click links in text for more info

Ogooué River

The Ogooué, some 1,200 kilometres long, is the principal river of Gabon in west central Africa and the fourth largest river in Africa by volume of discharge, trailing only the Congo and Zambezi. Its watershed drains nearly the entire country of Gabon, with some tributaries reaching into the Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea; the Ogooué River rises in the northwest of the Bateke Plateaux near Republic of Congo. It runs northwest, enters Gabon near Boumango. Poubara Falls are near Maulongo. From Lastoursville until Ndjole, the Ogooué is non-navigable due to rapids. From the latter city, it runs west, enters the Gulf of Guinea near Ozouri, south of Port Gentil; the Ogowe Delta is about 100 km long and 100 km wide. The Ogooué Basin is 223,856 square kilometres, of which 173,000 square kilometres or 73 percent lies within Gabon, it consists of undisturbed rainforest with some savanna grassland where the mid-year dry season is longest. It is home to a high biodiversity. All three species of African crocodile, for instance, occur in the river: the Nile crocodile, the dwarf crocodile, the slender-snouted crocodile.

It is the type locality for the catfish Synodontis acanthoperca. The Mpassa River is a tributary of the Ogooué River; the Ndjoumou River is the main tributary of Mpassa River. The Ogooué is navigable from Ndjole to the sea, it is used to bring wood to the Port Gentil Harbour. The Ogowe Basin includes several major conservation reserves, including Lope National Park; the catchment area has an average population density of 4 people per km². Towns along the river include Ayem, Adané, Lambaréné, Booué, Maulongo, Mboungou-Mbadouma, Lastoursville and Franceville near the Congo border. Towns in Congo include Zanaga; the first European explorer to trace the river to its source was Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, who traveled in the area in the 1870s. The Ogowe River receives water of numerous tributaries including: Abanga, which rises in the Cristal Mountains, near Medouneu Baniaka Dilo Iyinda, the most important tributary Letili Lassio Lebombi Lekabi Lekedi Lekoni, which flows across Akieni and Leconi Letili Leyou Lolo Mbine Ngolo Ngounie Nke Offoue Okano, whose main tributary is the Lara River Mpassa, which flows across Franceville Sebe, which flows past Okondja Wagny Perusset André.

1983. Oro-Hydrographie in Geographie et Cartographie du Gabon, Atlas Illustré led by The Ministère de l'Education Nationale de la Republique Gabonaise. Pg 10-13. Paris, France: Edicef. Petringa, Maria. Brazza, A Life for Africa. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 9781-4259-11980. Describes Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's extensive explorations of the Ogoué River basin. National Geographic. 2003. African Adventure Atlas Pg 24,72. Led by Sean Fraser. Gardinier David. 1994. Historical Dictionary of Gabon 2nd Edition. USA: The Scarercrow Press, Inc. Direction General de L'Environnement.1999. Stratégie nationale et Plan D'action sur la biodiversité biologique du Gabon; the Atlas of Africa. Pg 201. By Regine Van Chi-Bonnardel. Jeune Afrique Editions. Lerique Jacques. 1983. Hydrographie-Hydrologie. in Geographie et Cartographie du Gabon, Atlas Illustré led by The Ministère de l'Education Nationale de la Republique Gabonaise. Pg 14-15. Paris, France: Edicef. World Resources Institute map of Ogooué watershed Map of the Ogoué River basin at Water Resources eAtlas Maria Petringa's 1997 "Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza: Brief Life of a Lover of Africa" about Brazza's extensive explorations of the Ogoué River basin Website about the dinosaur hunt


Youngina is an extinct genus of diapsid reptile from the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Red Beds of South Africa. This, a few related forms, make up the family Younginidae, within the Order Eosuchia. Eosuchia, having become a wastebasket taxon for many distantly-related primitive diapsid reptiles ranging from the Late Carboniferous to the Eocene, Romer proposed that it be replaced by Younginiformes. Youngina is known from several specimens. Many of these were attributed to as separate genera and species, but it was realized that they were not distinct from Y. capensis. The holotype specimen of Youngina was described in 1914; the "Youngoides romeri" specimen was first attributed to Youngina, but given its eponymous and separate designation in a paper. Acanthotoposaurus is a junior synonym of Youngina. Youngina was once thought to be related to Acerosodontosaurus, more distantly to tangasaurids, but the monophyly of younginiforms has not been demonstrated in published analyses of diapsid reptiles, it is this group is paraphyletic.

