Lafarge S. A. is a French industrial company specialising in three major products: cement, construction aggregates, concrete. On 10 July 2015 Lafarge merged with a Swiss cement company. On 15 July the new company was launched around the globe under the name of LafargeHolcim, creating a new leader in the Building Materials sector. Lafarge was founded in 1833 by Joseph-Auguste Pavin de Lafarge in Le Teil, to exploit the limestone quarry in Mont Saint-Victor between Le Teil and Viviers; the limestone is white and argillaceous, yielded an eminently hydraulic lime. In 1864 Lafarge signed its first international contract for the delivery of 110,000 tonnes of lime to the Suez Canal construction project. In 1980 Lafarge joined with the Belgian coal and fertilizer company Coppée to become SA Lafarge Coppée. Lafarge purchased a plant from the National Gypsum in early 1987. Ten years it bought Redland plc, a leading British quarry operator. In 1999, Lafarge acquired 100% shareholding in Hima Cement Limited, the second-largest cement manufacturer in Uganda, with installed capacity of 850,000 metric tonnes annually, as of January 2011.
In 1999, Lafarge entered the Indian market through its cement business,with the acquisition of Tata Steel's cement activity. This acquisition was followed by the purchase of the Raymond Cement facility in 2001. In 2001, Lafarge the world's second largest cement manufacturer, acquired Blue Circle Industries, which at the time was the world's sixth largest cement manufacturer, to become the world leader in cement manufacturing. In 2006, Lafarge North America shareholders accepted a $3 billion tender offer from Lafarge Group which gave the parent company full control over the North American business, removing LNA from the New York Stock Exchange; the Group had owned 53% of LNA shares. In 2007, it divested its roofing division, selling it to a private equity group in a deal that resulted in Lafarge retaining a 35% equity stake. In December 2007, Lafarge announced the purchase of the Orascom Cement Group, an Egyptian-based cement producer with operations across Africa and the Middle East, from Orascom Construction Industries.
On 15 May 2008 Lafarge acquired Larsen & Toubro Ready Mix-Concrete business in India for $349 million. In 2010, Lafarge strengthened its presence in Brazil. In 2011, Lafarge SA announced it would build a cement plant in Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia with investment up to Rp 5 trillion. In 2011 Lafarge sold to Boral its stake in their common Asian Gypsum joint-venture LBGA. Lafarge launched three plants in Hungary and Nigeria and created a joint-venture with Anglo American in the United Kingdom; the Group sold most of its European, South American and Australian gypsum operations. In April 2013 Lafarge adopted a new brand baseline "Building better cities", it reflects the Group’s ambition to contribute to the improvement of cities by developing innovative construction products and systems. Lafarge’s contribution to better cities addresses some key challenges of urbanization: contribute to more housing in cities. In September 2013, Lafarge agreed to the sale of its 53.3 per cent stake in its Honduras subsidiary Lafarge Cementos SA de CV to Cementos Argos for €232m.
In 2018, the Lafarge Cement plant in Kobanî, Syria was being used as a base of operations by 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment and United States Army forces. On 7 April 2014 Lafarge and Holcim announced they had agreed to terms on a "merger of equals"; the exchange ratio will be based on 9 Holcim shares for 10 Lafarge shares. The new company would be based in Switzerland and have a manufacturing capacity of 427 million tons a year would vastly exceed the 227 million ton capacity Anhui Conch, the current industry leader in that category. Lafarge Chief Executive Officer Bruno Lafont and Holcim's Chairman Wolfgang Reitzle will be co-Chairmen of the new Group. Eric Olsen, current Lafarge Executive Vice-President, in charge of Operations will be the future CEO of the new Group. Executives from both companies said the deal would save the new company 1.4 billion euros annually and create "the most advanced group in the building materials industry."The deal will face significant regulatory obstacles, as 15 different jurisdictions could raise objections.
