The sun dance is a ceremony practiced by some Indigenous people of United States of America and Canada those of the Plains cultures. It involves the community gathering together to pray for healing. Individuals make personal sacrifices on behalf of the community. After European colonization of the Americas, with the formation of the Canadian and United States governments, both countries passed laws intended to suppress Indigenous cultures and encourage assimilation to majority-European culture, they banned Indigenous ceremonies and, in many schools and other areas, prohibited Indigenous people from speaking their native languages. In some cases they were not allowed to visit sacred sites when these had been excluded from the territory of community; the sun dance was one of the prohibited ceremonies, as was the potlatch of the Pacific Northwest peoples. Canada lifted its prohibition against the practice of the full ceremony in 1951, but in the United States, Indigenous peoples were not allowed to practice the sun dance or other sacred ceremonies until the late 1970s, after they gained renewed sovereignty and civil rights following a period of high activism, including legal challenges to the government.
Congress passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in 1978, enacted to protect basic civil liberties, to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights and cultural practices of American Indians, Eskimos and Native Hawaiians. Several features are common to the ceremonies held by sun dance cultures; these include dances and songs passed down through many generations, the use of a traditional drum, a sacred fire, praying with a ceremonial pipe, fasting from food and water before participating in the dance, and, in some cases, the ceremonial piercing of skin and a trial of physical endurance. Certain plants are prepared for use during the ceremony; the sun dance is a grueling ordeal for the dancers, a physical and spiritual test that they offer in sacrifice for their people. According to the Oklahoma Historical Society, young men dance around a pole to which they are fastened by "rawhide thongs pegged through the skin of their chests."While not all sun dance ceremonies include piercing, the object of the sun dance is to offer personal sacrifice for the benefit of one's family and community.
The dancers fast for many days, in the open whatever weather occurs. At most ceremonies, family members and friends stay in the surrounding camp and pray in support of the dancers. Much time and energy by the entire community are needed to conduct the sun dance gatherings and ceremonies. Communities organize for at least a year to prepare for the ceremony. One leader or a small group of leaders are in charge of the ceremony, but many elders help out and advise. A group of helpers do many of the tasks required to prepare for the ceremony; as this is a sacred ceremony, people are reluctant to discuss it in any great detail. Given a long history of cultural misappropriation, Indigenous people are suspicious that non-Indigenous people may abuse or misuse the traditional ways. Elders and medicine men are concerned that the ceremony should only be passed along in the right ways; the words used at a sun dance are in the native language and are not translated for outsiders. Not talking about this ceremony is part of the respect the people display for it.
In addition, the detailed way in which a respected elder speaks and explains a sun dance to younger members of the community is unique and not quoted, nor is it intended for publication. In 1993, responding to what they believed was a frequent desecration of the sun dance and other Lakota sacred ceremonies, US and Canadian Lakota and Nakota nations held "the Lakota Summit V", it was an international gathering of about 500 representatives from 40 different peoples and bands of the Lakota. They unanimously passed the following'Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality': "Whereas sacrilegious "sundances" for non-Indians are being conducted by charlatans and cult leaders who promote abominable and obscene imitations of our sacred Lakota sundance rites. We hereby and henceforth declare war against all persons who persist in exploiting and misrepresenting the sacred traditions and spiritual practices of the Lakota and Nakota people." - Mesteth, Wilmer, et al In 2003, the 19th-Generation Keeper of the Sacred White Buffalo Calf Pipe of the Lakota asked non-Indigenous people to stop attending the sun dance.
