Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, debts and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance have changed over time. In law, an heir is a person, entitled to receive a share of the deceased's property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased died or owned property at the time of death; the inheritance may be either under the terms of a will or by intestate laws if the deceased had no will. However, the will must comply with the laws of the jurisdiction at the time it was created or it will be declared invalid and the intestate laws apply. A person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. Members of ruling noble or royal houses who are expected to become heirs are called heirs apparent if first in line and incapable of being displaced from inheriting by another claim. There is a further concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one, called coparceny.
In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate. Takers in property succeeded to under a will are termed beneficiaries, devisees for real property, bequestees for personal property, or legatees for money. Except in some jurisdictions where a person cannot be disinherited, a person who would be an heir under intestate laws may be disinherited under the terms of a will. Detailed anthropological and sociological studies have been made about customs of patrilineal inheritance, where only male children can inherit; some cultures employ matrilineal succession, where property can only pass along the female line, most going to the sister's sons of the decedent. Some ancient societies and most modern states employ egalitarian inheritance, without discrimination based on gender and/or birth order; the inheritance is patrilineal. The father —that is, the owner of the land— bequeaths only to his male descendants, so the Promised Land passes from one Jewish father to his sons.
If there were no living sons and no descendants of any living sons, daughters inherit. In Numbers 27:1-4, the daughters of Zelophehad of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and ask for their father's inheritance, as they have no brothers; the order of inheritance is set out in Numbers 27:7-11: a man's sons inherit first, daughters if no sons, brothers if he has no children, so on. In Numbers 36, some of the heads of the families of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and point out that, if a daughter inherits and marries a man not from her paternal tribe, her land will pass from her birth-tribe's inheritance into her marriage-tribe's. So a further rule is laid down: if a daughter inherits land, she must marry someone within her father's tribe; the tractate Baba Bathra, written during late Antiquity in Babylon, deals extensively with issues of property ownership and inheritance according to Jewish Law. Other works of Rabbinical Law, such as the Hilkhot naḥalot: mi-sefer Mishneh Torah leha-Rambam, the Sefer ha-yerushot: ʻim yeter ha-mikhtavim be-divre ha-halakhah be-ʻAravit uve-ʻIvrit uve-Aramit deal with inheritance issues.
The first abbreviated to Mishneh Torah, was written by Maimonides and was important in Jewish tradition. All these sources agree that the firstborn son is entitled to a double portion of his father's estate: Deuteronomy 21:17; this means that, for example, if a father left five sons, the firstborn receives a third of the estate and each of the other four receives a sixth. If he left nine sons, the firstborn receives each of the other eight receive a tenth. If the eldest surviving son is not the firstborn son, he is not entitled to the double portion. Philo of Alexandria and Josephus comment on the Jewish laws of inheritance, praising them above other law codes of their time, they agreed that the firstborn son must receive a double portion of his father's estate. The New Testament does not mention anything about inheritance rights: the only story mentioning inheritance is that of the Prodigal Son, but that involved the father voluntarily passing his estate to his two sons prior to his death; the topic is not discussed among doctrinal statements of various denominations or sects, leaving that to be a matter of secular concern.
The Quran introduced a number of different rights and restrictions on matters of inheritance, including general improvements to the treatment of women and family life compared to the pre-Islamic societies that existed in the Arabian Peninsula at the time. Furthermore, the Quran introduced additional heirs that were not entitled to inheritance in pre-Islamic times, mentioning nine relatives of which six were female and three wer
An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone who performs ceremonial duties such as lighting altar candles. In others, the term is used for one, inducted into a particular liturgical ministry when not performing those duties; the word acolyte is derived from the Greek word ἀκόλουθος, meaning an attendant, via Late Latin acolythus. In the Eastern Catholic Churches and the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the nearest equivalent of acolyte is the altar server. At one time there was a rank of minor clergy called the taper-bearer responsible for bearing lights during processions and liturgical entrances. However, this rank has long ago been subsumed by that of the reader and the service for the tonsure of a reader begins with the setting-aside of a taper-bearer; the functions of an acolyte or taper-bearer are therefore carried out by readers, subdeacons, or by non-tonsured men or boys who are sometimes called "acolytes" informally.
