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Officer cadet

Officer cadet is a rank held by military cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. In the United Kingdom, the rank is used by members of University Royal Naval Units, University Officer Training Corps and University Air Squadron however these are not trainee officers and most do not join the armed forces; the term officer trainee is used interchangeably in some countries. The Australian Defence Force follows the same usage as the British military system, using the rank of officer cadet, for personnel undergoing initial officer training. Unlike midshipmen in the Royal Australian Navy who hold a commission, officer cadets in the Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force do not yet hold a permanent commission, are not saluted or referred to as "sir" or "ma'am", they do however hold probationary commissions. Officer cadets in the Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force are subordinate to warrant officers and officers and address them as "sir" or "ma'am"; as officer cadets are appointed to their positions, they are technically superior to some other ranks, although they will not have direct subordinates.

Initial officer training can occur through either single-service institutions, such as the Royal Military College, Royal Australian Naval College, or the Officers Training School RAAF, or through the tri-service Australian Defence Force Academy. The ranks of officer cadet, staff cadet, midshipman are found at these establishments. However, RAAF officer trainees are appointed to a higher rank while undergoing their initial training course at OTS if they have prior military experience, either as officer cadets prior to their initial officer course, or at airman rank. Officer cadets are appointed to the Australian Army Reserve where training is conducted on a part-time basis at various University Regiments around the country. Australian Army Reserve officer cadets must pass various training courses throughout their training with the final module completed at the Royal Military College, Duntroon before being commissioned. At ADFA, upon completion of all academic training through the "UNSW@ADFA", military training and subsequent training at other military establishments, officer cadets from the RAAF are promoted to a higher junior officer rank, while those from the Australian Army spend another year at the Royal Military College, Duntroon before being commissioned.

Pilots, air traffic controllers and air combat officers joining the RAAF directly through the Officers' Training School start their career as an officer cadet. Once they have completed their employment training, they are promoted; this will change however, as of May 2018, where all graduates from OTS will graduate with a minimum rank of PLTOFF. This will mean. In the Canadian Forces, the appointment of officer cadet, or élève-officier in French, is held by beginning officers, as well as students attending the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec or a civilian university through the Regular Officer Training Plan. Officer cadets may sometimes hold a staff or line appointments within a unit, such as second-in-command of a platoon within a company-sized or larger unit; this is done for work experience purposes, in such roles, the officer cadet holds the same command authority as the position they hold. Some officer cadets, who are going through ROTP, are qualified in their military trade.

However, those officers are ineligible to receive a commission until holding a university degree. For Royal Canadian Navy members of the same rank, naval cadet, or aspirant de marine in French, is used in lieu of officer cadet. Officer cadets and naval cadets are referred to and addressed as "Mister Smith" or "Miss Smith", or more formally as "Officer Cadet Smith" or "Naval Cadet Smith". There is a tendency in less cordial environments to refer to an officer cadet as "OC Smith". However, rare. Officer cadets are addressed as "mister" or "miss" by commissioned officers and some senior non-commissioned officers. In non-training environments, such as a base or wing, they are referred to as "sir" or "ma'am" by non-commissioned members. Officer cadets and naval cadets in the CF are subordinate officers, but billet or mess with other officers, they do not carry the Queen's commission, as such are not required to be saluted by enlisted CF members. The rank insignia for the Royal Canadian Navy is a narrow gold braid and a narrow braid for the Royal Canadian Air Force, worn on the cuff of the distinctive environmental uniform jacket, on the epaulettes of all other uniforms.

This gives rise to the somewhat derogatory term'quarter-inch admiral' as a term for cadets who try to insist that they are superior in rank to other members. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is one pip over a white band; the peak of the service cap is plain. In the French Armed Forces, the posting, named « élève officer » or'student officer' in French, is given to officers in training in their first months of education, they are promoted to the rank of aspirant or officer candidate. While both positions are quite comparable, aspirant is an actual rank, meaning the officer-in-training can held effective authority

Patricia M. Shields

Patricia M. Shields is a Professor of Political Science and Public Administration at Texas State University. In 2001 she began her tenure as Editor-in-Chief of the international and interdisciplinary journal Armed Forces & Society, she is a Contributing Editor to Parameters: The US Army War College Quarterly. Patricia M. Shields is notable for her publications focusing on research methods, civil military relations, gender issues, pragmatism in public administration, peace studies, the contributions of Jane Addams to public administration and peace theory, she received a BA in Economics from the University of Maryland - College Park, an MA in Economics and a PhD in Public Administration from The Ohio State University. For more information see ORCID ID: Patricia M. Shields is most known as a scholar for promoting the classical pragmatism of C. S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey as an "organizing principle" for the discipline of public administration, her publication, "The Community of inquiry: Classical Pragmatism and Public Administration", began an ongoing, interdisciplinary, academic debate in the journal Administration & Society.

