Book of Numbers
The Book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah. The book has a long and complex history, but its final form is due to a Priestly redaction of a Yahwistic source made some time in the early Persian period; the name of the book comes from the two censuses taken of the Israelites. Numbers begins at Mount Sinai, where the Israelites have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the sanctuary; the task before them is to take possession of the Promised Land. The people are counted and preparations are made for resuming their march; the Israelites begin the journey, but they "murmur" at the hardships along the way, about the authority of Moses and Aaron. For these acts, God destroys 15,000 of them through various means, they send spies into the land. Upon hearing the spies' fearful report concerning the conditions in Canaan, the Israelites refuse to take possession of it. God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up and carry out the task.
The book ends with the new generation of Israelites in the Plain of Moab ready for the crossing of the Jordan River. Numbers is the culmination of the story of Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt and their journey to take possession of the land God promised their fathers; as such it draws to a conclusion the themes introduced in Genesis and played out in Exodus and Leviticus: God has promised the Israelites that they shall become a great nation, that they will have a special relationship with Yahweh their god, that they shall take possession of the land of Canaan. Numbers demonstrates the importance of holiness and trust: despite God's presence and his priests, Israel lacks faith and the possession of the land is left to a new generation. Most commentators divide Numbers into three sections based on locale, linked by two travel sections. God orders Moses, in the wilderness of Sinai, to number those able to bear arms—of all the men "from twenty years old and upward," and to appoint princes over each tribe.
A total of 603,550 Israelites are found to be fit for military service. The tribe of Levi is exempted from military service and therefore not included in the census. Moses consecrates the Levites for the service of the Tabernacle in the place of the first-born sons, who hitherto had performed that service; the Levites are divided into three families, the Gershonites, the Kohathites, the Merarites, each under a chief. The Kohathites were headed by Eleazar, son of Aaron, while the Gershonites and Merarites were headed by Aaron's other son, Ithamar. Preparations are made for resuming the march to the Promised Land. Various ordinances and laws are decreed; the Israelites set out from Sinai. The people are punished by fire. Miriam and Aaron insult Moses at Hazeroth. Twelve spies are come back to report to Moses. Joshua and Caleb, two of the spies, report that the land is abundant and is "flowing with milk and honey", but the other spies say that it is inhabited by giants, the Israelites refuse to enter the land.
Yahweh decrees that the Israelites will be punished for their loss of faith by having to wander in the wilderness for 40 years. Moses is ordered by God to make plates to cover the altar; the children of Israel murmur against Moses and Aaron on account of the destruction of Korah's men and are stricken with the plague, with 14,700 perishing. Aaron and his family are declared by God to be responsible for any iniquity committed in connection with the sanctuary; the Levites are again appointed to help in the keeping of the Tabernacle. The Levites are ordered to surrender to the priests a part of the tithes taken to them. Miriam dies at Kadesh Barnea and the Israelites set out for Moab, on Canaan's eastern border; the Israelites blame Moses for the lack of water. Moses is ordered by God to speak to a rock but disobeys, is punished by the announcement that he shall not enter Canaan; the king of Edom refuses permission to pass through his land and they go around it. Aaron dies on Mount Hor; the Israelites are bitten by Fiery flying serpents for speaking against Moses.
