An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers and naval ships and submarines commanded by officers. For example, 13.9% of British Army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the British Army had a larger total number of officers. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries such as the United States require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning when accessed from the enlisted ranks. Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning, although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates.
In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel and beyond. The IDF sponsors the studies for its officers in the rank major, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as direct entry or DE officers; the third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers.
The first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training. Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers; the Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are considered commanding officers under presidential authority. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include U. S. Navy and Coast Guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se.
These enlisted naval personnel with authority are referred to as officers-in-charge rather than commanding officers. Commissioned officers in the Armed Forces of the United States come from a variety of accessions sources: United States Military Academy United States Naval Academy United States Air Force Academy United States Coast Guard Academy (commissions Ensigns in the U
The Black Cat Track or Trail is a rough overland track in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. It runs from the village of Salamaua on the coast of the Huon Gulf, south into the mountains to the township of Wau. In the 21st century despite being a difficult journey it became a hiking destination for international trekkers; the name is taken from the Black Cat Gold Mine in Wau. It is known as the Skindawai Track; the track started out in the 1920s and 30s as a trail for prospectors seeking to get rich on the gold in Wau. They traveled from the port Salamaua on a treacherous 3 to 4-day hike through leech-infested territory, a trail, described as "suitable only for masochists and Israeli Paratroopers". Before Errol Flynn became an actor in 1933, he hiked this trail and commented that it was a rigorous march through leech-infested jungle, in constant fear of ambush, lying awake at night wondering "whether that crawly sound you heard a few feet away might be a snake, a cassowary or maybe only a wild boar razorback...
I have seen Central Africa, but it was never anything like the jungle of New Guinea." On 8 March 1942 in World War II, the town of Salamaua was captured by the Japanese. They were defeated in the Battle of the Coral Sea. Now they were going to take it by land, they tried to take the capital by going over the Owen Stanley mountain range, by the Kokoda Track, basing the operation out of Salamaua. They made it this time but were pushed back 30 miles short of the city, in a series of bloody battles. After this they converted Salamaua into a major supply base. After a few months had passed, they made their final attempt at the Black Cat Trail. If they could capture the Allied Air Base in Wau, they could launch an offensive on the capital that would have overwhelmed the Australians and Papua New Guinea Militia stationed there; the Japanese attacked in force, but the Australian 17th Brigade, under Major-General Stanley Savige, held out until reinforcements arrived. On 23 April, the allies struck back along the trail, taking it until the hills called The Pimple, Observation Hill.
The Japanese were entrenched there. The 2/7th attacked The Pimple, with mortar support, after it had been strafed by four aircraft, but the Japanese were too entrenched, the Australian advance was halted; the next day, they attacked again, supported by aircraft and the 1st mountain battery, limited to fifty rounds a gun, but again the attack failed. On 7 May, they again were driven back. On 9 May, the Japanese launched their own attack in the Pimple area, they started closing in. The Australians were not relieved until the afternoon of 11 May. By this time they had withstood eight attacks from parts of two Japanese battalions; the following day, they took The Pimple, supported by field guns, where before there had been only two mountain batteries. The 2/3rd battalion had been pressing along while the 2/7th tried to take The Pimple, in early May, they came to the Bobdubi Ridge. Seeing that it was only held, they attacked it, captured it on 4 May, they held off all Japanese trying to retake it. From Bobdubi, the 2/3rd battalion harassed the Japanese.
Their tactics were so successful that Major-General Savige had to tell them not to attempt too much, as "premature commitments in the Salamaua area could not be backed at present by an adequate force." On 14 May, the Japanese launched a full-scale attack, supported by guns and mortars, forcing the Australians to withdraw. On the 15th, over 100 Japanese planes attacked Australian positions in three raids, on the 17th and 18th they raided the Wau airdrome. In late May the 2/6th battalion arrived to relieve the 2/7th, the 15th brigade headquarters and another battalion of that brigade started arriving in Savige's area. In mid June, the allies started acting as if they were going to attack Salamaua, but the target was Lae, on the other side of the Huon Gulf; the Japanese fell for this and on the 19th and 20th, they seemed to anticipate an attack, started patrolling aggressively. The plan worked as planned. On 26 August, General Milford relieved Savige, with his 5th division headquarters. Salamaua was captured on 11 September 1943.