She applies the feminist pragmatism of Jane Addams to Public Administration. Shields is notable in the public administration community for utilizing pragmatism to advance research methodology in the field. For example, Shields is responsible in part for popularizing Dewey's notion of the working hypothesis as a method of preliminary, exploratory research, in addition to the concept of the practical ideal type for program evaluation, she received recognition by the American Society for Public Administration, the Section for Women in Public Administration with the Rita Mae Kelly Award for her contribution to gender studies in public administration, National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration with the Leslie A. Whittington Award for excellence in teaching research methods, the Inter-University Seminar for Armed and Society with the Morris Janowitz Career Achievement Award and the journal Public Administration Review with the Laverne Burchfield Award. Texas State University has recognized her with the Presidential Seminar Award, The Presidential Award for Excellence in Teaching and the Everett Swinney Faculty Senate Excellence in Teaching Award


The Ljubljanica, known in the Middle Ages as the Sava, is a river in the southern part of the Ljubljana Basin in Slovenia. The capital of Slovenia, lies on the river; the Ljubljanica rises south of the town of Vrhnika and flows into the Sava River about 10 kilometres downstream from Ljubljana. Its largest affluent is the Mali Graben Canal. Including its source affluent the Little Ljubljanica, the river is 41 km in length; the Little Ljubljanica joins the Big Ljubljanica after 1,300 m and the river continues its course as the Ljubljanica. The Ljubljanica is the continuation of several karst rivers that flow from the Prezid Karst Field to Vrhnika on the surface and underground in caves, so the river is poetically said to have seven names: Trbuhovica, Stržen, Pivka and Ljubljanica; the Ljubljanica has become a popular site for archaeologists and treasure hunters to dive for lost relics and artifacts. Locations in the river between Ljubljana and Vrhnika have offered up pieces of history from the Stone Age to the Renaissance, belonging to a variety of groups, from local ancient cultures to more well-known groups like the Romans and the Celts.

One of the more significant findings is a yew spearhead, found in 2009 in Sinja Gorica. It has been dated to about 35,000 to 45,000 before present, the Szeletien period, supplements the scant data about the presence of Stone Age hunters in the Ljubljana Marshes area. Why the Ljubljanica became an article dumping ground is unknown, but most historians believe that it is related to how local tradition has always held the river as a sacred place; these treasures may have been offered "to the river during rites of passage, in mourning, or as thanksgiving for battles won." The Ljubljanica has become a popular attraction in Europe for treasure hunters. This has created an ethical debate between international treasure seekers, it is believed that the river has offered up between 10,000 and 13,000 objects, of which many have been lost to the public. Many pieces have been sold into private collections, or are hidden away by the original treasure hunters. In 2003, to help curb this trend, Slovenia's national parliament declared the river a site of cultural importance and banned diving in it without a permit.

Ljubljanica Sluice Gate Condition of Ljubljanica - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days

Battle of Sunset Pass

The Battle of Sunset Pass was fought in November 1874 during the Yavapai War. Following the theft of livestock by a band of Tonto Apaches, a troop of United States Army soldiers was dispatched to track the natives and recover the stolen property; the Americans found the raiders at Sunset Pass, in Coconino County, where a small skirmish ensued. In October 1874 a Tonto band stole some livestock from a settler in the Tonto Basin so on the morning of November 1, 1874 about forty men of the 5th Cavalry, including some Apache scouts, left Camp Verde to pursue the hostiles; the patrol reached Sunset Pass, near the Little Colorado River, that same day so the commander, First Lieutenant Charles King, decided that the spot would be a good place to make camp for the night. However, shortly after the Americans stopped, King took a few men with him on a hike up a nearby mesa in order to have a better view of the surrounding terrain. Unbeknown to King, the Tontos he was looking for were waiting to ambush the party while they climbed up the mesa.

King and his men were about a half a mile away from camp when a volley or arrows and bullets was fired from the Tontos hiding behind rocks and boulders. King was badly wounded within the first few minutes of the fight, having been hit in the head twice by arrows and one by a bullet to his right arm. Under a heavy enemy fire, Sergeant Bernard Taylor raced forward and rescued King, unconscious. Sergeant Taylor carried the wounded King all the way back to camp. By which time the remainder of the patrol moved in to engage. Second Lieutenant George O. Eaton assumed command at that point and he fought the Apaches for some time before disengaging. In the end, King's probe was regarded as a failure though Sergeant Taylor, George Deary, Rudolph von Medem received the Medal of Honor for their conduct in this battle and other engagements; because the pursuit of the Tonto Apaches failed, the garrison of Camp Verde launched another expedition on November 17 of 1874. In it, Second Lieutenant Eaton led a detachment of the 5th Cavalry, accompanied by the famous frontiersman Al Sieber and his Apache scouts.

The expedition first headed east from Camp Verde along West Clear Creek before heading northeast above the Mogollon Rim. Several days on November 24, Eaton and his command encountered a patrol under Captain Robert H. Montgomery, patrolling farther to the east. Though Eaton had no orders to proceed further east, he continued on and found the Apache's trail which Captain Montgomery had missed; the expedition followed the trail and two hours before sunset they found the hostiles. Another skirmish ensued and it resulted in the deaths of two warriors and the capture of six women and children, the Americans suffered no casualties; as for First Lieutenant King, he became a captain only to retire from the regular army shortly afterwards, due to his wounds sustained at Sunset Pass. King became a well known novelist before volunteering to fight in the War of 1898 and the Philippine–American War as a general. One of King's works was the book Sunset Pass, published in 1890. Michno, F. Gregory. Encyclopedia of Indian wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890.

Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9


Moscow-850 is a Ferris wheel in the amusement park "Moscow-850" on the territory of VDNKh, built for the 850th anniversary of Moscow and dismantled in 2016. Moscow-850 had a diameter of 70 metres and an overall height of 73 metres, made a full turn in 7 minutes, was equipped with 40 cabins, accommodating 8 people each. At the time of its construction, Moscow-850 was the tallest extant Ferris wheel in Europe, but in 1999 it was surpassed by the 90-metre Eurowheel at Mirabilandia, Italy. Moscow-850 was the tallest Ferris wheel in Russia until an 80-metre wheel opened in Lazarevskoye, near Sochi, in 2012; the wheel was designed by an engineer Vladimir Gnezdilov on the initiative of the Moscow mayor's office and installed in 1995 by the group of companies "Mir" which belonged to Gnezdilov. According to Gnezdilov, in 1994 he received an offer to develop the abandoned area of the territory of VDNKh and presented a project of an amusement park with attractions, the opening of, symbolically timed to the forthcoming celebration of the 850th anniversary of Moscow.

The project was discussed at the level of the city government and the Mayor Yuri Luzhkov suggested that the Ferris wheel would be the highest in Europe. In 1994, Gnezdilov concluded a land lease contract with VDNKh of 6 hectares for 49 years. In 1995 the park began to work, the wheel was launched for the celebration of the day of the city. In 2010, a conflict arose between the management of VDNKh. In numerous legal disputes Gnezdilov argued that because of the changes in land legislation in 1999, the tenant and landlord were asked to re-register the lease, but VDNKh refused to provide the necessary documents, why Rosregistration refused to register the contract. Formally, the contract did not come into force, but the tenant continued to pay rent and conduct business. In accordance with the position of VDNKh, without a valid agreement, the tenant was obliged to vacate the occupied territory. For three times due to a malfunction there were stops of attractions in the park "Moscow-850": the wheel stopped in 2009 and 2013, in 2015 the roller coaster "Cobra" stopped while trolleys were passing through a "dead loop" with 4 passengers in them.

This incident gave VDNKh an occasion to publicly announce the danger of using attractions. In June 2015, the Moscow Arbitration Court granted the suit of VDNKh about the termination of the lease. "Russian Exhibition of Attractions" tried to challenge the decision in the Ninth Arbitration Court, lodged an appeal with the Arbitration Court of the Moscow District, which on February 3, 2016 considered the complaint and left the decision of the first and second instance courts in force. The dismantling of attractions began in March, the wheel was dismantled on July 7, 2016; the concept of development of the united territory of the VDNKh, the Botanical Garden and the Ostankino Park, developed in 2015, supposes the construction of a new 135-140 meter high Ferris wheel in the Park of the Future, which will occupy the southern part of the present VDNKh territory. Cafeterias, souvenir shops and a branch of the Madame Tussauds are planned to be located in stylobate of the new Ferris wheel; the group of companies "Regions" will invest in the construction.

Official website Carnival Rides Shut Down at Moscow Park VDNKh Amid Ongoing Dispute

Olivella columellaris

Olivella columellaris is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Olivellidae, the dwarf olives. With the similar Olivella semistriata it forms the subgenus Pachyoliva. Both species are suspension feeders, they use unique appendages of the propodium to deploy mucus nets which capture suspended particles from the backwash on sandy beaches of the tropical eastern Pacific. Shell of oval shape, with low and blunt spire and a large body whorl; the shell is shiny. The suture is open; the aperture is elongate. The inner lip is covered by thick parietal callus that in mature animals extends beyond the aperture to the suture, where it may form a knob causing a pronounced kink in the outline of the shell in apertural view. Lirae on the inner lip are lacking; the ground color is a dark brown or olive with a varying number of lighter or darker fading bands. The fasciolar band is brownish gray to white. A chitinous operculum is present; the living animal is brownish gray with characteristic dark marks on the propodium, the front part of the foot.

It lacks cephalic eyes. As in all Olivellidae and the related Olividae, the propodium is separated by a pronounced groove from the main foot, the metapodium. In O. columellaris, the lateral tips of the propodium are extended and function in suspension feeding. The propodium is further divided into a right half; the mouth opening which can be everted on a proboscis, is located on the dorsal face of the foot between the left and right lobes of the propodium. The species is distributed along the American west coast from Nicaragua to Peru, according to the older literature; the assumption of such a wide distribution range, seems due to the fact that small individuals cannot be distinguished from small specimens of the more northerly distributed Olivella semistriata, to the resulting misidentifications in museum collections and in the scientific literature. To date it appears unclear whether O. columellaris occurs north of Ecuador