This statement was supported by keepers of sacred bundles and traditional spiritual leaders from the Cheyenne, Dakota and Nakota nations, who issued a proclamation that non-Indigenous people would be banned from sacred altars and the Seven Sacred Rites and the sun dance, effective March 9, 2003 onward: The Wi-wanyang-wa-c'i-pi: The only participants allowed in the centre will be Native People. The non-Native people need to respect our decision. If there have been any unfinished commitments to the sundance and non-Natives have concern for this decision. Our purpose for the sundance is for the survival of the future generations to come and foremost. If the non-Natives understand this purpose, they will understand this decision and know that by their departure from this Ho-c'o-ka is their sincere contribution to the survival of our future generations. Though only some nations' sun dances include the body piercings, the Canadian government outla
Red Cloud Agency
The Red Cloud Agency was an Indian agency for the Oglala Lakota as well as the Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho, from 1871 to 1878. It was located at three different sites in Wyoming Territory and Nebraska before being moved to South Dakota, it was renamed the Pine Ridge Reservation. As stipulated in the Fort Laramie Treaty, the US government built Indian agencies for the various Lakota and other Plains tribes; these were forerunners to the modern Indian reservations. The Red Cloud Agency was established for the Oglala Lakota in 1871 on the North Platte River in Wyoming Territory; the location was one mile west of the present town of Nebraska. In August 1873, the agency was moved to the northwestern corner of Nebraska, near the present town of Crawford. Constructed on a hill overlooking the White River, the agency buildings included a large warehouse, home for the agent, blacksmith shop and stables for horses. A school house was added. Two trading stores were built adjacent to the agency. Following the killing of agency clerk Frank Appleton, the government assigned US troops to the agency in March 1874.
The military encampment was named Camp Robinson. The Red Cloud Agency was the center of much activity during the Great Sioux War of 1876-77. In May 1877, Crazy Horse and allied leaders came with their people to the Red Cloud Agency for surrender. Following the killing of Crazy Horse, the agency was moved further west; the site of Red Cloud Agency No. 2 is included in Fort Robinson and Red Cloud Agency, a United States National Historic Landmark. The agency was moved to the White River in present day, South-Central South Dakota. In 1878, the Red Cloud Agency was relocated to southern South Dakota and renamed the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. James Wham Jared Daniels Dr. John J. Saville - a physician from Sioux City Iowa, arrived as agent in the fall of 1873. During his administration, the army established a post nearby; the first treaty negotiations for the Black Hills were held between the US government and the Lakota. Accused of graft, Saville resigned as agent in late 1875, although a commission investigation had cleared him of wrongdoing.
Valentine McGillycuddy James S. Hastings Lieut. Charles A. Johnson Dr. James Irwin George E. Hyde, Red Cloud's Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians. James C. Olson, Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem. Catherine Price, The Oglala People, 1841-1879: A Political History. Roger T. Grange, Jr, Fort Robinson: Outpost on the Plains, Reprinted from Nebraska History, Volume 39, No.3, September 1958. Mari Sandoz, Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas
The Dakota are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America. They compose two of the three main subcultures of the Sioux people, are divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western Dakota; the Eastern Dakota are the Santee, who reside in the eastern Dakotas, central Minnesota and northern Iowa. They have federally recognized tribes established in several places; the Western Dakota are the Yankton, the Yanktonai, who reside in the Upper Missouri River area. The Yankton-Yanktonai are collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, they have distinct federally recognized tribes. In the past the Western Dakota have been erroneously classified as Nakota, a branch of the Sioux who moved further west; the latter are now located in Montana and across the border in Canada, where they are known as Stoney. The word Dakota means "ally" in the Dakota language, their autonyms include Ikčé Wičhášta and Dakhóta Oyáte; the Eastern and Western Dakota are two of the three groupings belonging to the Sioux nation, the third being the Lakota.
The three groupings speak dialects that are still mutually intelligible. This is referred to Dakota-Lakota, or Sioux; the other two languages of the Dakotan dialect continuum and Stoney, have grown or unintelligible to Dakota and Lakota speakers. The Dakota include the following bands: Santee division Mdewakanton notable persons: Taoyateduta Sisseton Wahpekute notable persons: Inkpaduta Wahpeton Yankton-Yanktonai division Yankton Yanktonai Upper Yanktonai Húŋkpathina or Lower Yanktonai In the 21st century, the majority of the Santee live on reservations and communities in Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Canada; some have moved to cities for more work opportunities. In the north woods of Minnesota, some Santee continue to live in historic communities at the Ottertail Lake and Inspiration Peak areas, their ancestors were never sent to reservations, as they were protected by settlers whom they had befriended. After the Dakota War of 1862, the federal government expelled the Santee from Minnesota.