Five days Lae was taken. The Black Cat Track is a tough course recommended only for "very fit and experienced trekkers". On 10 September 2013 a trekking expedition was attacked by bandits known as Rascals. Two expedition porters were killed in the attack, another died from the effects of wounds inflicted during the attack. Six people were arrested; the expedition's porters were targeted much more than the international trekkers, the attack is believed to have been caused by a grudge related to money and the hiring of porters from different villages along the trekking route. Black Cat The Barbarians - A Soldier's New Guinea Diary by Peter Pinney, 2nd edit 2008 publ. by lulu.com ISBN 978-1-84799-605-3 3rd. Australian Division AASC
Bankelal is a fictional comic book character, that appears in comic books published by Raj Comics. He is a satirical character presented as a medieval "Hasya Samrat"; the series is humorous, though incorporates elements of fantasy and horror. In 2016, BBC reported Bankelal among the four most sold comics in India. Raj Comics declared that Bankelal will be among the four comics characters whose animated movies will be released. In 2014, Navbharat Times listed Bankelal among the top 10 comics without which the summers of Indian children were incomplete. Bankelal was created by Jitendra Bedi, first appeared in 1987 in the comic book'Bankelal Ka Kamaal'. According to the book, he is the son of a farmer named'Nanku', his mother's name was'Gulabati'. The couple did not have any children. Gulabati was a devotee of Lord'Shiva' and a child was offered to them as a blessing from the Lord, they named the child Bankelal. He conspires to do evil against king Vikram Singh, but his conspiracies end up helping Singh, to humorous effect.
Most of the stories of the series are of only one issue. Most issues start with Bankelal knowing a secret or something which he may use to kill king Vikram Singh and usurp the throne. Story develops further with the involvement of sages, Devi-Devtas and Rakshas, each of whom comes with incredible humorous twist to the story. In the end all the trickeries of Bankelal fail and Vikram Singh gets a lot of favor rather than harm. Though there are some issues that are linked to each other like series in which Bankelal and Vikram Singh travel to different lokas; this series includes issues such as Bankelal Tataiyalok Me, Kankaallok Me, Dev Lok Me, Sarplok Me, Vanarlok Me. One day Lord Shiva visited Bankelal's home with his consort Parvati, his mother offered them a glass of milk unaware that her naughty child had put a frog in the milk! When Lord Shiva discovered this he put a curse on Bankelal that if Bankelal tried to harm anybody, the person would be blessed with good results and some part of that would be'rubbed' on to Bankelal.
Bankelal seems stupid but he possesses a mind of devil, always planning mischief. But due to the"blessed" curse placed on him, every bad that he wants to do turns out to be good, turning the odds in his favour. Other than that, he has nothing, not a good face, only a silly Charlie Chaplin styled moustache and his two bucked teeth coming out when he screams or when he laughs; the good thing is that his every misdeed acts as a funny tickle bone for the readers. Rani Swarnalata. Wife of maharaj Vikram Singh. Bankelal has a horse named Chetak, another funny character in comics series; some notable guest appearances in Bankelal series includes Bhokal. Bankelal considers Raja Vikram Singh as his arch enemy. Bankelal always tries to become the king of Vishalgarh. Mohak Singh, the prince of Vishalgarh is quite aware of his evil plans. Other courtiers are jealous of Bankelal's popularity; these include Prabandh Mantri and many others. Some nearby princely states of Vishalgarh find it hard to kill Vikram Singh until Bankelal is with him.