A brazen serpent is made to ward off these serpents. The Israelites arrive on the plains of Moab. A new census gives the total number of males from twenty years and upward as 601,730, the number of the Levites from the age of one month and upward as 23,000; the land shall be divided by lot. The daughters of Zelophehad, who had no sons, are to share in the allotment. Moses is ordered to appoint Joshua as his successor. Prescriptions for the observance of the feasts and the offerings for different occasions are enumerated. Moses orders the Israelites to massacre the people of Midian; the Reubenites and the Gadites request Moses to assign them the land east of the Jordan. Moses grants their request after they promise to help in the conquest of the land west of the Jordan; the land east of the Jordan is divided among the tribes of
Moses in Islam
Mûsâ ibn'Imran known as Moses in the Bible, considered a prophet and messenger in Islam, is the most mentioned individual in the Quran, his name being mentioned 136 times. The Quran states that Musa was sent by Allah to the Pharaoh of Egypt and his establishments and the Israelites for guidance and warning. Musa is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual, his life is narrated and recounted more than that of any other prophet. According to Islam, all Muslims must have faith in every prophet and messenger which includes Musa and his brother Aaron; the Quran states: And mention in the Book, Moses. Indeed, he was chosen, he was a messenger and a prophet, and We brought him near, confiding. And We gave him out of Our mercy his brother Aaron as a prophet. Musa is considered to be a prophetic predecessor to Muhammad; the tale of Musa is seen as a spiritual parallel to the life of Muhammad, Muslims consider many aspects of their lives to be shared. Islamic literature describes a parallel between their believers and the incidents which occurred in their lifetimes.
The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt is considered similar to the from Mecca made by the followers of Muhammad. Musa is very important in Islam for having been given the revelation of the Torah, considered to be one of the true revealed scriptures in Muslim theology, Muslims hold that much of the Torah is confirmed and repeated in the Qur'an. Moreover, according to Islamic tradition, Musa was one of the many prophets Muhammad met in the event of the Mi'raj, when he ascended through the seven heavens. During the Mi'raj, Musa is said to have urged Muhammad to ask Allah to reduce the number of required daily prayers until only the five obligatory prayers remained. Musa is further revered in Islamic literature, which expands upon the incidents of his life and the miracles attributed to him in the Qur'an and hadith, such as his direct conversation with Allah. According to Islamic tradition, Musa was born into a family of Israelites living in Egypt. Of his family, Islamic tradition names his father'Imran, corresponding to the Amram of the Hebrew Bible, traditional genealogies name Levi as his ancestor.
Islam states that Musa was born in a time when the ruling Pharaoh had enslaved the Israelites after the time of the prophet Joseph. Around the time of Musa' birth, Islamic literature states that the Pharaoh had a dream, in which he saw fire coming from the city of Jerusalem, which burnt everything in his kingdom except that of the Israelites. Islamic tradition states that when the Pharaoh was informed that one of the male children would grow up to overthrow him, he ordered the killing of all new-born Israelite males in order to prevent the prediction from occurring. Islamic literature further states that the experts of economics in Pharaoh's court advised him that killing the male infants of the Israelites, would result in loss of manpower. Therefore, they spared the next. Aaron was born in the year in which infants were spared, while Moses was born in the year in which infants were to be killed. According to Islamic tradition, Musa' mother suckled him secretly during this period; the Qur ` an states.
She instructed her daughter to report back to her. As the daughter followed the ark along the riverbank, Musa was discovered by the Pharaoh's wife, who convinced the Pharaoh to adopt him; the Qur'an states that when Asiya ordered wet nurses for Musa, Musa refused to be breastfed. Islamic tradition states that this was because God had forbidden Musa from being fed by any wet nurse as to reunite his mother with him, his sister worried that Moses had not been fed for some time, she appeared to the Pharaoh and informed him that she knew someone who could feed him. Islamic tradition states that after being questioned, she was ordered to bring the woman being discussed; the sister brought their mother who fed Moses and thereafter she was appointed as the wet nurse of Moses. According to Isra'iliyat hadith, during his childhood when Musa was playing on Pharaoh's lap, he grabbed the Pharaoh's beard and slapped him in the face; this action prompted the Pharaoh to consider Musa as the Israelite who would overthrow him, Pharaoh wanted to kill Musa.