The cement market in Europe is tightly consolidated and antitrust scrutiny of deals has been commonplace since the 1970s. To meet regulatory concerns and Lafarge plan to sell or spinoff assets that generated about 5 billion euros of revenue in 2013 in areas of large overlap between the two companies. Lafont said, he said. Industry analysts said the deal would combine Holcim's marketing strength with Lafarge's edge in innovation, while providing significant cost savings, but cautioned "the road to merger clearance will be a long and uncertain one." Others said the deal could lead to further mergers within the industry and give competitors a chance to pick up assets at a bargain price. Most analysts surveyed by Reuters felt; the acquisition, will turn it into the world’s third-biggest building materials supplier. Analysts said. "The additional assets expand the company’s footprint in Eastern Europe and into Brazil and the Philippines. Given the well fla
Ilaro, Ogun State is a town in Ogun State, Nigeria. Ilaro town houses about 57,850 people. Ilaro is the headquarters of the Yewa South Local government, now known as YEWALAND which replaced the Egbado division of the former Western State, became a part of Ogun State of Nigeria. Ilaro town is about 50 km from Abeokuta, the Ogun State capital, about 100 km from Ikeja, the capital city of Lagos State. Close to this monument is the town hall named after the honourable warrior "’Orona’ Hall"; the statue of Oronna and his Leopard are still there for lovers of history to see. Osata was an Ancient Ilaro ruler in the 19th century who sacrificed his own son for his people to enjoy abundance of rainfall at a time Ilaro was plagued with drought; the dialect spoken in Ilaro is the Egbado dialect. When Ilaro indigenes meets outside home, the shout of “Omo Oluwewun” has a magical power of unifying the "Ilu Aro" people. In the past the major occupation of the Yewa/Egbado people was farming of arable crops and cash crops like cocoa, kola nuts and pineapples.
Other farm products included Cassava, okra, bananas, water leaf, spinach. Mineral resources found in Ilaro include limestone; the Ilaro soils are loamy and humus, rich in manure and elements that support the growth of cocoa, pawpaw, kola nut, maize and potatoes at plantation and mechanized levels. Due to a thick forest, the major industry of the Ilaro people is the timber industry. There are several timber milling industries spread at the outskirts of the town for the production of planks and plywood for both local consumption and exportation. Industries in Ilaro town include the local fufu and gari processing industries, the timber/plank making industries the local Aso Oke weaving industry, paint industry and cement industry located some few kilometers from the Ilaro town a few minutes walking distance from the Ibese town. Ilaro was founded in the 18th century by Aro who migrated from the Oyo town to settle down in Igbo Aje, a little hill situated at the centre of the town from where he and his warriors could sight enemies on attack from a long distance.
Aro himself was a warrior and a hunter to be reckoned with. Ilaro had her name from "Ilu Aro" meaning the settlement of Aro which became Ilaro for ease of pronunciation. Ancient Ilaro town was blessed with great farmers and warriors out of which Orona and Osata ranked the files of Ilaro history. In the history laid by these humble kinsmen and peace-loving individuals, apart from saving the lives of their kinsmen from the hands of the invading Dahome and other warriors, news had it that Orona with his "Ekun" when he became old and wanted to show the potency of His powers entered into the ground and told his people to call upon him whenever there is problem, i.e. in times of war, by just pulling the chain attached to himself and the leopard as at the time of entering the ground. This place where Orona disappeared into the ground with his Leopard is today known as the Orona Shrine and has been renovated and constructed as an emolument for lovers of history and tourists, it is the location where the coronation of every new traditional ruler of the town is performed.
The Orona Ilaro Festival is celebrated annually in remembrance of the great warrior. During the Nigerian Civil War, Ilaro acted as the headquarters of the Egbado land and produced brave warriors who fought for the sustenance of the unity of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Notable of these patriots include Major General Olurin, late brigadier general Samuel Adegoriola Oniyide, late Major Onifade and the Late Major Ibikunle Armstrong. Apart from warriors, the Ilaro town produced renowned Yoruba literature guru Prof. Afolabi Olabimitan who became a politician few years before his death and was a delegate to the Nigerian Constitutional conference in 1999, he authored Kekere Ekun, this being his first novel published in 1967. He authored “Ta lo p’omo Oba?" and other literatures. Until his death he was a member of the “Akomolede Yoruba" group and a former Don at the University of Lagos, Nigeria; the aforementioned people contributed in part to the development of Ilaro town as either moralist worthy of emulation, devoters of religion, principal of secondary schools in Ilaro, former sole administrators / governors, former speaker of the Ogun state house of assembly, Minister of State for Education, secretary to the Yewa south local government, Senior Advocate of Nigeria, gubernatorial candidate, member of the house of assembly, as the case may be.
