SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ogaden

Ogaden is one of the three historical names given to the modern Somali Region, the territory comprising the eastern portion of Ethiopia part of the Hararghe province. The two other names are Reserved area; the region, around 200,000 square kilometres, borders Djibouti and Kenya. Important towns include Jijiga, Gode, Kebri Dahar, Shilabo, Kelafo and Danan; the Ogaden is a plateau, with an elevation above sea level that ranges from 1,500 metres in the northwest, falling to about 300 metres along the southern limits and the Wabi Shebelle valley. The areas with altitudes between 1,400 and 1,600 metres are characterised as semi-arid. More typical of the Ogaden is an average annual rainfall of 350 mm and less; the landscape consists of dense shrubland, bush bare hills. In more recent years, the Ogaden has suffered from erratic rainfall patterns, which has led to an increasing frequency of major droughts: in 1984–85; the inhabitants are predominantly ethnic Somalis, of 30 clans. The Ogaden of the Darod constitute one of the majority in the region, were enlisted in the Ogaden National Liberation Movement, That is why the region is associated with the Ogaden Clan.

However, this is disputed. Other Somali clans in the region are Isaaq, Issa, Massare and Jidle and Karanle Hawiye clans; the origin of the term Ogaden is unknown, however it is attributed to the Majority Somali clan of the same name referring only to their land, expanding to encompass most parts of the modern Somali Region of Ethiopia. During the new region's founding conference, held in Dire Dawa in 1992, the naming of the region became a divisive issue, because 30 Somali clans live in the Somali Region of Ethiopia; the ONLF sought to name the region ‘Ogadenia’, whilst the non-Ogadeni Somali clans who live in the same region opposed this move. As noted by Dr. Abdul Majid Hussein, the naming of the region where there are several Somali clans as ‘Ogadenia’ following the name of a single clan would have been divisive; the region was named the Somali region. An alternative etymology analyses the name as a combination of the Harari word ūga and Aden, a city in Yemen deriving from an ancient caravan route through the region connecting Harar to the Arabian Peninsula.

There are few historical texts written about the people who lived in what is known today as the Somali Region, sometimes referred to as The'Ogaden' region of Ethiopia. In its early history, The'Ogaden' was inhabited by a now extinct people. Harla are linked to the Somali Ogaden clan. In the ninth century Ogaden served as capital of the Makhzumi Dynasty. Ogaden was part of the Ifat Sultanate in the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries AD; the borders of the sultanate extended to the Shewa - Addis Ababa area of Ethiopia. The Ifat Sultanate was succeeded by the Adal Sultanate. There was an ongoing conflict between the Adal Sultanate and the Christian Kingdom of Abyssinia throughout this time. During the first half of the 16th century, most of Abyssinian territory was conquered and came under the rule of Adal, when Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, the leader of the Somali-dominated Adal's Army, took control. In the seventeenth century it became a tributary state of the Emirate of Harar. During the last quarter of the 19th century, the region was conquered by Menelik II of Abyssinia and Ethiopia solidified their claim by treaties in 1897.

I. M. Lewis argues a subtly different interpretation of this treaty, emphasising that "the lost lands in the Haud which were excised from the Protectorate were not, however ceded to Ethiopia". In practice, Ethiopia exerted little administrative control east of Jijiga until 1934 when an Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission attempted to demarcate the treaty boundary; this boundary is still disputed. In 1914, Iyasu V of Ethiopia appointed governor of Ogaden; the Italians annexed the region to Italian Somaliland in 1936 after their conquest of Ethiopia. Following their conquest of Italian East Africa, the British sought to let the [[Somali Region' be unified with British Somaliland and the former Italian Somaliland, to realize Greater Somalia, supported by many Somalis. Ethiopia unsuccessfully pleaded before the London Conference of the Allied Powers to gain the Ogaden and Eritrea in 1945, but their persistent negotiations and influence from the USA persuaded the British in 1948 to abandon all of the Ogaden to Ethiopia in 1954.

The British returned these last parts to Ethiopia in 1954. In the late 1970s, internal unrest in the'Ogaden' resumed; the Western Somali Liberation Front, spurred by Makhtal Dahir, used guerilla tactics to resist Ethiopian rule. Ethiopia and Somalia fought the Ogaden War over control of its peoples. In 2007, the Ethiopian Army launched a military crackdown in Ogaden after Ogaden rebels killed dozens of civilian staff workers and guards at an Ethiopian oil field; the main rebel group is the Ogaden National Liberation Front under its Chairman Mohamed O. Osman, fighting against the Ethiopian government; some Somalis who inhabit in the'Ogaden' claimed that Ethiopian military kill civilians, destroy the livelihood of many of the ethnic Somalis and commit crimes against the nomads in the region. However, testimony before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs revealed massive brutality and killings by the ONLF rebels, which the Ethiopian government labels "terrorists

Biospheric model of personality

The biospheric model of personality is a contribution to the psychology of personality proposed by Andras Angyal in 1941. According to this model, the biosphere is the system of the individual and her environment, consisting of Subject subsystem and Object subsystem; the following outlines the author's holistic view of the biosphere: The Subject pole:Elements: attitude, craving. The Object pole:Elements: relevance, demand quality. Angyal describes three personality dimensions: vertical dimension, with surface behavior and deep attitudes that guide that behavior. Biosphere dynamics is generated by the tension between the poles of each dimension. There are two fundamental tendencies of the person in relationship with her environment: autonomy, or domination of the environment by the person. According to Angyal's model, psychopathology is caused by the segregation of the two poles of one or more personality dimensions; this segregation can be: vertical, between attitudes and behavior, leading to deceptive behavior.

Cognitive-affective personality system Hypostatic model of personality Personality systematics Systems psychology Organismic theory

Martin Kovachev

Martin Kovachev is a Bulgarian footballer playing as a defender for Dunav Ruse. Kovachev played for Velbazhd Kyustendil, Spartak Varna, Litex Lovech and Dunav Rousse before moving to Chernomorets in June 2008 for a free transfer. With the club Kovachev played in a matches of Intertoto Cup 2008 against Slovenian ND Gorica and Swiss Grasshopper Club Zürich. Six months he is loaned to Naftex Burgas. On 5 July 2009 Kovachev signed three years contract with OFC Sliven 2000. On December 29, 2014, he signed with Pusamania Borneo FC. PelisterMacedonian Cup: 2016–17 Martin Kovachev at Soccerway