The term "altar-boys" is used to refer to young altar servers. Subdeacons crossed orarion. In recent times, however, in many of the North American Greek Orthodox Churches, for the sake of uniformity, readers have been permitted to wear the orarion. Readers do not cross the orarion while wearing it, the uncrossed orarion being intended to distinguish a reader from a subdeacon. In the Russian tradition, readers wear only the sticharion, do not wear the orarion unless they have been specially blessed to by their bishop. If a server has not been tonsured, he must remove the sticharion before he can receive Holy Communion; until 1972, the highest of the four minor orders in the Latin Church was that of acolyte. By his motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972, Pope Paul VI replaced the term "minor orders" by that of "ministries" and the term "ordination" by "institution", he kept throughout the Latin Church two instituted ministries, those of reader and acolyte. A prescribed interval, as decided by the Holy See and the national episcopal conference, is to be observed between receiving the two.
Candidates for diaconate and for priesthood must receive both ministries and exercise them for some time before receiving holy orders. The two instituted ministries are not reserved for candidates for holy orders, but can be conferred only on men. Ministries are conferred by the ordinary: either a bishop or the head of a similar territory or, in the case of clerical religious institutes, a major superior. Institutions of acolytes not preparing for holy orders are in fact sometimes carried out; the motu proprio assigned to the instituted acolyte the functions reserved for the subdeacon, declared national episcopal conferences free to use the term "subdeacon" in place of that of "acolyte". The functions of the instituted acolyte are specified in the motu proprio, have been indicated in the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, no. 98, which under the heading, "The Ministry of the Instituted Acolyte and Lector", says: "The acolyte is instituted to serve at the altar and to assist the priest and deacon.
In particular, it is his responsibility to prepare the altar and the sacred vessels and, if it is necessary, as an extraordinary minister, to distribute the Eucharist to the faithful. In the ministry of the altar, the acolyte has his own functions, which he must perform personally."The General Instruction of the Roman Missal adds: "In the absence of an instituted acolyte, lay ministers may be deputed to serve at the altar and assist the priest and the deacon. However, some functions, in particular that of cleansing the Eucharistic vessels, are reserved for an instituted acolyte and are not entrusted to those deputed to assist in that way; as in other churches, in the Latin Church the term "acolyte" is used of altar servers on whom no ordination or institution has been conferred. Pope Benedict XVI spoke of Saint Tarcisius as "presumably an acolyte, that is, an altar server". In Anglican churches – such as the Church of England, the Episcopal Church of the United States, the Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church – altar servers are called acolytes and can be of either sex and any age.
An acolyte can assist in worship by carrying a processional cross, lighting candles, holding the Gospel book, holding candles or "torches", assisting a deacon or priest set up and clean up at the altar, swinging a censer or thurible or carrying the incense boat, handing the offering plates to ushers, many other tasks as seen fit by the priest or acolyte warden. In Anglo-Catholic churches acolytes wear cassock and cotta, in less Anglo-Catholic churches cassock-alb with girdle or cincture. Both cincture and girdle can be a twisted rope with knots on the ends, secured round the waist. A cincture may be a band of cloth worn across the waist. Wearing crosses or other special pins or symbols is the prerogative of the individual church. In some more'traditional' parishes, the acolytes are ranked as they develop their abilities to serve: Trainees, Junior Acolytes, Senior Acolytes, Acolytes of Merit. In others, the functions of acolytes
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church, the Church of the East are termed patriarchs. The word is derived from Greek πατριάρχης, meaning "chief or father of a family", a compound of πατριά, meaning "family", ἄρχειν, meaning "to rule". A patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family; the system of such rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. A patriarch has been the logical choice to act as ethnarch of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed; the term developed an ecclesiastical meaning, within the Christian Church. The office and the ecclesiastical circumscription of a Christian patriarch is termed a patriarchate. Abraham and Jacob are referred to as the three patriarchs of the people of Israel, the period during which they lived is termed the Patriarchal Age; the word patriarch acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint version of the Bible.