Apart from these people there are indigents of Ilaro that are spread all over cities and other towns in Nigeria and as well as around the world in Europe, in the United States of America, in Asia, in various islands and some countries in Africa such as Ivory Coast, Libya, Cameroon, Niger Republic and the neighbouring Republic of Benin. In addition, there are different Iga and communities associated with indegents of Ilaro that give every individual a point reference to the exact compound or community where he / she originated from within the town. Examples are Iga Ekerin, Iga Badagunro, Iga Babaolu, Iga Saatun, Iga Papa-nla, Iga Modeolu, Iga basasin,Iga sawo, Ile-Eeleri Ile-Olooja-meje, Iga keeke, Ita Alaran, Ilu-Ata, Oju-okeke, oju-Alumuwa, Oju-Obe,Oke-Ibese oju-Omofe, Oju oronna,Ona otun,Ona-Osi, Ona-Ola,Isale Idomo, Ile marun, Oju Yewa, Iga elemo. etc. Ilaro town had a good romance with the missionaries from Europe in the 19th and the 20th centuries. History had it that the likes of the Late Lord Lugard, Late Mary Slessor visited the Ancient Ilaro town
Senate of Nigeria
The Senate is the upper house of the Nigeria's bicameral legislature, the National Assembly of Nigeria. The National Assembly is the nation's highest legislature, whose power to make laws is summarized in chapter one, section four of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution, it consists of 109 senators: the 36 states are each divided in 3 senatorial districts each electing one senator. The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Senate, whose chief function is to guide and regulate the proceedings in the Senate; the Senate President is third in the Nigerian presidential line of succession. He is assisted by the Deputy President of the Senate; the current Senate President is Sen. Bukola Saraki and the current Deputy Senate President is Ike Ekweremadu both of the People's Democratic Party; the Senate President and his Deputy are assisted by principal officers including the Majority Leader, Deputy Majority Leader, Minority Leader, Deputy Minority Leader, Chief Whip, Deputy Chief Whip, Minority Whip, Deputy Minority Whip.
In addition, there are 63 Standing Committees in the Senate chaired by Committee Chairmen. The lower house is the House of Representatives. Bills may be introduced in any chamber of the National Assembly. However, the Nigerian constitution provides that money bills must originate in the House of Representatives, although the approval of both the Senate and the House of Representatives is required for any bill, including money bills, to become law; the constitution provides several unique functions for the Senate that form its ability to "check and balance" other elements of the Federal Government of Nigeria. These include the requirement that the Senate may advise and must consent to some of the President's government appointments; the "Majority party" is the party that either has a majority of seats or can form a coalition or caucus with a majority of seats. The second largest party is the Minority party. Senators are to serve a term of four years until a General election. Senators have unlimited tenure and can remain in the chamber for as long as they are re-elected in general elections.
A group of 15 senators of Nigeria’s ruling party defected to the main opposition group underscoring rising political tensions thereby making the All Progressive Congress lose her majority stake, although Senate President Bukola Saraki was not among but he decamped to the people’s democratic party on Tuesday 31st July 2018. In August 2018, Senator Akpabio resigned as the Senate Minority Leader while joining the long list of Legislative defectors by joining the ruling APC. Official website
Ogere, is an ancient town in the present Remo Division of Ogun State, Nigeria. The town was founded circa 1401 A. D. Ogere is part of the Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State; the ancestral home of the Yorubas is Ile-Ife. Oduduwa is the ancestral father of all the Yorubas outside Nigeria; the people of Ogere are Yorubas. They hailed from the ancestral home “Lagere in Ile-Ife” in two different emigrations led by Olipakala and Lowa-Lida respectively; the two are Ile-Ife crowned Princes. Ogere is situated in a hilly area; the topography of the town justifies the biblical saying which states that “A town, situated on hills cannot be hid”. Ogere is one of the old thirty three towns that made up “Remo Kingdom”, it is in the South-West of the Kingdom. Ogere has boundaries in the North with Ajura, in the South with Iperu Remo, in the East with Ode Remo and in the West with Sagamu Remo. Both the Lagos – Ibadan Expressway and Ijebu-Ode / Abeokuta Road pass through Ogere; the people were principally traders by profession.
