Seigakuin Atlanta International School
Seigakuin Atlanta International School was an international, Christian elementary school located in Peachtree Corners, United States, northeast of Atlanta, It is an affiliate to Seigakuin University, therefore is a Shiritsu zaigai kyōiku shisetsu or an overseas branch of a Japanese private school. It is the only school in Greater Atlanta to have its curriculum accredited by the Japanese Ministry of Education. From its founding in 1990 until 2003, the school had been located on the property of Oglethorpe University in Brookhaven, DeKalb County. In 2003, the school moved to its final location. From April 2008 until the school's 2018 closure, Minako Oki Ahearn has served as the principal; the organization Seigakuin Atlanta International School, lnc. was founded in March 1990, classes for the SAINTS school began on September 5, 1990. The school was located on the property of Oglethorpe University in Brookhaven in unincorporated DeKalb County, in a former public elementary school building; this facility is now occupied by a charter school.
The SAINTS junior high school opened in 1993. In 1994 the Japanese Ministry of Education approved SAINTS as an overseas educational facility. In the spring of 1995 the school planned to add the final educational year; the school had no plans to add a high school. The school's first group of ninth graders were scheduled to graduate in 1996. Sherrell Evans of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution said that many would go on to area public and private high schools, or attend private Japanese boarding schools in New York and Tennessee. In 1998 the school experienced a decline in enrollment, therefore stopped admitting junior high school students; as of 2002 the school had eight students per grade. That year, the school announced plans to move to a property in Gwinnett County owned by the First Romanian Baptist Church, in proximity to Doraville; the campus had a capacity of up to 110 students. Minako Ahearn, the executive board director and business manager, said that the school was more centrally located for its students.
The school purchased the campus in March 2003, the new school opened in April of that year. A new classroom building at the Gwinnett facility opened in 2007. In 2016 Ahearn sought citing rising private school costs. International Academy of Georgia, which opened in 2018, has Ahearn as a board member. In 2017 the school's board of directors announced the school will close in 2018 since Seigakuin University no longer has the funds to support the school; as of 2014, the school operated a pre-school for children ages 3–4, a kindergarten, an elementary school that ran through the 6th grade. The school accepted qualified applicants of all national origins and racial backgrounds. Around 1994 the school implemented a policy that prevented prospective applicants who are not entering at the kindergarten level from enrolling if they do not know Japanese. During that year, Nobuaki Oda, the headmaster, said that the policy was implemented because it was too difficult for the school to teach academic subjects in a language that some students could not understand.
As of 1994, the annual tuition ranged from $3,100 to $5,320. The lowest cost was for kindergarten students and the highest cost was for junior high school students; as of 2002 the annual tuition costs ranged from $5,000 to $7,000. As of 2014 the annual tuition costs ranged from $7,000 to $9,000, though the school did offer scholarships; as of 1990, if a student left Seigakuin Atlanta in good standing, he or she had the option of automatically enrolling in the Seigakuin University network of schools in Japan. Due to the declining birthrate in Japan and the declining enrollment in private schools, Japan Seigakuin was no longer able to financially support Seigakuin Atlanta International School. For this reason, the board made the decision to close SAINTS at the end of the first term in 2018; the school used the curriculum of the Japanese Ministry of Education. As of 1990, all classes except English language classes are taught in Japanese; the textbooks originated in Japan. Unlike in Japanese schools, students at Seigakuin Atlanta studied U.
S. history. In addition, they began studying English in kindergarten. From elementary school, students studied all of the core subjects in Japanese, using the same textbooks as their peers in Japan; as students got older, English-language instruction in these core subjects was added to the curriculum, such that students might study math in Japanese on Monday continue with math in English on Tuesday. Students are exposed to both American and Japanese history and literature. By the time they reached 6th grade, about half of their instruction time was in English, half in Japanese. Sherryl Lane, an English-language instructor quoted in Transpacific, stated in 1994 that "Our students are from families interested in their children being fluent in Japanese and English" and that many parents select the school because of its English language program; the curriculum has a Christian component. As of 1994, in Kindergarten students listened to Bible stories and pray, by the seventh grade, Seigakuin Atlanta students took Bible classes.