Acerosodontosaurus is closer to other former "younginiforms", rather than being related to Youngina. Below is a cladogram from the analysis of Reisz et al. showing the phylogenetic position of Youngina among early diapsids: Youngina could have been a moderately sized early reptile, comparable to size to some medium-sized monitor lizards such as Gould's monitor. The braincase anatomy was redescribed in 2010, Youngina shows a mosaic of features found in more primitive diapsids and more derived taxa such as archosauromorphs and lepidosauromorphs suggesting a non-orthogenetic evolution of these characters. Though the palatobasal articulation is open, it was immobile, similar to the skull of the tuatara, contrary to some earlier claims made about the metakinetic mobility of basicranial joints in Youngina and other early diapsid reptiles

Estonian national road 2

Põhimaantee 2 is a 283-kilometre-long north-south national main road in Estonia. The route follows the same path as the European route E263; the highway starts in Tallinn. From there the main cities passed are Paide, Põltsamaa, Tartu and Võru; the highway ends in Lüta on the intersection with the T7. The road forms a major transport north-south transport route within Estonia, as it connects the two largest cities in Estonia. In 2015, the highest traffic volumes were around Tallinn, with the AADT there being around 20000; the figures rise again around Tartu, hovering around 11000. The road is a dual carriageway for 44 kilometres; the main part is between Kose. The remainder can be found near Tartu; the first Estonian highway between Kose and Mäo is planned to be completed in 2022. The current road is a first in many road standard improvements: the first Estonian speed cameras were posted on the T2 the first wildlife crossing in Estonia was completed in 2012; the T2 is a major north-south highway in Estonia connecting the capital of the country, Tallinn, to southern Estonia.

The T2 is a part of the European route E263. The route is regarded as dangerous for traffic, as the section between Tallinn and Mäo is full of dangerous blind corners; the highway runs through the city for 2,9 kilometres. In the city, it intersects with the T1 in Ülemiste. After this, the road runs straight through the metro area of Tallinn, driving by towns such as Assaku and Pildiküla, while bypassing Tallinn Airport. In Jüri, there is a roundabout interchange with the T11; the road continues as a dual carriageway. At Suuresta, the Pirita River is crossed; the road bypasses boroughs such as Aruvalla. After Aruvalla, a new section of dual carriageway is entered, completed in 2012. At Saula, Viikingite Küla, a viking-themed theme park; the Pirita River is crossed again. At Kose, there is an interchange with the T12. Shortly after this, the dual carriageway ends and the road turns into a 1+1. At Kose-Risti, the road intersects with the T14. One of the most dangerous parts of the route, Kose-Mäo follows.

This section is full of high accident rates. At Mäo, the road turns into a dual carriageway. Here, there is an interchange with the T5; the road stays a dual carriageway for 5,9 km. At Imavere, the road intersects with the T49. Most traffic to Viljandi exits the road here, due to the T49 leading straight to Viljandi. Shortly after, the road passes the town of Põltsamaa; the road intersects with the T37 here. At Puurmani, the Pedja River is crossed. At Kärevere, the Emajõgi is crossed. Shortly after, the road intersects with the T40; the following 10-kilometre section is known as the Tartu Western Bypass. The road here intersects with major Estonian roads, such as T3 and Tartu Eastern Bypass. At Ülenurme, the road bypasses Tartu Airport. After this, the road intersects with the T61 and T46. At Võru, the Võhandu river, the longest river in Estonia, is crossed. After an intersection with Võru's Tallinna maantee, the Võru Bypass is entered. Here, the road intersects with the T64, T65 and T66. At Lüta, the road ends when intersecting with the T7.

