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Ogmios was the Celtic deity of eloquence. He looked like an older version of Heracles who would use his powers of persuasion to bind men to himself. Most of the knowledge about Ogmios comes from comparisons between him and powerful deities and heroes in other ancient cultures. Though there is not much on the history of Ogmios, we can tell that he was a powerful deity worshipped by the Gauls, the Celtic people of France, he is attested not only in Lucian's account, but in archaeological remains, such as coins and statuary, from the time of the Roman conquest of the Gauls. French specialists give two different explications of the Gaulish name: Philippe Jouët proposed to connect Ogme to the Indo-European root word *Hek- ‘sharp’, ‘stone’, ‘vault’, to the Greek akmon. According to Xavier Delamarre, the root word would be ‘path’, ‘guide’, confirming in this his role as a psychopomp. Ogmios was recorded by a satirical writer in 2nd-century Samosata in his Prolalia-Heraklès, he is described as resembling an older, more tanned version of the Greek hero of strength.

Ogmios and Heracles both carry a bow and club in their hands. However Ogmios is depicted with long chains through his smiling mouth that pierce his tongue and attached to the ears of a group of men that willingly and follow him. Anne Ross describes dark complexion as "a not uncommon feature of powerful or malevolent supernatural beings"; the most striking aspects of Lucian's image of Ogmios are the thin, long chains running from his tongue to the ears of his followers. The chains, made out of amber and gold, represent Ogmios using his powers of persuasion and eloquence to bind his listeners to his every word. From the description it appears that Ogmios' followers willingly follow him with cheerful faces and try to get as close to Ogmios as they can; this shows that he has the power to change and influence men's minds so that they want to follow him to the ends of the earth. Ogmios is considered to be a binding god and a psychopomp, both powerful positions; as a binding god he has the ability to control their actions.

He can create defixiones, which are tablets that have curses which he can bind on to other people. There are two known defixiones, recovered from Bregenz, that Ogmios is said to have created. Not much is known about the story behind the defixiones, but it is known that one such tablet invokes Ogmios to curse a barren woman so that she can never marry a man. Ogmios is a psychopomp, binding the souls of the dead onto himself and leading them to the afterlife. All of the knowledge about Ogmios comes from the comparisons of him to other deities or divine heroes of different ancient cultures. By about 51 B. C. the Roman Empire had conquered Gaul. When the Gauls disappeared so did Ogmios. However, the existence of Ogmios can still be seen in Irish mythology, their deity, has many similarities to Ogmios, which could mean that they were once the same deity. Long after the Romans conquered the Gauls, the Roman satirist Lucian wrote a satirical story about Celtic beliefs, it describes a Celtic man looking at a painting of Ogmios.

Lucian's description of the painting is the main source of visual representation of Ogmios. Lucian looks at the painting with horror because the painting says that the Celts liken Ogmios to Heracles. Ogmios appears to be an older version of Heracles since both Ogmios and Heracles wear lion skins and carry a bow and club. Lucian is shocked to see that “the men do not think of escaping… In fact, they follow cheerfully and joyously, applauding their leader and all pressing him close and keeping the leashes slack in their desire to overtake him. Heracles has the power of strength and Ogmios has the power of eloquence; the Celts believe that eloquence is the ultimate power because it can enthral men and control them more so than strength can. Ogmios is sometimes compared to Hermes, a Greek deity. To the Greeks Hermes was a symbol of eloquence as well as a psychopomp; the Irish deity closest related to Ogmios is Oghma, a warrior of the Túatha Dé Danann, credited with inventing the Ogham alphabet. Both Ogmios and Ogma are known as smiling deities of eloquence.

Ogma is attested from Old and Middle Irish literature, which dates to later periods than the material for Ogmios. Egger, Rudolf.. Römische Antike und frühes Christentum: Ausgewählte Schriften von Rudolf Egger. Lebensjahres, ed. Artur Betz and Gotbert Moro. 2 vols. Klagenfurt: Verlag des Geschichtsvereines für Kärnten

Meaning of life

The meaning of life, or the answer to the question: "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include: "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been many proposed answers to these questions from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds. The search for life's meaning has produced much philosophical, scientific and metaphysical speculation throughout history. Different people and cultures believe different things for the answer to this question; the meaning of life as we perceive it is derived from philosophical and religious contemplation of, scientific inquiries about existence, social ties and happiness. Many other issues are involved, such as symbolic meaning, value, ethics and evil, free will, the existence of one or multiple gods, conceptions of God, the soul, the afterlife. Scientific contributions focus on describing related empirical facts about the universe, exploring the context and parameters concerning the "how" of life.

