special Operations Executive.

Major league baseball player Moe Berg of the Boston Red Sox was an OSS agent

One such agent was Ivy league polyglot and Jewish-American baseball catcher Moe Berg, who played 15 seasons in the major leagues. As a Secret Intelligence agent, he was dispatched to seek information on German physicist Werner Heisenberg and his knowledge on the atomic bomb.[48] One of the most highly-decorated and flamboyant OSS soldiers was US Marine Colonel Peter Ortiz. Enlisting early in the war, as a French Foreign Legionnaire, he went on to join the OSS and earn the title of the most highly-decorated US Marine in the OSS during World War II.[49]

Col. Peter Ortiz, USMC

Julia Child, the chef and author of countless cookbooks was a member of the OSS, working directly under General "Wild Bill" Donovan.[50][51][52][53][54][55][56]

Julia Child

"Jumping Joe" Savoldi (code name Sampson) was recruited by the OSS in 1942 because of his hand-to-hand combat and language skills as well as his deep knowledge of the Italian geography and Benito Mussolini's compound. He was assigned to the Special Operations branch and took part in missions in North Africa, Italy, and France during 1943–1945.[57][58][59]

JJ.1943.FacistPartyGiuseppeDeLeo3.tif

One of the forefathers of today's commandos was Navy Lieutenant Jack Taylor. He was sequestered by the OSS early in the war and had a long career behind enemy lines.[60]

Taro and Mitsu Yashima, both Japanese political dissidents who were imprisoned in Japan for protesting its regime, worked for the OSS in psychological warfare against the Japanese Empire.[61][62]

Nisei Linguists

In late 1943, a representative from OSS visited the 442nd Infantry Regiment looking to recruit volunteers willing to undertake "extremely hazardous assignment."[63] All selected were Nisei. The recruits were assigned to OSS Detachments 101 and 202, in the China-Burma-India Theater. "Once deployed, they were to interrogate prisoners, translate documents, monitor radio communications, and conduct covert operations... Detachment 101 and 102’s clandestine operations were extremely successful." [63]

Dissolution into other agencies[edit]

After victory in Europe in May 1945, the OSS was better able to concentrate on operations in Japan. Soon Japan surrendered, ending the Pacific Theater of Operations in World War II.

A month later, on September 20, 1945, President Truman signed Executive Order 9621, terminating the OSS. His Order became effective October 1, 1945. In the days following, the functions of the OSS were split between the Department of State and the Department of War.[64] The State Department received the Research and Analysis Branch of OSS (originally created by Edward Mead Earle[65]) which was renamed the Interim Research and Intelligence Service or IRIS,[66] headed by U.S. Army Colonel Alfred McCormack. Later it was renamed the Bureau of Intelligence and Research by the State Department.

The War Department took over the Secret Intelligence (SI) and Counter-Espionage (X-2) Branches, which were then housed in a new unit created for this purpose—the Strategic Services Unit (SSU). The Secretary of War appointed Brigadier General John Magruder (formerly Donovan's Deputy Director for Intelligence in OSS) as the new SSU director. He oversaw the liquidation of the OSS and managed the institutional preservation of its clandestine intelligence capability.

In January 1946, President Truman created the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), which was the direct precursor to the CIA. SSU assets, which now constituted a streamlined "nucleus" of clandestine intelligence, were transferred to the CIG in mid-1946 and reconstituted as the Office of Special Operations (OSO). The National Security Act of 1947 established the first permanent peacetime intelligence agency in the United States, the Central Intelligence Agency, which then took up OSS functions. The direct descendant of the paramilitary component of the OSS is the CIA Special Activities Division.[67]

Today, the joint-branch United States Special Operations Command, founded in 1987, uses the same spearhead design on its insignia, as homage to its indirect lineage.

Branches[edit]

  • Censorship and Documents
  • Field Experimental Unit
  • Foreign Nationalities
  • Maritime Unit
  • Morale Operations Branch
  • Operational Group Command
  • Research & Analysis
  • Secret Intelligence[68]
  • Security
  • Special Operations
  • Special Projects
  • X-2 (counterespionage)

Detachments[edit]

US Army units attached to the OSS

In popular culture[edit]

Films

Television

  • In 1957-1958 Ron Randell starred in the series O.S.S.[69]
  • In Knight Rider, Devon Miles mentions that he served in OSS during World War II.
  • One of the characters in the 1975 episode of the NBC show Ellery Queen titled The Adventure of Colonel Niven's Memoirs identifies himself as "Major George Pearson, O.S.S."; he offers some Soviet diplomats political asylum.
  • In the Season 6 X-Files episode "Triangle", the woman from the 1939 scenes portrayed by Gillian Anderson as Scully is a member of OSS.
  • In Season 3, episode "Lange, H." of NCIS, Los Angeles, the O.S.S. is mentioned as the predecessor of the C.I.A.
  • In the American animated comedy series Archer the character Malory Archer, (mother of the main character Sterling Archer) is a former O.S.S agent.
  • The 2014 YAP Films documentary for History Channel Canadacalled Camp X: Secret Agent School, portrays the first spy school in North America. OSS agents, their training at Camp X, and their missions behind enemy lines are depicted. It was aired in Canada.
  • The 2014 YAP Films documentary for the Smithsonian Channelcalled World War II Spy Schoolwas aired in the United States and around the world, portraying Camp X and the other training sites overseas, as well as OSS agents and their missions.