The Pharaoh's wife persuaded him not to. Instead, he decided to test Musa. Two plates were set before one contained rubies and the other held glowing coals. Musa reached out for the rubies. Musa put it in his mouth, burning his tongue. After the incident Musa was spared by the Pharaoh. After having reached adulthood, the Qur'an states that when Musa was passing through a city, he came across an Egyptian fighting with an Israelite; the Israelite asked for his assistance against the Egyptian. Musa became involved in the dispute. In Islamic tradition, Musa struck the Egyptian in a state of anger. Musa repented to God and the following day, he again came across the same Israelite fighting with another Egyptian; the Israelite again asked Musa for help, as Musa approached the Israelite, he reminded Musa of his manslaughter, asked if Musa intended to kill him. Musa was reported and the Pharaoh ordered Musa to be killed. Howeve
Amman is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, the country's economic and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate; the city has a land area of 1,680 square kilometres. Today, Amman is considered to be among the most modernized Arab cities, it is a major tourist destination in the region among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in Amman is in a Neolithic site known as'Ain Ghazal, where some of the oldest human statues found dating to 7250 BC were uncovered. During the Iron Age, the city was known as Ammon, home to the Kingdom of the Ammonites, it was named Philadelphia during its Greek and Roman periods, was called Amman during the Islamic period. Abandoned for much of the medieval and post-medieval period, modern Amman dates to the late 19th century when Circassian immigrants were settled there by the Ottoman Empire in 1867; the first municipal council was established in 1909. Amman witnessed rapid growth after its designation as Jordan's capital in 1921, after several successive waves of refugees: Palestinians in 1948 and 1967.
It was built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Yousef Shawarbeh. Areas of Amman have gained their names from either the hills or the valleys they occupy, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city. Two million visitors arrived in Amman in 2014, which made it the 93rd most visited city in the world and the 5th most visited Arab city. Amman has a fast growing economy, it is ranked Beta− on the global city index. Moreover, it was named one of the Middle East and North Africa's best cities according to economic, labor and socio-cultural factors; the city is among the most popular locations in the Arab world for multinational corporations to set up their regional offices, alongside Doha and only behind Dubai. It is expected that in the next 10 years these three cities will capture the largest share of multinational corporation activity in the region.
Amman derives its name from the 13th century BC when the Ammonites named it "Rabbath Ammon", with the term Rabbath meaning the "Capital" or the "King's Quarters". Over time, the term "Rabbath" was no longer used and the city became known as "Ammon"; the influence of new civilizations that conquered the city changed its name to "Amman". In the Hebrew Bible, it is referred to as "Rabbat ʿAmmon". However, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Macedonian ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom who reigned from 283 to 246 BC, renamed the city to "Philadelphia" after occupying it; the name was given as an adulation to Philadelphus. The neolithic site of'Ain Ghazal was found in the outskirts of Amman. At its height, around 7000 BC, it was inhabited by ca. 3000 people. At that time the site was a typical aceramic Neolithic village, its houses were rectangular mud-bricked buildings that included a main square living room, whose walls were made up of lime plaster. The site was discovered in 1974. By 1982, when the excavations started, around 600 meters of road ran through the site.
Despite the damage brought by urban expansion, the remains of'Ain Ghazal provided a wealth of information.'Ain Ghazal is well known for a set of small human statues found in 1983, when local archaeologists stumbled upon the edge of a large pit 2.5 meters containing them. These statues are human figures made with white plaster, with painted clothes, in some cases ornamental tattoos. Thirty-two figures were found in two caches, fifteen of them full figures, fifteen busts, two fragmentary heads. Three of the busts were two-headed, the significance of, not clear. In the 13th century BC Amman was the capital of the Ammonites, became known as "Rabbath Ammon". Ammon provided several natural resources to the region, including sandstone and limestone, along with a productive agricultural sector that made Ammon a vital location along the King's Highway, the ancient trade route connecting Egypt with Mesopotamia and Anatolia; as with the Edomites and Moabites, trade along this route gave the Ammonites considerable revenue.