Many were sent to Crow Creek Indian Reservation. In 1864 some from the Crow Creek Reservation were sent to St. Louis and by boat up the Missouri River to the Santee Sioux Reservation; the Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ live predominantly at the Prairie Shakopee reservations in Minnesota. Most of the Yankton live on the Yankton Indian Reservation in southeastern South Dakota; some Yankton live on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation and Crow Creek Reservation, occupied by the Lower Yanktonai. The Upper Yanktonai live in the northern part of Standing Rock Reservation, on the Spirit Lake Reservation in central North Dakota. Others live in the eastern half of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. In addition, they reside at several Canadian reserves, including Birdtail, Oak Lake, Whitecap, it is difficult to determine where the Dakota people came from before the recorded era. The most similar people to them linguistically were Great Lakes–region speakers of Chiwere, a linguistically conservative Siouan language.
However, the Dakota language, Dakhótiyapi/Dakȟótiyapi, is very related to that of the Dhegihan and Hokan Siouan peoples — both of whom have oral histories explaining that they came west from present-day Ohio in migrations ending around the 13th century. A single line of older history seems to have survived from the Dakotas — that they had come to live with the Winnebago, but the Winnebago soon became angry and ordered them to leave. Combining this with the histories of the Dhegihans, it is possible to surmise that the ancestors of the Dakota people may have been refugees from further east who started taking refuge with other Siouan allies — even predating the move of the Dhegihan Sioux peoples; the Winnebago may have been forced to send the Dakota off to find a new homeland because of overcrowding or because the Dhegihans' arrival on the Plains disrupted commerce and trading along the Mississippi River. Either explanation, can only be an educated guess; the Dakota Oyate lived in Minnesota prior to the 18th century.
Most of their early history was recorded by a white man named James Walker close to the end of the 19th century, as he offered aid among the Lakota/Dakota people. He recorded much of what he knew in three books: Lakota Myth, Lakota Belief and Ritual, Lakota Society. According to Walker, the group was one people with one chief, which grew and developed four sub-factions over time, each with their own equal chiefs. In these two groups there evolved two distinct dialects of the original language and Dakota, their capitol was situated at a place known as Ble Wakan, identified as Lake Mille Lac. Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants; the French were trying t
Little Hawk was an Oglala Lakota war chief and a half-brother of Worm, father of Crazy Horse.... Little Hawk was born about 1836, his father was the holy man variously called Makes the Song or Crazy Horse I. Makes The Song was the father of Worm, who became the father of the famous Crazy Horse 3. Little Hawk was born to a different mother from Worm. In the Lakota extended family scheme, Crazy Horse was thus a brother of Little Hawk, his wife in the census records is always listed as Sunk-ska-win White Horse Woman. In the Pine Ridge Agency allotment records she is noted as a sister of Iron Hawk. White Horse Woman stated that she was married to Little Hawk for thirty years before his death, which indicates that she was not the mother of Little Hawk's children born before 1870, which would be Made an Enemy, Hard to Kill, Yellow Wolf, Iron Tail. White Horse was the mother of Little Hawk's children born after 1870 – including Chase in Morning, Many Cartridges, Luke Little Hawk. One of Little Hawk's nephews, whom he gave his name to and took the name Long Face.
Nephew Little Hawk was killed in 1871 around the age 29 on a war expedition south of the Platte River.'Long Face' took back his name Little Hawk. This naming custom sometimes leads to confusion in attributing deeds to family members Through the 1860s and 1870s, Little Hawk had participated in the fights aside his famous nephew – just four years younger - Crazy Horse. According to official data, he was one of participants in The Battle of the Little Big Horn. Committed by political and personal imperatives to preserve his people's hunting grounds, reluctant to follow Sitting Bull into Canadian exile, Little Hawk chose to fight aside his nephew against the U. S. troops. According to General George Crook's notes, Little Hawk "... appeared to rank next to Crazy Horse in importance, was much like his superior in size and build, but his face was more kindly in expression and he more fluent in speech. Crazy Horse arrived at Fort Robinson near the Red Cloud agency on May 6, 1877; some who witnessed the surrender caught the glint of silver on Little Hawk's neck.
The shimmering came from a peace medal stamped with the image of President James Monroe. According to John G. Bourke's On the Border with Crook, when Little Hawk and Crazy Horse surrendered in 1877 Bourke noticed "... Little Hawk wore pendent at his neck the silver medal given to his father at the Peace Conference on the North Platte, in 1817 it bore the effigy of President Monroe." However, other accounts note that Little Hawk mentioned that the peace medal had been presented to his grandfather and that his grandfather had passed it along to him. After sixty years' wear, the symbol of friendship had become a mere decoration; the last of the Northern Oglala tiyospaye was Crazy Horse's own band. The Hunkpatila was an offshoot of Young Man Afraid of His Horses agency band, the chief had sincerely attempted to integrate his Northern kinsmen into the smooth running of reservation life. Since the death of Crazy Horse, Hunkpatila leadership devolved to his father's half-brother Little Hawk, whose loyalties to his nephew's memory conflicted with the interest of Commission of Indian Affairs.