They grew rice and cocoa as cash crops. The women traded in rice provisions and textiles. Olipakala, an Ile-Ife Crown Prince, a direct descendant of the Yoruba Progenitor Oduduwa and a warrior was the founder and spiritual father of the Ogere people. Olipakala migrated with his senior brother Obanta from Ile-Ife to Ijebu-Ode, his wife Yemogun travelled with him. They settled at Ijebu-Ode for a while and no sooner had they settled in Ijebu-Ode than Obanta discovered Olipakala to be a strong radical man, he became difficult to control for Obanta and started to challenge his authority in social and political decisions as a result, Olipakala was asked to go and settle far away. Olipakala and his family moved out of Ijebu-Ode and westward, they called the settlement "Ilagere" where they made their homestead. Another emigration led by Lowa-Eri the founder of Lagere District in Ile-Ife decided to move out of Ile-Ife to found another settlement. On their journey, Lowa-Eri the leader of the group died at Lowa-Lida.
Lowa-Lida established many villages in Ogbo near Ijebu-Ode before his settlement at Idoko. Oral history claimed that Obinrin-Ojowu was erected at Ijebu-Ode by Lowa-Lida, who left his son Lowa-Iberu as his chief priest. Lowa-Lida and his group moved west-ward from Ijebu-Ode and settled at Agbele Ogere with the Olipakala family. “Aje Shrine in Ogere was erected at the present site, about 11/2 miles from Agbele. The Oloja of Iremo, in Lowa entourage was the Chief Priest; the word “Iremo” was coined down to Aremo. The Lagere people regarded it as their homestead. Olipakala was for many years the absolute ruler of Ilagere people, he established an empire. He fought to preserve his people's identity. Olipakala and his wife Yemogun guarded Lagere's people and ensured their security from invasion by their neighbouring rival towns, he fought many wars to safeguard his people. His wife Yemogun was a good companion in all the wars to safeguard his people. Ogere people were never defeated in any war when Olipakala and Lowa-Lida were alive.
In times of war their immediate neighbours were contacted by the use of the “Apere”- a war signal drum used for transmitting messages which the enemy would not be able to interpret. The settlement of Lagere people was a farming community and faced a serious threat from wild animals and an attack by carnivorous animals such as lions, tigers and wolves at dusk and in the evening. Efforts were made to kill these animals. After the conquest of wild animals with greater security of life, farming activities expanded and Olipakala settlement enjoyed period of peace and prosperity. Other settlements sprang up as satellite of Agbele settlement; these include Iporo I and II, Orile-Epe, Lowosiwu, Ipakala, Obelu, Oke Mogun and Ejigun. It was through the help of these divinities. Olipakala disappeared as well as Yemogun and Lowa-Lida. In appreciation, the people of Ogere worshipped them annually, they were consulted for the general prosperity of the town. The people established an Olipakapla Grove called “Igbo Olipakala” and Yemogun Grove called “Igbo Yeye”.
Ogere's people venerated them with reverence for they are regarded as a “Mysterium tremendum et fascinons” by the people. The festival during which “Olipakala” is remembered and worshipped is called “Oro Olipakala” and that of “Yemogun” is “Obalufon” festival; these festivals are annual events. The exit of Olipakala led to the substantial reorganisation of Lagere's Society, it is common knowledge that from time immemorial, people lived by their might and the weak fell prey to the strong, with Olipakala around no war conquered his people after his departures his spirit still gave strong support to the people but taught them lessons anytime they disobeyed his orders. The monarch is a divine creation on earth, or a man made institution designed as a rallying point in the society. Many years after Olipakala had left the stage the settlers at Agbele who had multiplied astronomically decided to establish Obaship Rule and the two Royal Ruling Houses that emerged are: Legunsen Negbua The name Ogere is from Ilagere.