Ammonites worshiped. Excavations by archaeologists near Amman Civil Airport uncovered a temple, which included an altar containing many human bone fragments; the bones showed evidence of burning, which led to the assumption that the altar functioned as a pyre. Today, several Ammonite ruins across Amman exist, such as Qasr Al-Abd, Rujm Al-Malfouf and some parts of the Amman Citadel; the ruins of Rujm Al-Malfouf consist of a stone watchtower used to ensure protection of their capital and several store rooms to the east. The city was conquered by the Assyrian Empire, followed by the Persian Empire. Conquest of the Middle East and Central Asia by Alexander the Great consolidated the influence of Hellenistic culture; the Greeks founded new cities in the area of modern-day Jordan, including Umm Qays and Amman. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Macedonian ruler of Egypt, who occupied and rebuilt the city, na
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be accidental. In January 1999, Angela Croome estimated that there have been about three million shipwrecks worldwide. Historic wrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they preserve historical information: for example, studying the wreck of Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring and life in the 16th century. Military wrecks, caused by a skirmish at sea, are studied to find details about the historic event. Discoveries of treasure ships from the period of European colonisation, which sank in remote locations leaving few living witnesses, such as Batavia, do occur as well; some contemporary wrecks, such as the oil tankers Prestige or Erika, are of interest because of their potential harm to the environment. Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth, such as Adolphus Busch and Ocean Freeze. Wrecks like Adolphus Busch and historic wrecks such as Thistlegorm are of interest to recreational divers that dive to shipwrecks because they are interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of marine life, have an interesting history.
Well known shipwrecks include the catastrophic Titanic, Lusitania, Empress of Ireland, Andrea Doria, or Costa Concordia. There are thousands of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk; these abandoned, or derelict ships are smaller craft, such as fishing vessels. They may be removed by port authorities. Poor design, improperly stowed cargo and other human errors leading to collisions, bad weather and other causes can lead to accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include forming an artificial reef. A ship can be used as breakwater structure. Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck: the ship's construction materials the wreck becoming covered in sand or silt the salinity of the water the wreck is in the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel the depth of water at the wreck site the strength of tidal currents or wave action at the wreck site the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric temperature the acidity, other chemical characteristics of the water at the siteThe above - the stratification and the damages caused by marine creatures - is better described as "stratification and contamination" of shipwrecks.
The stratification not only creates another challenge for marine archaeology, but a challenge to determine its primary state, i.e. the state that it was in when it sank. Stratification includes several different types of sand and silt, as well as tumulus and encrustations; these "sediments" are linked to the type of currents and the type of water, which implies any chemical reactions that would affect potential cargo. Besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks face the damage of marine creatures that create a home out of them octopuses and crustaceans; these creatures affect the primary state because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for example, or any other hollow places. In addition to the slight or severe destruction marine animals can create, there are "external" contaminants, such as the artifacts on and around the wreck at Pickles Reef and the over-lapping wrecks at the Molasses Reef Wreck, or contemporary pollution in bodies of water, that affect shipwrecks by changing the chemical structures, or further damaging what is left of a specific ship.
Despite these challenges, if the information retrieved does not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved, authors like J. A. Parker claim that it is the historical value of the shipwreck that counts as well as any slight piece of information or evidence, acquired. Exposed wooden components decay quickly; the only wooden parts of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is Mary Rose. Steel and iron, depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's structure for decades; as corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects such as cannons, steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine survive well underwater in spite of corrosion. Propellers, condensers and port holes were made from non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze, which do not corrode easily. Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North America, have remained intact with little degradation.
In some sea areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, salinity is low, centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in reasonable condition. However, bacteria found in fresh water cause the wood on ships to rot more than in seawater unless it is deprived of oxygen. Two shipwrecks, USS Hamilton and USS Scourge, have been at the bottom of Lake Ontario since they sunk during a violent storm on August 8, 1813, during the War of 1812, they are
Ammon was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan. The chief city of the country was Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon, site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital. Milcom and Molech are named in the Hebrew Bible as the gods of Ammon; the people of this kingdom are called "Children of Ammon" or "Ammonites". The Ammonites occupied the northern Central Trans-Jordanian Plateau from the latter part of the second millennium BC to at least the second century CE. Ammon maintained its independence from the Neo-Assyrian Empire through tribute to the Assyrian king, at a time when nearby kingdoms were being raided or conquered; the Kurkh Monolith lists the Ammonite king Baasha ben Ruhubi's army as fighting alongside Ahab of Israel and Syrian allies against Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC as vassals of Hadadezer, the Aramaean king of Damascus. In 734 BC the Ammonite king Sanipu was a vassal of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sanipu's successor Pudu-ilu held the same position under Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.