Science studies and can provide recommendations for the pursuit of well-being and a related conception of morality. An alternative, humanistic approach poses the question, "What is the meaning of my life?" Questions about the meaning of life have been expressed in a broad variety of ways, including the following: What is the meaning of life? What's it all about? Who are we? Why are we here? What are we here for? What is the origin of life? What is the nature of life? What is the nature of reality? What is the purpose of life? What is the purpose of one's life? What is the significance of life? – see § Psychological significance and value in life What is meaningful and valuable in life? What is the value of life? What is the reason to live? What are we living for? These questions have resulted in a wide range of competing answers and arguments, from scientific theories, to philosophical and spiritual explanations. Many members of the scientific community and philosophy of science communities think that science can provide the relevant context, set of parameters necessary for dealing with topics related to the meaning of life.

In their view, science can offer a wide range of insights on topics ranging from the science of happiness to death anxiety. Scientific inquiry facilitates this through nomological investigation into various aspects of life and reality, such as the Big Bang, the origin of life, evolution, by studying the objective factors which correlate with the subjective experience of meaning and happiness. Researchers in positive psychology study empirical factors that lead to life satisfaction, full engagement in activities, making a fuller contribution by utilizing one's personal strengths, meaning based on investing in something larger than the self. Large-data studies of flow experiences have suggested that humans experience meaning and fulfillment when mastering challenging tasks, that the experience comes from the way tasks are approached and performed rather than the particular choice of task. For example, flow experiences can be obtained by prisoners in concentration camps with minimal facilities, occur only more in billionaires.

A classic example is of two workers on an boring production line in a factory. One treats the work as a tedious chore while the other turns it into a game to see how fast she can make each unit, achieves flow in the process. Neuroscience describes reward and motivation in terms of neurotransmitter activity in the limbic system and the ventral tegmental area in particular. If one believes that the meaning of life is to maximize pleasure and to ease general life this allows normative predictions about how to act to achieve this; some ethical naturalists advocate a science of morality—the empirical pursuit of flourishing for all conscious creatures. Experimental philosophy and neuroethics research collects data about human ethical decisions in controlled scenarios such as trolley problems, it has shown that many types of ethical judgment are universal across cultures, suggesting that they may be innate, whilst others are culture specific. The findings show actual human ethical reasoning to be at odds with most logical philosophical theories, for example showing distinctions between action by cause and action by omission which would be absent from utility based theories.

Cognitive science has theorized about differences between conservative and liberal ethics and how they may be based on different metaphors from family life such as strong fathers vs nurturing mother models. Neurotheology is a controversial field which tries to find neural correlates and mechanisms of religious experience; some researchers have suggested that the human brain has innate mechanisms for such experiences and that living without using them for their evolved purposes may be a cause of imbalance. Studies have reported conflicted results on correlating happiness with religious belief and it is difficult to find unbiased meta-analyses. Sociology examines value at a social level using theoretical constructs such as value theory, anomie, etc. One value system suggested by social psychologists, broadly called Terror Management Theory, states that human meaning is derived from a fundamental fear of death, values are selected when they allow us to escape the mental reminder of death. Alongside this, there are a number of theories about the way in which humans evaluate the positive and negative aspects of their existence and thus the value and meaning they place on their lives.

For example, depressive realism posits an exaggerated positivity in all except those experienc

Maurizio Bevilacqua

Maurizio Bevilacqua is an Italian-Canadian politician serving as mayor of Vaughan, Ontario. He was a Liberal Member of Parliament from 1988 to 2010 and was one of eleven candidates for the leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada but dropped out of the race on August 14, 2006, he has been described in the media as a "right-of-centre, business friendly Liberal". He resigned his seat in the House of Commons of Canada and announced on September 3, 2010, that he would be a candidate for mayor of Vaughan. On October 25 he was elected mayor. Born in Sulmona, Italy, he arrived in Canada in 1970 at the age of 10; as a youth, he received a Bachelor of Arts from York University. He is a graduate of Fordham University- The Jesuit University of New York City where he earned his Master of Arts degree, he has Jean-Paul and Victoria. He first got involved in party politics by working as a staffer for Sergio Marchi, would participate in student politics at York University. Elected in the 1988 election, he defeated the Progressive Conservative candidate by only 77 votes.