Kindergartners learned Bible verses in both languages, while elementary students attended a twenty-minute worship service each morning. The school put on a Christmas pageant each year; as of October 2014, the school had 92 students. 5
Milledgeville is a city in and the county seat of Baldwin County in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is northeast of Macon and bordered on the east by the Oconee River; the rapid current of the river here made this an attractive location to build a city. It was the capital of Georgia from 1804 to 1868, notably during the American Civil War. Milledgeville was preceded as the capital city by Louisville and was succeeded by Atlanta, the current capital. Today U. S. Highway 441 connects Milledgeville to Madison and Dublin; the population of the town of Milledgeville was 17,715 at the 2010 census. Milledgeville is along the route of the Fall Line Freeway, under construction to link Milledgeville with Augusta, Macon and other Fall Line cities, they have long histories from the colonial era of Georgia. Milledgeville is the principal city of the Milledgeville Micropolitan Statistical Area, a micropolitan area that includes Baldwin and Hancock counties, it had a combined population of 54,776 at the 2000 census.
The Old State Capitol is located here. Much of the original city is contained within the boundaries of the Milledgeville Historic District, added to the NRHP. Milledgeville, named after Georgia governor John Milledge, was founded by European Americans at the start of the 19th century as the new centrally located capital of the state of Georgia, it served as the state capital from 1804 to 1868. In 1803 an act of the Georgia legislature called for the establishment and survey of a town to be named in honor of the current governor, John Milledge; the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson had forced Native American tribes to cede territory west of the Oconee River. The white population of Georgia continued to press south in search of new farmland; the town of Milledgeville was developed in an area that had long been occupied by indigenous peoples. In December 1804 the state legislature declared Milledgeville the new capital of Georgia; the new planned town, modeled after Savannah and Washington, D. C. stood on the edge of the frontier at the Atlantic fall line, where the Upper Coastal Plain meets the foothills and plateau of the Piedmont.
The area was surveyed, a town plat of 500 acres was divided into 84 4-acre squares. The survey included four public squares of 20 acres each. After 1815 Milledgeville became prosperous and more respectable. Wealth and power gravitated toward the capital. Much of the surrounding countryside was developed by slave labor for cotton plantations, the major commodity crop of the South. Cotton bales were set up to line the roads, waiting to be shipped downriver to Darien. Public-spirited citizens such as Tomlinson Fort promoted better newspapers, learning academies, banks. In 1837-1842 the Georgia Lunatic Asylum was built here. Oglethorpe University, where the poet Sidney Lanier was educated, opened its doors in 1838; the cotton boom in this upland area increased the demand for slave labor. The town market, where slave auctions took place, was located on Capital Square, next to the Presbyterian church. Skilled black carpenters and laborers were forced to construct most of the handsome antebellum structures in Milledgeville.
Two events epitomized Milledgeville's status as the political and social center of Georgia in this period: In 1825 the capital was visited by American Revolutionary War hero and aristocrat, the Marquis de Lafayette. The receptions, formal dinner, grand ball for the veteran apostle of liberty seemed to mark Milledgeville's coming of age; the Governor's Mansion was constructed. By 1854 Baldwin County had a total population of 8148, of whom 3566 were free, 4602 were African-American slaves. On January 19, 1861, Georgia convention delegates passed the Ordinance of Secession, on February 4, 1861, the "Republic of Georgia" joined the Confederate States of America. In the closing months of the war, in November 1864 Union general William T. Sherman and 30,000 Union troops marched into Milledgeville during his March to the Sea. Before leaving a couple of days they had poured sorghum and molasses down the pipes of the organ at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church. In 1868, during Reconstruction, the state legislature moved the capital to Atlanta—a city emerging as the symbol of the New South as as Milledgeville symbolized the Old South.