An Assyrian tribute-list exists from this period, showing that Ammon paid one-fifth as much tribute as Judah did. Somewhat the Ammonite king Amminadab I was among the tributaries who suffered in the course of the great Arabian campaign of Assurbanipal. Other kings attested to in contemporary sources are Barachel and Hissalel, the latter of whom reigned about 620 BCE. Hissalel is mentioned in an inscription on a bottle found at Tel Siran, Jordan along with his son, King Amminadab II, who reigned around 600 BCE. Archaeology and history indicate; this contradicts the view, dominant for decades, that Transjordan was either destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II, or suffered a rapid decline following Judah's destruction by that king. Newer evidence suggests. Little mention is made of the Ammonites through the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, their name appears, during the time of the Maccabees. The Ammonites, with some of the neighboring tribes, did their utmost to resist and check the revival of the Jewish power under Judas Maccabaeus.
The Hasmonean dynast Hyrcanus founded Qasr Al Abd, was a descendant of the Seleucid Tobiad dynasty of Tobiah, mentioned by Nehemiah as an Ammonite from the east-Jordanian district. The last notice of the Ammonites is in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho, in the second century, where it is affirmed that they were still a numerous people; the first mention of the Ammonites in the Bible is in Genesis 19:37-38. It is stated there that they descended from Ben-Ammi, a son of Lot through with his younger daughter who plotted with her sister to intoxicate Lot and in his inebriated state, have relations to become pregnant. Ben-Ammi means "son of my people". After the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the daughters of Lot wanted to have a child and carried out a plot to intoxicate him and had relations, resulting in Ammon and his half brother, being conceived and born; this narrative has traditionally been considered literal fact, but is now interpreted as recording a gross popular irony by which the Israelites expressed their loathing of the morality of the Moabites and Ammonites, although it is doubtful that the Israelites would have directed such irony to Lot himself.
The Ammonites settled to the east of the Jordan, invading the Rephaim lands east of Jordan, between the Jabbok and Arnon, dispossessing them and dwelling in their place. Their territory comprising all from the Jordan to the wilderness, from the River Jabbok south to the River Arnon, it was accounted a land of giants. Shortly before the Israelite Exodus, the Amorites west of Jordan, under King Sihon and occupied a large portion of the territory of Moab and Ammon; the Ammonites were driven from the rich lands near the Jordan and retreated to the mountains and valleys to the east. The invasion of the Amorites separated the two kingdoms of Ammon and Moab. Throughout the Bible, the Ammonites and Israelites are portrayed as mutual antagonists. During the Exodus, the Israelites were prohibited by the Ammonites from passing through their lands; the Ammonites soon allied themselves with Eglon of Moab in attacking Israel. The Ammonites maintained their claim to part of Transjordan, after it was occupied by the Israelites who obtained it from Sihon.
During the days of Jephthah, the Ammonites occupied the lands east of the River Jordan and started to invade Israelite lands west of the river. Jephthah became the leader in resisting these incursions; the constant harassment of the Israelite communities east of the Jordan by the Ammonites was the impetus behind the unification of the tribes under Saul. King Nahash of Ammon lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead; this led to an alliance with Saul and The Israelites, led by Saul relieved the siege and defeated the Ammonite king resulting in the formation of the Israelite Kingdom. During the reign of King David, the Ammonites humiliated David's messengers, hired the Aramean armies to attack Israel; this ended in a war and a year-long siege of Rabbah, the capital of Ammon. The war ended with all the Ammonite cities being conquered and plundered, the inhabitants being killed or put to forced labor at David's command; when the Arameans of Damascus city-state deprived the Kingdom of Israel of their possessions east of the Jordan, the Ammon
Romanization of Hebrew
Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words. For example, the Hebrew name spelled יִשְׂרָאֵל in the Hebrew alphabet can be romanized as Yisrael or Yiśrāʼēl in the Latin alphabet. Romanization includes any use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words, it is to identify a Hebrew word in a non-Hebrew language that uses the Latin alphabet, such as German, Turkish, so on. Transliteration uses an alphabet to represent the letters and sounds of a word spelled in another alphabet, whereas transcription uses an alphabet to represent the sounds only. Romanization can do both. To go the other way, from English to Hebrew, see Hebraization of English. Both Hebraization of English and Romanization of Hebrew are forms of transliteration. Where these are formalized these are known as "transliteration systems", where only some words, not all, are transliterated, this is known as "transliteration policy".