There are 23 speed cameras on the T2, between kilometres 47 and 151. European route E263 Media related to Estonian national road 2 at Wikimedia Commons

Kosma Złotowski

Kosma Tadeusz Złotowski is a Polish politician, a member of both chambers of the Polish parliament, President of Bydgoszcz and a member of Bydgoszcz City Council. Graduated in Polish philology from University of Warsaw. In 2004, obtained the degree of Master of Business Administration at Dominican University in Chicago. After 1994 local election new Bydgoszcz City Council elected him as President of Bydgoszcz, he was replaced by Henryk Sapalski. In 1997 Sejm election he joined the Senate of Poland III term representing the Bydgoszcz district as Solidarity Electoral Action candidate. In 2002 Polish local election he joined the Bydgoszcz City Council IV term representing the 1st district, he was first on the Law and Justice list. His term was ended when he was elected to Sejm in 2005, his seat in the Council was replaced by the second candidate on the PiS list Marian Pastuszewski. He ran in the 2002 Bydgoszcz presidencial election, he was third in race. The new president was elected in the second ballot.

In 2004 European Parliament election he was a candidate of Law and Justice from Kuyavian-Pomeranian constituency. He was not elected. In 2005 Senate election he joined the Senate of Poland IV term representing the 4 Bydgoszcz district, he polled 59,986 votes. In 2007 Senate election he was not elected. Bydgoszcz Złotowski at Senate webside

Indonesian Tennis Association

The Indonesian Tennis Association is the governing body of tennis in Indonesia. It is known in Indonesian as PELTI. Founded on 26 December 1935, PELTI's roles include promotion of the game, providing funding for player development, organising junior and professional tournaments, administering Indonesia's Fed Cup and Davis Cup teams. In 2006, the Indonesia Fed Cup team qualified for World Group II, but refused to play Israel and forfeited their play-off match against the Israel Fed Cup team in Tel Aviv, hence was relegated. Israel thus won by forfeit, advanced to the 2007 Fed Cup World Group II, it was reported that the Indonesian Tennis Association was instructed to forfeit by the Indonesian government. The International Tennis Federation's President Francesco Ricci Bitti said the Federation was saddened by the decision; the ITF fined the Indonesian Tennis Association $31,600, banned it from 2007's tournament. The fine consisted of $20,000 to host Israel, $6,600 to compensate the ITF`s spending on preparations for the Israel Fed Cup, $5,000 for pulling out of the match.

Indonesia had been in the World Group II playoffs in 2007, but the sanction relegated Indonesia to Group II of the Asia/Oceanic Zone in 2008. The current chairman is Martina Widjaja. PELTI website

Against Leptines

Against Leptines was a speech given by Demosthenes in which he called for the repeal of a law sponsored by Leptines which denied anyone a special exemption from paying public charges. It was delivered in the year 355/354 BC. Unusually for Athenian law courts, though Demosthenes wrote the speech for Ktesippos, the son of Chabrias, he delivered it himself, it is thus the first speech. During the Social War, a number of measures were passed in Athens to increase public revenue, including a law proposed by Leptines in 356 which abolished exemptions from liturgies; the law made it illegal both for the people of Athens to grant exceptions to liturgies, for anybody to request an exception. The law was challenged by an Athenian called Bathippus. Apsephion proposed that Leptines' law should be repealed, that it should be replaced by a law that provided for a procedure to remove an illegally-obtained exemption from liturgies; the case came to court in 355/4 BC. This law had been proposed by a man named Leptines, so the speech came to be known as Against Leptines.

Although Dio Chrysostom says that Demosthenes won the case, his account has been dismissed as inaccurate. West says that "we do not know the verdict". An inscription shows that Ctesippus, son of Chabrias, performed a liturgy that "is unlikely to have been voluntary," and there is no evidence of any grants of exemption after the trial. Text of the speech at the Perseus Digital Library