Milledgeville struggled to survive as a city after losing the business of the capital. The energetic efforts of local leaders established the Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College in 1879 on Statehouse Square. Where the crumbling remains of the old penitentiary stood, Georgia Normal and Industrial College was founded in 1889. In part because of these institutions, as well as Central State Hospital, Milledgeville developed as a less provincial town than many of its neighbors. In the 1950s the Georgia Power Company completed a dam at Furman Shoals on the Oconee River, about 5 miles north of town, creating a huge reservoir called Lake Sinclair; the lake community became an important part of the town's social and economic identity. In the 1980s and 1990s Milledgeville began to capitalize on its heritage by revitalizing the downtown and historic district, it encouraged restoration of historic buildings and an urban design scheme on Main Street to emphasi
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or, designed to hold bells if it has none. Such a tower serves as part of a church, will contain church bells, but there are many secular bell towers part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built to house a carillon. Church bell towers incorporate clocks, secular towers do, as a public service; the Italian term campanile, deriving from the word campana meaning "bell", is synonymous with bell tower. A bell tower may in some traditions be called a belfry, though this term may refer to the substructure that houses the bells and the ringers rather than the complete tower; the tallest free-standing bell tower in the world, 113.2 metres high, is the Mortegliano Bell Tower, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy. Bells are rung from a tower to enable them to be heard at a distance. Church bells can signify the time for worshippers to go to church for a communal service, can be an indication of a time to pray, without worshippers coming to the church.
They are rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. A bell tower may have a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale, they may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, or swung through a full circle to enable the high degree of control of English change ringing. They may house a carillon or chimes, in which the bells are sounded by hammers connected via cables to a keyboard; these can be found in many churches and secular buildings in Europe and America including college and university campuses. A variety of electronic devices exist to simulate the sound of bells, but any substantial tower in which a considerable sum of money has been invested will have a real set of bells; some churches have an exconjuratory in the bell tower, a space where ceremonies were conducted to ward off weather-related calamities, like storms and excessive rain.
The main bell tower of the Cathedral of Murcia has four. In Christianity, many Anglican and Lutheran churches ring their bells from belltowers three times a day, at 6 a.m. noon, 6 p.m. summoning the Christian faithful to recite the Lord’s Prayer, or the Angelus, a prayer recited in honour of the Incarnation of God. In addition, most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, signalling the start of a mass or service of worship. In many historic Christian churches, church bells are rung during the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday; the Christian tradition of the ringing of church bells from a belltower is analogous to Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. Old bell towers which are no longer used for their original purpose may be kept for their historic or architectural value, though in countries with a strong campanological tradition they continue to have the bells rung. In AD 400, Paulinus of Nola introduced church bells into the Christian Church.
By the 11th century, bells housed in belltowers became commonplace. Historic bell towers exist throughout Europe; the Irish round towers are thought to have functioned in part as bell towers. Famous medieval European examples include Bruges, Ghent; the most famous European free-standing bell tower, however, is the so-called "Leaning Tower of Pisa", the campanile of the Duomo di Pisa in Pisa, Italy. In 1999 thirty-two Belgian belfries were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 2005 this list was extended with one Belgian and twenty-three Northern French belfries and is since known as Belfries of Belgium and France. Most of these were attached to civil buildings city halls, as symbols of the greater power the cities in the region got in the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, cities sometimes kept their important documents in belfries. Not all are on a large scale. Archaic wooden bell towers survive adjoining churches in Lithuania and as well as in some parts of Poland. In Orthodox Eastern Europe bell ringing have a strong cultural significance, churches were constructed with bell towers.
Bell towers are common in the countries of related cultures. They may appear both as part of a temple complex and as an independent civic building paired with a drum tower, as well as in local church buildings. Among the best known examples are the Bell Tower of Beijing and the Bell Tower of Xi'an. Bell towers and campaniles by date Bell-gable Clock tower Conjuratory Octagon on cube Zvonnitsa Belfries of Belgium and France, UNESCO World Heritage Centre entry Les Beffrois - France, Pays-Bas, blog describing several bell towers All Saints Bell Tower
Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. is the first African-American, intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity. It was a literary and social studies club organized in the 1905–1906 school year at Cornell University but evolved into a fraternity with a founding date of December 4, 1906, at Cornell, it employs an icon from the Great Sphinx of Giza, as its symbol. Its aims are "Manly Deeds and Love For All Mankind," and its motto is "First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All." Its archives are preserved at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center. Chapters were chartered at Howard University and Virginia Union University in 1907; the fraternity has over 290,000 members and has been open to men of all races since 1945. There are more than 730 active chapters in the Americas, Europe, the Caribbean, Asia, it is the largest predominately African-American fraternity and one of the ten largest collegiate fraternities in the nation. Alpha Phi Alpha is a social organization with a service organization mission and provided leadership and service during the Great Depression, World Wars, Civil Rights Movement.