Due to the closeness of the race, the results were voided by the courts, a by-election was called for 1990. Bevilacqua surprised many when he defeated parachute candidate Maria Minna for the Liberal nomination in the 1990 by-election of York North, he won the by-election despite a strong effort by the New Democratic Party. Bevilacqua represented the districts of Vaughan -- King -- Aurora and Vaughan, he is a former secretary of state and. He is a former parliamentary secretary to the minister of Labour and to the Minister of Employment and Immigration, he was a consultant. He was the longtime chair of the Commons finance committee. While a fiscal conservative, Bevilacqua has supported same-sex marriage."Hon. members, everything I believe, everything that I hold dear, my social and cultural make-up, my personal beliefs as a human being, tells me that abortion is wrong. I feel within myself, that abortion is against the natural order, it negates the essence of our being" - Maurizio Bevilacqua. "I do not understand how any of us can accept giving the responsibility and the right to anyone to decide on who will live and who will not" - Maurizio Bevilacqua.

Bevilacqua was the first Liberal to declare his support for Paul Martin's failed 1990 bid for the leadership of the party. Bevilacqua supports a common integration with the U. S. Dollar Currency. "Mr. Bevilacqua's outspoken criticism of economic protectionism, his support for continental integration and a common currency with the United States, could put him at odds with more traditional Liberals." National PostHe holds the record for the largest personal margin of victory in a Canadian federal election, winning his seat by a margin of 51,389 votes over his closest rival in 1993. On April 19, 2006, he declared his candidacy for the leadership of the Liberal Party, joining Martha Hall Findlay, Michael Ignatieff, Stéphane Dion as official entrants into the leadership race, his supporters included MPs Gerry Byrne and Roy Cullen, former Cabinet minister Roy MacLaren and former party pollster Michael Marzolini. He attracted the support of former Chrétien organizers Tennio Evangelista, Jeff Angel and Jeff Smith.

His campaign for the Liberal Party leadership was not successful and he dropped out of the race on August 14, 2006 to support fellow Liberal Party leadership candidate Bob Rae. Bevilacqua announced in early September 2010 that he was running in the 2010 Vaughan municipal election for the position of mayor; the announcement came shortly after his resignation as Member of Parliament for Vaughan. He defeated controversial incumbent Linda Jackson, the former mayor, still facing charges from election finance irregularities stemming from her 2006 mayoral victory. Official site How'd They Vote?: Maurizio Bevilacqua's voting history and quotes Maurizio BevilacquaParliament of Canada biography

Cumberland Railway and Coal Company

The Cumberland Railway and Coal Company is a defunct Canadian industrial company with interests in coal mines in Springhill, Nova Scotia, a railway that operated from Springhill Junction to Parrsboro. The General Mining Association had been established in 1825 to develop mineral rights in Nova Scotia held by the Duke of York; the lease was abrogated in 1857 after the colonial government of Nova Scotia had released all mineral rights in the colony in 1849. In compensation for this loss of mineral rights, the GMA was permitted to retain certain assets in specific geographic areas. Among those rights was a 4 square mile property on a hill in central Cumberland County; the lack of transportation prevented mining development at Springhill until 1870 when the construction of the Intercolonial Railway between Truro and Moncton came through the area. This instigated several corporate moves for acquiring mineral rights in the Springhill Coal Field. Since the Intercolonial Railway's preferred route was the most direct east-west line possible, the Spring Hill and Parrsborough Coal and Railway Company was incorporated in 1872 as a mining and railway company to link from a mine at Springhill south to the port of Parrsboro on the Bay of Fundy from which coal could be shipped to destinations in southern Nova Scotia and along the eastern seaboard of North America.

The same investors created the Pugwash and Spring Hill Railway Company, which received a charter to build a line north to the Northumberland Strait port of Pugwash from which coal could be shipped to northern Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, eastern New Brunswick and Quebec. Both railway lines were promised a subsidy that year by the provincial government for their construction. However, the investors were able to reduce the amount of new railway construction required in Cumberland County after they encouraged local politicians to persuade the Intercolonial Railway surveyors to route that railway's main line further south from the direct route between Oxford Junction and Amherst, thus the line made a diversion of several miles to what came to be named Springhill Junction where the Spring Hill and Parrsoborough Railway would link to the new government-owned railway. The prospect of the railway connection with the Intercolonial saw the Spring Hill & Parrsborough Coal & Railway Company lease several areas of Crown mineral rights outside the GMA holdings in the Springhill area to develop a coal mine.