In the Catholic Church, the bishop, head of a particular autonomous Church, known in canon law as a Church sui iuris, is ordinarily a patriarch, though this responsibility can be entrusted to a Major Archbishop, Metropolitan, or other prelate for a number of serious reasons. Since the Council of Nicaea, the bishop of Rome has been recognized as the first among patriarchs; that Council designated three bishops with this'supra-Metropolitan' title: Rome and Antioch. In the Pentarchy formulated by Justinian I, the emperor assigned as a patriarchate to the Bishop of Rome the whole of Christianized Europe, except for the region of Thrace, the areas near Constantinople, along the coast of the Black Sea, he included in this patriarchate the western part of North Africa. The jurisdictions of the other patriarchates extended over Roman Asia, the rest of Africa. Justinian's system was given formal ecclesiastical recognition by the Quinisext Council of 692, which the see of Rome has, not recognized. There were at the time bishops of other apostolic sees that operated with patriarchal authority beyond the borders of the Roman Empire, such as the Catholicos of Selucia-Ctesephon.
Today, the patriarchal heads of Catholic autonomous churches are: The Bishop of Rome, as head of the Latin Catholic Church The Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia and head of the Armenian Catholic Church, formed 1740, recognised 1742 The Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Babylon and head of the Chaldean Catholic Church, formed 1552, recognised 1553 The Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria and head of the Coptic Catholic Church, established 1824 The Maronite Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East and head of the Maronite Catholic Church, established 685 The Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, head of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. However, differences exist in the mode of accession. Whereas the election of a major archbishop has to be confirmed by the pope before he may take office, no papal confirmation is needed for a newly elected patriarch before he takes office. Rather, a newly-installed patriarch is required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion.
Furthermore, patriarchs who are created cardinals form part of the order of cardinal bishops, whereas major archbishops are only created cardinal priests. Titular patriarchs do not have jurisdiction over other Metropolitan bishops; the title is granted purely as an honor for various historical reasons. They take precedence after the heads of autonomous churches in full communion, whether pope, patriarch, or major archbishop; the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, established 1099. The Patriarch of the East Indies a titular patriarchal see, united to Goa and Daman, established 1886; the Patriarch of Lisbon, established 1716. The Patriarch of Venice, established 1451; the Patriarch of Aquileia – with rival line of succession moved to Grado - dissolved in 1752. The Patriarch of Grado – in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice; the Patriarch of the West Indies – a titular patriarchal see, vacant since 1963. The Latin Patriarch of Antioch – title abolished in 1964.
The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria – title abolished in 1964. The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople – title abolished in 1964; the Latin Patriarchate of Ethiopia – 1555 to 1663, never effective, only held by Iberian Jesuits The pope can confer the rank of Patriarch withou
The civil service is independent of government and is composed of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens; the extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" may be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil public service. An international civil servant or international staff member is a civilian employee, employed by an intergovernmental organization.
These international civil servants do not reside under any national legislation but are governed by internal staff regulations. All disputes related to international civil service are brought before special tribunals created by these international organizations such as, for instance, the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO. Specific referral can be made to the International Civil Service Commission of the United Nations, an independent expert body established by the United Nations General Assembly, its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service. The origin of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China; the Imperial exam based on merit was designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.
Appointments to the bureaucracy were based on the patronage of aristocrats. In the areas of administration the military, appointments were based on merit; this was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics. After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy regressed into a semi-merit system known as the nine-rank system; this system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty, which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation. The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD 605; the following Tang dynasty adopted the same measures for drafting officials, decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations.
The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. In theory, the Chinese civil service system provided one of the major outlets for social mobility in Chinese society, although in practice, due to the time-consuming nature of the study, the examination was only taken by sons of the landed gentry; the examination tested the candidate's memorization of the Nine Classics of Confucianism and his ability to compose poetry using fixed and traditional forms and calligraphy. In the late 19th century the system came under increasing internal dissatisfaction, it was criticized as not reflecting the candidate's ability to govern well, for giving precedence to style over content and originality of thought; the system was abolished by the Qing government in 1905 as part of the New Policies reform package. The Chinese system was admired by European commentators from the 16th century onward. In the 18th century, in response to economic changes and the growth of the British Empire, the bureaucracy of institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board expanded.
Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were falling short. "The origins of the British civil service are better known. During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar; the first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in 1806." In that year, the Honourable East India Company established a college, the East India Company College, near London to train and examine administrators of the Company's territories in India. "The proposal for establishing this college came from members of the East India Company's trading post in Canton, China." Examinations for the Indian "civil service"—a term coined by the Company—were introduced in 1829. British efforts at reform were influenced by the imperial examinations system and meritocratic system of China.
Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, China argued in his Desu
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function"; some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs". Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, regional and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration".
The field is multidisciplinary in character. In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, the potentials of the citizen. One year Gordon Clapp Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration "as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more realized." This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, with things". According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, "The Study of Administration" in 1887 is regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
The key term "product" refers to "those items that are constructed or produced" such as prisons, laws and security. "As implementors, public managers engage these products." They participate in the making of the "living" democracy. A living democracy is "an environment, changing, organic", imperfect and teaming with values. "Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned "with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values". More scholars claim that "public administration has no accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". Public administration is a field of an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration, he argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants; the North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration sector states that public administration "... comprises establishments engaged in activities of a governmental nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation of laws and their pursuant regulations, the administration of programs based on them".
This includes "Legislative activities, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines the study of public administration as "
An office is a room or other area where an organization's employees perform administrative work in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization. The word "office" may denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it; when used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In law, a company or organization has offices in any place where it has an official presence if that presence consists of a storage silo rather than an establishment with desk-and-chair. An office is an architectural and design phenomenon: ranging from a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of small size, through entire floors of buildings, up to and including massive buildings dedicated to one company. In modern terms an office is the location where white-collar workers carry out their functions; as per James Stephenson, "Office is that part of business enterprise, devoted to the direction and co-ordination of its various activities."
Offices in classical antiquity were part of a palace complex or of a large temple. The High Middle Ages saw the rise of the medieval chancery, the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom. With the growth of large, complex organizations in the 18th century, the first purpose-built office spaces were constructed; as the Industrial Revolution intensified in the 18th and 19th centuries, the industries of banking, insurance, retail and telegraphy grew requiring a large number of clerks, as a result more office space was assigned to house their activities. The time-and-motion study, pioneered in manufacturing by F. W. Taylor led to the "Modern Efficiency Desk" of 1915 with a flat top and drawers below, designed to allow managers an easy view of the workers. However, by the middle of the 20th century, it became apparent that an efficient office required discretion in the control of privacy, the cubicle system evolved; the main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their jobs.
Work spaces in an office are used for conventional office activities such as reading and computer work. There are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities. In addition to individual cubicles, one can find meeting rooms and spaces for support activities, such as photocopying and filing; some offices have a kitchen area where workers can make their lunches. There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function, managerial fashions and the culture of specific companies can be more important. While offices can be built in any location and in any building, some modern requirements for offices make this more difficult, such as requirements for light and security; the major purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment - for administrative and managerial workers. These workers occupy set areas within the office building, are provided with desks, PCs and other equipment they may need within these areas.
The structure and shape of the office is impacted by both management thought as well as construction materials and may or may not have walls or barriers. The word stems from the Latin officium, its equivalents in various romance, languages. An officium was not a place, but rather an mobile'bureau' in the sense of a human staff or the abstract notion of a formal position, such as a magistrature; the elaborate Roman bureaucracy would not be equaled for centuries in the West after the fall of Rome partially reverting to illiteracy, while the East preserved a more sophisticated administrative culture, both under Byzantium and under Islam. Offices in classical antiquity were part of a palace complex or a large temple. There was a room where scrolls were kept and scribes did their work. Ancient texts mentioning the work of scribes allude to the existence of such "offices"; these rooms are sometimes called "libraries" by some archaeologists and the general press because one associates scrolls with literature.
In fact they were true offices since the scrolls were meant for record keeping and other management functions such as treaties and edicts, not for writing or keeping poetry or other works of fiction. The High Middle Ages saw the rise of the medieval chancery, the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom; the rooms of the chancery had walls full of pigeonholes, constructed to hold rolled up pieces of parchment for safekeeping or ready reference, a precursor to the bookshelf. The introduction of printing during the Renaissance did not change these early government offices much. Medieval illustrations, such as paintings or tapestries show people in their private offices handling record-keeping books or writing on scrolls of parchment. All kinds of writings seemed to be mixed in these early forms of offices. Before the invention of the printing press and its distribution there was a thin line between a private office and a private library since books were read or written in the same space at the same desk or table, general accounting and personal or private letters were done there.
It was during the 13th century that the English form of the word first appeared w