The fraternity addresses social issues such as apartheid, AIDS, urban housing, other economic and political issues of interest to people of color. National programs and initiatives of the fraternity include A Voteless People Is a Hopeless People, My Brother's Keeper, Go To High School, Go To College, Project Alpha, the World Policy Council, it conducts philanthropic programming initiatives with the March of Dimes, Head Start, the Boy Scouts of America, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America. Members of this fraternity include many historical civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. NAACP founder W. E. B. Du Bois, John Mack and Dick Gregory. Other world renowned-members include political activist Cornel West, musicians Duke Ellington and Lionel Richie, NBA legend Walt Frazier, Jamaican Prime Minister Norman Manley, Olympic gold medalist Jesse Owens, Justice Thurgood Marshall and founder of Vista Equity Partners Robert F. Smith, United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, Academy Award-winning director Barry Jenkins, six time MTV Video Music Awards - winning director/choreographer Frank Gatson Jr. hero of the Nashville Waffle House shooting, James Shaw Jr. and ESPN sportscasters Stuart Scott, Stan Verrett and Jay Harris.
Alpha Phi Alpha was directly responsible for the conception and construction of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial next to the National Mall in Washington D. C. At the start of the 20th century, African-American students at American universities were excluded from fraternal organizations enjoyed by the predominantly white student population at non-black colleges. C. C. Poindexter organized a group of students for literary discussion and social functions at Cornell University; the group consisted of 15 students and included women. The initial study group consisted of 14 students; these students included four from Washington, D. C. – Robert Ogle, Fred Morgan Phillip, Fannie Holland, Flaxie Holcosbe. There were four men and a woman from New York State: George Kelley, Henry A. Callis, James Thomas, Gordon Jones, Paul Ray. From West Virginia came Mary Vassar. Vertner Tandy came from Kentucky, C. H. Chapman was from Florida; the group met every two weeks at 421 North Albany Street. Poindexter was stated to have a relationship with the other students of the group, more faculty to student than peer-to-peer, given that he was the secretary of a professor at Cornell.
In December 1905, Poindexter organized a meeting of students which included Murray, Phillips, Kelley, Callis and George Tompkins. Robert Ogle had seen an article in the Chicago Defender magazine about a Negro fraternity at Ohio State University called Pi Gamma Omicron, of which the university had no knowledge. Pi Gamma Omicron inspired Ogle to try to transform the literary society into a fraternity. There was disagreement about the group's purpose: some wanted a social and literary club where everyone could participate. Poindexter felt the group should serve the cultural and social needs of the black community and not be an elite secret society; the society decided to work to provide a literary, study and support group for all minority students who encountered social and academic racial prejudice. On October 23, 1906, George Kelley proposed that the organization be known by the Greek letters Alpha Phi Alpha, Robert Ogle proposed the colors black and old gold. Poindexter became the first President of Alpha Phi Alpha.
The divisive issue of whether the terms "club" or "fraternity" should be used was still debated. A vote again confirmed the name Alpha Phi Alpha with the colors of black; the initiation of new members Eugene Kinckle Jones, Lemuel Graves and Gordon Jones took place on October 30, 1906 at a Masonic Hall including James Morton was considered and selected, but at the time he was not registered at the university. Two founding members learned about fraternity rituals from other fraternal organizations: Henry A. Callis worked in the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity House, Kelly worked at Beta Theta Pi fraternity house. Coincidentally, an article about a Negro fraternity Pi Gamma Omicron's ambitions to become a national fraternity was noted by a Beta Theta Pi correspondent at Ohio State University. Callis said that these fraternities, SAE and BTP, were the original source of the fraternity rituals; the other members of the group felt that Poindexter, as a graduate stude
Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire is a 1981 British historical drama film. It tells the fact-based story of two athletes in the 1924 Olympics: Eric Liddell, a devout Scottish Christian who runs for the glory of God, Harold Abrahams, an English Jew who runs to overcome prejudice; the film was conceived and produced by David Puttnam, written by Colin Welland, directed by Hugh Hudson. Ben Cross and Ian Charleson starred as Abrahams and Liddell, alongside Nigel Havers, Ian Holm, Lindsay Anderson, John Gielgud, Cheryl Campbell, Alice Krige in supporting roles, it was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four, including Best Picture and Best Original Screenplay. It is ranked 19th in the British Film Institute's list of Top 100 British films; the film is notable for its memorable electronic theme tune by Vangelis, who won the Academy Award for Best Original Score. The film's title was inspired by the line, "Bring me my Chariot of fire!", from the William Blake poem adapted into the popular British hymn "Jerusalem".