That was the name of the town at Agbele. Another interpretation by some people is that Ogere was from “sun si Okere” i.e. “move a
Abeokuta is the largest city and state capital of Ogun State in southwest Nigeria. It is situated on the east bank of the Ogun River, near a group of rocky outcrops in a wooded savanna; as of 2006, Abeokuta and the surrounding area had a population of 449,088. Abẹokuta lies in fertile country of wooded savanna, the surface of, broken by masses of grey granite, it spreads over an extensive area, being surrounded by mud walls 18 miles in extent. Palm oil, natural rubber, rice, maize, other fruits, shea butter are the chief articles of trade, it is a key export location for cocoa, palm products and kola nuts. Both rice and cotton were introduced by the missionaries in the 1850s and have become integral parts of the economy, along with the dye indigo. Abeokuta lies below the Olumo Rock, home to several shrines; the town depends on the Oyan River Dam for its water supply, not always dependable. The dam is situated in the Abeokuta North local government area of Ogun State in the West of Nigeria, about 20 km northwest of the state capital Abeokuta.
The dam crosses a tributary of the Ogun River. Abeokuta is the headquarters of the federal Ogun-Oshun River Basin Authority, responsible for development of land and water resources for Lagos and Oyo states. Included in this are irrigation, food-processing, electrification. Local industries include but not limited to fruit canning plants, breweries, an aluminum products factory. South of town are the Aro granite quarries. Abeokuta is connected to nearby Lagos by a railway, completed in 1899, with a length of 77 kilometres. Roads connect it to Lagos as well as Ibadan, Shagamu and Ketou. Chief Sodeke first settled Abeokuta in 1830 as a place of refuge from slavehunters from Dahomey and Ibadan; the village populations scattered over the open country to take refuge among the rocks surrounding the city. Here they formed a free confederacy of many distinct groups, each preserving the traditional customs, religious rites and the names of their original villages; the original settlers of Abeokuta were of the Egba nation, fleeing from the Oyo Empire, collapsing.
Some members of other Yoruba clans came to the settlement. Baptist and Anglican missionaries from Great Britain began to serve the area in the 1840s, in addition to Sierra Leone Creoles; because Abeokuta was in a key location for the palm oil trade and because it was the so-called capital of the Egbas, Dahomey soon became hostile. In the 1851 Battle of Abeokuta, the Egba, with assistance from missionaries and armed by the British, defeated King Gezo and the Dahomey incursion, they again beat back the Dahomey military in 1864. The 1860s saw problems arise with the Europeans, namely the British in Lagos, which led to the Egba first closing trade routes, followed by the expulsion of missionaries and traders in 1867. Between 1877 and 1893 the Yoruba Civil Wars occurred, Abeokuta opposed Ibadan, which led the king or alake of the Egba to sign an alliance with the British governor, Sir Gilbert Carter; this occurred in 1893, which formalized the Egba United Government based in Abẹokuta which became recognized by the United Kingdom.
In 1914, the city was made part of the colony of Nigeria by the British. In 1918, the Abeokuta Riots took place, related to the levying of taxes and the policy of indirect rule by Sir Frederick Lugard, the British Governor-General; the Abeokuta Women's Revolt, led by the Abeokuta Women's Union, took place in the 1940s. It was a resistance movement against the imposition of unfair taxation by the Nigerian colonial government. In 1976, Abeokuta became the capital of the newly created Ogun State. Abeokuta was a walled town and remnants of the historic wall still exist today. Ake, the traditional residence of the Alake, along with Centenary Hall, are both in the Egba Alake's territory. There are secondary and primary schools and the University of Lagos Abeokuta Campus opened in 1984; this campus specializes in science and technology. This has since been changed to an independent full-fledged tertiary institution, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 1988; the Green Legacy Resort is a large resort/hotel built by former president Olusegun Obasanjo and investors.
The Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library is located within the grounds of the resort. The Governor's office located at Oke-Mosan is a notable building; the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta located at Alabata road in Abeokutra is one of the notable buildings in Abeokuta and one of the most beautiful public University campus in Nigeria. Shane Lawal, basketball player. Princess Sara Forbes Bonetta, Egbado princess of the Yoruba people, goddaughter of Queen Victoria. Madam Tinubu, titled aristocrat. Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, businessman and presidential candidate. Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007. Chief Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, women's rights activist. Prince Bola Ajibola, former World Court judge. Chief Frederick Rotimi Williams, legal scholar. Chief Akintola Williams, founder of ICAN. Princess Kuforiji Olubi, former federal minister. Professor Wole Soyinka, Nobel Prize-winning author. Professor Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, professor of pediatrics, former Minister of Health.