Transliteration assumes two different script systems. The use of a French word in English without translation, such as "bourgeois", is not transliteration; the use of a Hindi word in English such as "khaki" is transliteration. Transliteration of a foreign word into another language is the exception to translation, occurs when there is something distinctive about the word in the original language, such as a double entendre, religious, cultural or political significance, or it may occur to add local flavour. In the cases of Hebrew transliteration into English, many Hebrew words have a long history of transliteration, for example Amen, ephod and Thummim have traditionally been transliterated, not translated; these terms were in many cases first transliterated into Greek and Latin before English. Different publishers have different transliteration policies. For example ArtScroll publications transliterate more words relative to sources such as the Jewish Encyclopedia 1911, or Jewish Publication Society texts.
There are various transliteration systems for Hebrew-to-English. In general usage there are no hard and fast rules in Hebrew-to-English transliteration, many transliterations are an approximation due to lack of equivalence between the English and Hebrew alphabets. Conflicting systems of transliteration appear in the same text, as certain Hebrew words tend to associate with certain traditions of transliteration. For example, For Hanukkah at the synagogue Beith Sheer Chayyim, Isaac donned his talis that Yitzchak sent him from Bet Qehila in Tsfat, Israel; this text includes instances of the same word transliterated in different ways: The Hebrew word בית is transliterated as both Beith and Bet. These discrepancies in transliterations of the same word can be traced to discrepancies in the transliterations of individual Hebrew letters, reflecting not only different traditions of transliteration into different languages that use Latin alphabets, but the fact that different pronunciation styles exist for the same letters in Israel.
For example and Chayyim are transliterated with different initial letter combinations, although in Hebrew both begin with the letter ח. The Hebrew letter ת is transliterated as th in the word Beith, s in the word talis, t in the word Bet though it is the same letter in all three words in Hebrew; the Hebrew letter ק is transliterated as c in Isaac, k in Yitzchak, q in Qehila. The Hebrew letter צ is transliterated variously as s, tz, ts, again reflecting different traditions of spelling or pronunciation; these inconsistencies make it more difficult for the non-Hebrew-speaking reader to recognize related word forms, or to properly pronounce the Hebrew words thus transliterated. Early romanization of Hebrew occurred with the contact between the Jews, it was influenced by earlier transliteration into the Greek language. For example, the name of the Roman province of Iudaea was derived from the Greek words Ἰούδα and Ἰουδαία; these words can be seen in Chapter 1 of Esdras in the Septuagint, a Hellenistic translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek.
The Greek words in turn are transliterations of the Hebrew word יהודה that we now know adapted in English as the names Judah and Jude. In the 1st century, Satire 14 of Juvenal uses the Hebraic words sabbata and Moyses adopted from the Greek; the 4th-century and 5th-century Latin translations of the Hebrew Bible romanize its proper names. The familiar Biblical names in English are derived from these romanizations; the Vulgate, of the early 5th century, is considered the first direct Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible. Apart from names, another term that the Vulgate romanizes is the technical term mamzer. With the rise of Zionism, some Jews promoted the use of romanization instead of Hebrew script in hopes of helping more people learn Hebrew. One such promoter was Ittamar Ben Avi as he styled himself, his father Eliezer Ben Yehuda raised him to be the first modern native speaker of Hebrew. In 1927 Ben-Avi published the biography Avi in romanized Hebrew. However, the innovation did not cat