The original phrase "chariot of fire" is from 2 Kings 6:17 in the Bible. In 1919, Harold Abrahams enters the University of Cambridge, where he experiences anti-Semitism from the staff, but enjoys participating in the Gilbert and Sullivan club, he becomes the first person to complete the Trinity Great Court Run, running around the college courtyard in the time it takes for the clock to strike 12, achieves an undefeated string of victories in various national running competitions. Although focused on his running, he falls in love with a leading Gilbert and Sullivan soprano, Sybil. Eric Liddell, born in China of Scottish missionary parents, is in Scotland, his devout sister Jennie disapproves of Liddell's plans to pursue competitive running, but Liddell sees running as a way of glorifying God before returning to China to work as a missionary. When they first race against each other, Liddell beats Abrahams. Abrahams takes it poorly, but Sam Mussabini, a professional trainer whom he had approached earlier, offers to take him on to improve his technique.
This attracts criticism from the Cambridge college masters, who allege it is not gentlemanly for an amateur to "play the tradesman" by employing a professional coach. Abrahams dismisses this concern, interpreting it as cover for anti-Semitic and class-based prejudice; when Eric Liddell accidentally misses a church prayer meeting because of his running, his sister Jennie upbraids him and accuses him of no longer caring about God. Eric tells her that though he intends to return to the China mission, he feels divinely inspired when running, that not to run would be to dishonour God, saying, "I believe that God made me for a purpose, but He made me fast, when I run, I feel His pleasure." The two athletes, after years of training and racing, are accepted to represent Great Britain in the 1924 Olympics in Paris. Accepted are Abrahams' Cambridge friends, Lord Andrew Lindsay, Aubrey Montague, Henry Stallard. While boarding the boat to Paris for the Olympics, Liddell discovers the heats for his 100-metre race will be on a Sunday.
He refuses to run the race, despite strong pressure from the Prince of Wales and the British Olympic committee, because his Christian convictions prevent him from running on the Sabbath. A solution is found thanks to Liddell's teammate Lindsay, having won a silver medal in the 400 metres hurdles, offers to give his place in the 400-metre race on the following Thursday to Liddell, who gratefully agrees. Liddell's religious convictions in the face of national athletic pride make headlines around the world. Liddell delivers a sermon at the Paris Church of Scotland that Sunday, quotes from Isaiah 40, ending with, "But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength. Abrahams is badly beaten by the favoured United States runners in the 200 metre race, he knows. He competes in the race, wins, his coach Sam Mussabini is overcome that the years of dedication and training have paid off with an Olympic gold medal. Now Abrahams can get on with his life and reunite with his girlfriend Sybil, whom he had neglected for the sake of running.
Before Liddell's race, the American coach remarks dismissively to his runners that Liddell has little chance of doing well in his now, far longer, 400 metre race. But one of the American runners, Jackson Scholz, hands Liddell a note of support, quoting 1 Samuel 2:30 "He that honors Me I will honor". Liddell wins the gold medal; the British team returns home triumphant. As the film ends, onscreen text explains that Abrahams married Sybil, became the elder statesman of British athletics. Liddell went on to missionary work in China. All of Scotland mourned his death in 1945 in Japanese-occupied China. Ben Cross as Harold Abrahams, a Jewish student at Cambridge University Ian Charleson as Eric Liddell, the son of Scottish missionaries to China Nicholas Farrell as Aubrey Montague, a runner and friend of Harold Abrahams Nigel Havers as Lord Andrew Lindsay, a Cambridge student runner based on David Burghley and Douglas Lowe Ian Holm as Sam Mussabini, Abrahams's running coach John Gielgud as Master of Trinity College at Cambridge University Lindsay Anderson as Master of Caius College at Cambridge University Cheryl Campbell as Jennie Liddell, Eric's devout sister Alice Krige as Sybil Gordon, Abrahams' fiancée Struan Rodger as Sandy McGrath
A time capsule is a historic cache of goods or information intended as a method of communication with future people and to help future archaeologists, anthropologists, or historians. Time capsules are sometimes created and buried during celebrations such as a world's fair, a cornerstone laying for a building, or at other events. Time capsules are placed with the intention that they will be accessed at a future date. One of the earliest time capsules known was discovered in November 2017 in Burgos, Spain. A wooden statue of Jesus Christ had hidden inside it a document with economic and cultural information, written by Joaquín Mínguez, chaplain of the Cathedral of Burgo de Osma in 1777. An early example of the use of a time capsule was the Detroit Century Box; the brainchild of Detroit mayor William C. Maybury, it was created on December 31, 1900, scheduled to be opened 100 years later, it was filled with photographs and letters from 56 prominent residents describing life in 1900 and making predictions for the future, included a letter by Maybury addressed to the mayor of Detroit in 2000.