In 1874 the provincial government confirmed an attractive subsidy for constructing the railway: 10,000 acres and $5,000 per mile. In 1875, the company secured financing and began construction with the railway line reaching Parrsboro two years later; the Spring Hill & Parrsborough Railway opened on July 1, 1877 and began shipping coal to the port. The Pugwash & Spring Hill Railway was never constructed as a result of the construction of the Intercolonial Railway connecting to additional markets. In 1878, the Springhill colliery had reached the boundary of the GMA holdings and in 1879 the provincial government revoked the GMA lease and transferred the mineral rights for the property to the Spring Hill and Parrsborough Coal and Railway Company. Construction costs for the railway and expansion of the colliery had impacted company finances. Revenues were insufficient to pay interest on company bonds and bankruptcy was declared with the company liquidated in 1883; the Cumberland Coal and Railway Company was incorporated in 1883 and changed its name to Cumberland Railway and Coal Company in 1884 when it purchased the assets of the Springhill and Parrsborough Coal and Railway Company.

The new CR&C began mining on a much larger scale, opening the No. 1 and No. 2 collieries on the Springhill Coal Field. The company suffered a devastating loss on February 21, 1891 when a fire ignited accumulated coal dust in both collieries killed 125 miners. Following the fire, coal production resumed on an ever-increasing scale in the Springhill Coal Field, fed by the railway boom across Canada and the economic protection afforded by the National Policy which prevented a flood of cheap American coal into the country. In 1910 the Dominion Coal Company Limited absorbed the Cumberland Railway and Coal Company, maintaining the CR&C as a subsidiary. DOMCO was merged into the British Empire Steel Corporation in the early 1920s, subsumed by the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation in 1930. In 1957 DOSCO was acquired by Avro Canada, which became Hawker Siddeley Canada in 1962. Under DOSCO ownership, the CR&C operated its Springhill mines as efficiently as possible, however by the 1950s, demand for coal was softening as railways dieselized and alternative heating fuels were implemented.

DOSCO made few capital investments in the Springhill mines as production was winding down, believed to have contributed to two mining tragedies in that decade. The 1956 Explosion was killed 39 miners; the mines returned to production in January 1957 however few improvements were made, other than what was necessary to begin mining again. Declining export markets for Springhill coal saw the CR&C decide to stop shipments through the port of Parrsboro in the summer of 1958; the last train operated to Parrsboro on June 14. That fall saw the final chapter in Springhill mining history; the 1958 Bump was caused by the use of "room and pillar" mining techniques up until the late 1930s, creating undue stress on the local geology. Despite using


The huēhuētl is a percussion instrument from Mexico, used by the Aztecs and other cultures. It is an upright tubular drum made from a wooden body opened at the bottom that stands on three legs cut from its base, with skin stretched over the top, it can be beaten by wood mallet. This ancient percussion instrument originated from Mesoamerica and was used by the Aztecs and Tarascan; the huehuetl were used during festivals such as warrior gatherings. The drum itself is made from hollowed tree trunks and thus, came in different sizes. Carvings of animals, faces or warriors were often carved into the base of the drum; the skin used for the top of the drum was from ocelots. There are still groups of musicians who use huehuetls to perform Aztec music. Teponaztli Coe, Michael D..

Charles Colville, 1st Viscount Colville of Culross

Charles John Colville, 1st Viscount Colville of Culross, known as The Lord Colville of Culross between 1849 and 1902, was a British nobleman, Conservative politician and courtier. Colville was the son of General the Honourable Sir Charles Colville and the grandson of John Colville, 8th Lord Colville of Culross, he was educated at Harrow. Colville served as a captain in the 11th Hussars, he succeeded his uncle in the lordship of Colville of Culross 1849 and was elected a Scottish Representative Peer in 1851. He served under Lord Derby as Chief Equerry and Clerk Marshal from February to December 1852 and again from 1858 to 1859 and under Derby and subsequently Benjamin Disraeli as Master of the Buckhounds from 1866 to 1868. In 1866 he was sworn of the Privy Council, he was Lord Chamberlain to the Princess of Wales from 1873 to 1901 and was appointed in the same capacity to her as Queen Alexandra from 1901 to 1903. Colville was Chairman of the Great Northern Railway Company from 1872 to 1895, a director of the Central London Railway at its opening in 1900 and President of the Honourable Artillery Company.

He was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1874 and created Baron Colville of Culross, in the County of Perth, in 1885, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1902 he was further honoured with a Viscountcy in the Coronation Honours list, when he was made Viscount Colville of Culross, in the County of Perth, on 15 July 1902. Lord Colville of Culross married the Honourable Cecile Catherine Mary Carrington, eldest daughter of Robert Carrington, 2nd Baron Carrington, in 1853, their second son was Sir Stanley Colville. Another son, was the father of Sir Jock Colville, civil servant and memoirist. Lord Colville of Culross died in July 1903, aged 84, was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Colville of Culross