The festering resentment against Little Big Man focused within the Hunkpatila. At beginning of 1878, convinced by their warriors, Little Hawk's and He Dog's Oglala tiyospaye "escape" from the agency to join the resistance by Sitting Bull. A few Brulés, led by Black Eagle, a Sans Arc Indian, the Miniconjou leader Roman Nose - had resisted pressure to assimilate to the reservation bands - are between the group. In all, some eighty lodges fled, including twenty lodges of Miniconjous, fifty lodges of Oglalas, ten lodges of straggling Brulés and Sans Arcs. Northern Oglala headmen Iron Crow, leader of a mixed Hunkpatila-Oyuhpe band, White Twin, a Bad Face leader, fled about the eleventh; the fugitives hurried northwest, pausing to regroup at the staging camp near the junction of Elk Creek and the south fork of the Cheyenne River. The fugitives reorganized, the council of warriors nominating Little Hawk as the Pipe Owner for the projected flight. A Sun Dance was held to promote the spirit of solidarity.
They "called to the Great Spirit to protect them, carry them safely through to the British Possessions." Sending ahead nine men and a woman to inform Sitting Bull of their march, the village pressed on. Little Hawk coordinated the journey well, skillfully eluding army patrols to slip over the Canadian line during March and reuniting with the November breakaways in a village estimated at 250 lodges by the Canadian authorities. Including the earlier departures, Sitting Bull's alliance had been strengthened by some 280 lodges in spring 1878 doubling its numbers. For the next three years, the exiles sought to maintain their independence in Canada, but conditions deteriorated rapidly; the buffalo herds, which through the 1870s had contracted northward across Montana Territory, vanished under relentless pressure from the exiles, Canadian Indians and Métis, American hide hunters. A final series of surrenders followed as hungry Lakota bands capitulated at military posts along the upper Missouri and Yellowstone and
Grant Short Bull
Grant Short Bull was a member of Soreback Band, Oglala Lakota, a participant in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. He became a headman during the early twentieth century on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Born about 1851-52 near Fort Laramie, Short Bull was the son of a minor Oglala headman named Black Rock and his wife Scatter the Feather. Short Bull was the younger brother of the prominent Oglala. A member of the family band called the Cankahuhan or Soreback Band, Short Bull was among those who remained away from the agencies in an attempt to enjoy the traditional life for as long as possible. Short Bull was with the Soreback band on the Tongue River in January 1876 when the government's ultimatum was delivered to the northern bands. Short Bull recalled that they agreed they would go in to the Red Cloud Agency, located in northwestern Nebraska; the Sorebacks soon joined a village of Northern Cheyenne on the Powder River. While Short Bull was absent from the village on a raiding party, the village was attacked by General George Crook's troops, under the direct command of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds.
Short Bull returned in time to help recapture part of the village's horse herd. "This attack was the turning point of the situation," Short Bull explained. "If it had not been for that attack by Crook on Powder River, we would have come in to the agency that spring, there would have been no Sioux war."Short Bull participated in both the Rosebud and Little Bighorn battles. The Soreback Band, including Short Bull and He Dog, surrendered with Crazy Horse at the Red Cloud Agency on May 6, 1877. Short Bull served in Company A Indian scouts that fall, but left with the other northern bands when they fled the agency; these families cross the border into Canada to join Sitting Bull where they remained for the next three years. Short Bull surrendered with other Oglala at Fort Keogh in 1880-81 and was transferred to the Standing Rock Agency in the summer of 1881, he and other members of the Soreback band were transferred to the Pine Ridge Reservation in May 1882 where they all settled on the forks of the White River.