The capsule was opened by city officials on December 31, 2000, in a ceremony presided over by mayor Dennis Archer. The 1939 New York World's Fair time capsule was created by Westinghouse as part of their exhibit, it was 90 inches long, with an interior diameter of 6.5 inches, weighed 800 pounds. Westinghouse named the copper and silver alloy "Cupaloy", claiming it had the same strength as mild steel, it contained everyday items such as a spool of thread and doll, a Book of Record, a vial of staple food crop seeds, a microscope and a 15-minute RKO Pathé Pictures newsreel. Microfilm spools condensed the contents of a Sears Roebuck catalog, dictionary and other texts; this first modern time capsule was followed in 1965 by a second capsule at the same site, but 10 feet to the north of the original. Both capsules are buried 50 feet below site of the Fair. Both the 1939 and 1965 Westinghouse Time Capsules are meant to be opened in 6939. More in 1985, Westinghouse created a smaller, Plexiglas shell to be buried beneath the New York Marriott Marquis hotel, in the heart of New York's theater district.
However, this time capsule was never put in place. The Crypt of Civilization at Oglethorpe University, intended to be opened in 8113, is regarded as the first modern time capsule, although it was not called one at the time. George Edward Pendray is responsible for coining the term "time capsule." During the socialist period in the USSR, many time capsules were buried with messages to a future communist society. Four time capsules are "buried" in space; the two Pioneer Plaques and the two Voyager Golden Records have been attached to spacecraft for the possible benefit of spacefarers in the distant future. A fifth time capsule, the KEO satellite, was scheduled to be launched in 2015-16. However, it has been delayed several times and an actual launch date has not been given. After launch, it will carry individual messages from Earth's inhabitants addressed to earthlings around the year 52,000, when it is due to return to Earth, it is debated when time capsules were first used but current evidence shows it was used as early as 1876, the principle is simple and the idea and first use of time capsules could be much older than we know.
In 2014, a Revolutionary-era time capsule was found at the Massachusetts State House dating to 1795 and credited to Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. It was opened in 1855 with some contents added. A time capsule dating 1777 was discovered within a religious statute in Sotillo de la Ribera; the International Time Capsule Society was created to maintain a global database of all existing time capsules. According to time capsule historian William Jarvis, most intentional time capsules do not provide much useful historical information: they are filled with "useless junk", new and pristine in condition, that tells little about the people of the time. Many time capsules today contain only artifacts of limited value to future historians. Historians suggest that items which describe the daily lives of the people who created them, such as personal notes and documents, would increase the value of the time capsule to future historians. If time capsules have a museum-like goal of preserving the culture of a particular time and place for study, they fulfill this goal poorly in that they, by definition, are kept sealed for a particular length of time.
Subsequent generations between the launch date and the target date will have no direct access to the artifacts and therefore these generations are prevented from learning from the contents directly. Therefore, time capsules can be seen, in respect to their usefulness to historians, as dormant museums, their releases timed for some date so far in the future that the building in question is no longer intact. Historians concede that there are many preservation issues surrounding the selection of the media to transmit this information to the future; some of these issues include the obsolescence of technology and the deterioration of electronic and magnetic storage media, possible language problems if the capsule is dug up in the distant future. Many buried time capsules are lost, as interest in them fades and the exact location is forgotten, or they are destroyed within a few years by groundwater. Archives and archival materials, including videos, might be the best types of time capsules, as long as the medium can still be used, or the data can be read by the latest technologies and software.
The 1947 docudrama The Beginning or the End is a semi-his