Literature

  • The 1976 book A Man Called Intrepid: The Secret War by William Stevenson (Canadian writer) describes the operations of the OSS, particularly the role of Sir William Samuel Stephenson, head of British Security Coordination in New York, in its formation. He also authored a 1986 book entitled Intrepid's Last Case.
  • The 1957 book You're Stepping on My Cloak and Dagger by Roger Wolcott Hall is a witty look at Hall's experiences with the OSS.
  • The 1986 book Camp X by David Stafford is the most accurate account of the activities and personnel of Camp X, the secret agent training camp for sabotage and guerrilla warfare at Ajax near Oshawa Ontario, Canada, that was administered by the British Special Operations Executive.
  • Author W.E.B. Griffin's Honor Bound and Men At War series revolves around fictional OSS operations. Some of his characters in The Corps Series also are recruited by the OSS, notably Ken McCoy, Edward Banning, and Fleming Pickering.
  • A French pulp fiction series OSS 117, by author Jean Bruce, follows the adventure of Hubert Bonisseur de la Bath, alias OSS 117, a French operative working for the OSS. The original series (four or five books a year) lasted from 1949 to 1963, until the death of Jean Bruce, and was continued by his wife and children until 1992. Numerous films were made from it in the 1960s, and in 2006 a nostalgic comedy was made, celebrating the spy movie genre, OSS 117: Cairo, Nest of Spies, with Jean Dujardin playing OSS 117. A sequel followed in 2009 called OSS 117: Lost in Rio (original title in French: OSS 117: Rio Ne Répond Plus).
  • In 1963, former OSS Deputy Director for Special Projects Stanley P. Lovell published a book about the activities of his department titled Of Spies and Stratagems. In it, he recalls how he was recruited by Donovan, who was looking for his own Professor Moriarty; some of the devices Special Projects developed, from the High Standard silent, flashless pistol, to the anti-vehicle bomb codenamed Firefly, to a psychological warfare compound codenamed "Who? Me?"; the OSS's involvement in document forgery and counterfeiting; and hinted at the valor of its agents, which was only then starting to be revealed by the government.
  • The 2004 book Operatives, Spies, and Saboteurs: The Unknown Story of the Men and Women of World War II's OSS by Author Patrick K. O'Donnell. "A revealing look into the intrigue and extraordinary courage of our intelligence gatherers of World War II. A rare combination of suspense thriller and true heroism by a great American writer."—Clive Cussler
  • The 1946 book "Cloak and Dagger: The Secret Story of The Office of Strategic Services" by Corey Ford and Alastair MacBain covers a broad overview of O.S.S. information and includes a chapter about Joe Savoldi titled, "The Saga of Jumping Joe" featuring a basic recounting of a portion of the McGregor Mission.

Comics

Tabletop Roleplaying Games

  • The OSS appears in the backstory of Delta Green. The eponymous organization started as the fictional P4 Division of the Office of Naval Intelligence and in 1942 the ONI transfers the P4 division to the OSS so they can act in the entire Allied theater under the cover of a psychological warfare research division. It is under the OSS that the P4 Division adquires the codename Delta Green.
    • The OSS also is mentioned in Pelgrane Press The Fall of DELTA GREEN. Player Characters can be ex-OSS agents in other agencies such as the CIA, which can be benefitial due the claim and carry authenticity, experience and authority due their past career in the OSS.

Video games

  • In the Wolfenstein series of video games, the main character is a member of a fictional organisation called the OSA (Office of Secret Actions), which is inspired by the OSS.
  • Most games in the Medal of Honor video game franchise feature a fictional OSS agent as the main character.
  • In the 2012 game Sniper Elite V2 and its sequel Sniper Elite III, the protagonist is an OSS agent sniper.
  • In Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (1999), the main female character, Sophia Hapgood, is an OSS (later CIA) agent.

In "Call of Duty: World at War" (2008), Dr. Peter McCain is an OSS spy.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Paulson, Alan (1995). "Required reading: OSS Weapons". Fighting Firearms. 3 (2): 20–21, 80–81. 
  • Brunner, John (1991). OSS Crossbows. Phillips Publications. ISBN 0932572154. 
  • Brunner, John (2005). OSS Weapons II. Phillips Publications. ISBN 978-0932572431. 

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Dawidoff, p. 240
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  11. ^ Hassell and MacRae, p.159
  12. ^ a b Hassell and MacRae, p.166
  13. ^ Hassell and MacRae, p.167
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  49. ^ Lieutenant Colonel Harry W. Edwards. "A Different War: Marines in Europe and North Africa" (PDF). USMC Training and Education Command. Retrieved October 3, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Julia Child Dished Out ... Spy Secrets?". ABC. 2008-08-14. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
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  58. ^ Cloak and Dagger: The Secret Story of the Office of Strategic Services Chapter IX "The Saga of Jumping Joe" page 150
  59. ^ Wild Bill Donovan: The Last Hero by Anthony Cave Brown page 352 and Savoldi's personal notes from July 8–16, 1943 (now in the possession of family members.)
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  65. ^ An American Renaissance: Princeton After the War[permanent dead link] By Ulrich Raulff, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, January 14, 2015 " Edward Mead Earle, had played another prominent role during the war. Earle had participated in the establishment of the Department of Research and Analysis of the Office of Strategic Services."
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  69. ^ O.S.S on IMDb

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External links[edit]