Short Bull married Good Hawk about 1875. During the early reservation period, she became known as Nellie Short Bull, they had two grown children: Charlie Short Bull, born in 1884, Katie, born about 1893-95. She married Arthur Blue Horse Owner. Short Bull lived the remainder of his life on the Pine Ridge Reservation where he and his wife received an allotment, he and his wife were remarried in the Presbyterian Church Dec. 28, 1911. Matilda died on May 20, 1925. Grant made regular visits to the Agate Ranch in northwestern Nebraska, home of the frontiersman James Cook. Short Bull was among the elder Oglala who attended the dedication of the Crazy Horse marker at Fort Robinson in 1934. Tragically, Grant Short Bull and his son Charlie were killed in an automobile accident north of Oglala, South Dakota, on August 20, 1935; the family was en route to a memorial dinner for Henry Young Skunk. With that single tragedy, much of the family oral history was lost, his daughter Kate Blue Horse Owner was injured in the accident.
She and her husband Arthur Blue Horse Owner subsequently took in Charlie's children and Kerman. Artist Arthur Short Bull is a great-grandson of Grant Short Bull. Dickson, Ephriam. "Reconstructing the Indian Village on the Little Bighorn: The Cankahuhan or Soreback Band, Oglala". Greasy Grass. 22: 2–14
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
Yellow Bear Matȟó Ǧí was an Oglala Lakota leader. The first Yellow Bear was a prominent headman among the Tapisleca Tiyospaye, one of the major divisions of the southern Oglala Lakota, he accompanied the first Oglala delegation to Washington, D. C. in 1870. By the following year, Colonel John E. Smith rated the size of this leader's village at about 40 lodges, one of the largest family groups within the Tapisleca Band. Yellow Bear was murdered in 1872 near Fort Laramie during a fight with the controversial white trader John Richard Jr; as the Lakota reservations were being established following the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, the majority of the Tapisleca gave up their buffalo hunting way of life and settled at the Red Cloud Agency. By 1874, leadership of Yellow Bear's band appears to have passed to Black Hawk. At about this same time, another Oglala named Yellow Bear began to emerge among the Tapisleca another "brother". Born about 1844 or 1845, Yellow Bear was one of several younger Oglala leaders who came into prominence among the Lakota during the Great Sioux War of 1876-77.
With the traditional avenues of a warrior no longer available, he is an example of how a new generation of leaders found success as an intermediary between the U. S. government and the Lakota people. Yellow Bear enlisted as a scout in General George Crook's Indian Scouts in the fall of 1876 and he participated in the Powder River Expedition, fighting alongside the Army against the Northern Cheyenne in the Dull Knife Fight. By February 1877, Yellow Bear had been promoted to Sergeant in Company B, Indian Scouts, he was recognized as the primary headman or spokesman of the Tapisleca band at the Red Cloud Agency, indications of his growing influence. Photographer D. S. Mitchell included a portrait of Yellow Bear in his series of prominent Oglala portraits taken that summer or fall. During the excitement over Crazy Horse in the fall of 1877, Yellow Bear attended the council with other Oglala headmen; when Indian scouts were used to surround Crazy Horse's village on September 4, Yellow Bear was not present but he sent word that he agreed with the action.
In the fall of 1877, he was selected as one of the Oglala delegates together with Red Cloud sent to Washington, D. C. to meet with the President. "I want to know now, the best way we can live for a long time," he told President Hayes. "I have a band of my own and I have come down to work for them." Yellow Bear married his first wife, Wild Horse, about 1870. About four years he married his wife's younger sister, Holy Day. Together, the family bore eight children; as the Oglala settled on the Pine Ridge Agency after 1878, the family bands within the Tapisleca established various communities. Yellow Bear's community, known as the Shkokpaya, settled just northwest of Allen, South Dakota, within what became known as the Pass Creek District of the reservation; the 1890 Pine Ridge census lists the Shkokpaya with 99 people. Among the band members listed was Imitates Dog, a brother of Yellow Bear. Other sisters of Yellow Bear's wives married Yellow Hawk and Little Crow, both members of the Shkokpaya. Another prominent member of the Shkokpaya was Pawnee Killer, though his relationship to Yellow Bear is not known.
Yellow Bear continued to serve as a prominent Oglala leader at Pine Ridge, again traveling to Washington, D. C. in 1888. He died September 1913 near Allen, South Dakota. In 1965, Leonard Nimoy played Yellow Bear in the episode "The Journey" of the syndicated western television series, Death Valley Days. In the story line, two cavalry officers, Richard Henry Pratt and Sergeant Wilks clash over treatment of Indian prisoners