Fela Kuti and political activist. Tunji Oyelana, actor, folk singer and composer. Chief Ernest Shonekan and former head of the defunct interim government of Nigeria. Jimi Solanke, musician and playwright
Osun is an inland state in south-western Nigeria. Its capital is Osogbo, it is bounded in the north by Kwara State, in the east by Ekiti State and by Ondo State, in the south by Ogun State and in the west by Oyo State. The state's current governor is Adegboyega Oyetola, declared winner of the September 2018 governorship elections, he was declared winner of the September 27, 2018 rerun elections after the initial September 22, 2018 gubernatorial election was declared inconclusive by the Independent National Electoral Commission. Osun is home to several of Nigeria's most famous landmarks, including the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria's pre-eminent institution of higher learning; the university is located in the ancient town of Ile-Ifẹ, an important early center of political and religious development for Yoruba culture. Other important cities and towns include the ancient kingdom-capitals of Oke-Ila Orangun, Ila Orangun, Ijebu-Jesa, Iwo, Modakeke, Ode-Omu, Esa-Oke and Igbajo; the modern Osun State was created in August 1991 from part of the old Oyo State.
The state's name is derived from the River Osun, the venerated natural spring, the manifestation of the Yoruba goddess of the same name. The former Governor Olagunsoye Oyinlola launched and laid the foundation for the groundbreaking of Osun State University with six campuses strategically located across the state. Important cultural events in the state include the Ori Oke and Egungun festival in Iragbiji, Olojo in Ife and the Osun Osogbo festival; every year and non-adherents of Osun, one of the Orisa, travel from all over the world to attend the annual Osun-Osogbo festival in August. Visitors include nationals of Brazil, Trinidad and other nations in the Americas with a significant Yoruba cultural heritage. Annual traditional festivities and invocations of the Osun goddess are held along the banks of the river bearing her name into which – according to Yoruba Oratory traditions – she transformed. Ọsun-Ọsogbo Groove, the shrine of the annual rites of the deity and an important artistic center, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2005 citation needed.
The major sub-ethnic groups in Ọsun State are Ife, Oyo and Igbomina of the Yoruba people, although there are people from other parts of Nigeria. Yoruba and English are the official languages. People of Osun State practice Islam and their ancient religion, the traditional faith. Osun, created from the old Oyo State in August 1991, has a large population of both Muslims and Christians. Among the famous religious leaders from Osun State is the London-based Muslim cleric Sheikh Dr. Abu-Abdullah Adelabu, who hailed from the state's capital city and Pastor Johnson Ade Odewale of Christ Apostolic church, Calvary Assembly from Odeomu, based in Boston, USA; the popular pastor E. A Adeboye hails from Ifewara in Osun state; the Osun State government claims to offer services to both Muslims and Christians in the state through Pilgrims Welfare Boards. The major traditional rulers in Osun State acclaim either the Faith of Islam or Christianity. While, for instance, Ooni of Ife Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi and Owa Obokun Adimula of Ijesaland Oba Gabriel Adekunle ascribe to Christianity, Orangun of Ila-Orangun Oba Wahab Kayode Adedeji Oyedotun, Ataoja of Osogbo Oba Jimoh Olaonipekun Oyetunji, Timi of Ede Oba Munirudeen Adesola Lawal and Oluwo of Iwo Oba Abdul Rasheed Adewale Akanbi practice Islam.
Osun State is divided into three federal senatorial districts, each of, composed of two administrative zones. The state consists of thirty Local Government Areas and Area office, the primary unit of government in Nigeria. Osun State's 30 Local Government Area headquarters: List of current Local Government Area Chairmen. Enoch Adeboye- General Overseer RCCG. Gbenga Adeboye- was a musician and radio presenter. Toyin Adegbola- Actress. Sheikh Abu-Abdullah Adelabu – Scholar and cleric Isiaka Adeleke- politician. Chief Adebisi Akande- Former Governor of Osun State. Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola – Former State Governor. Davido – musician Daddy Freeze- Radio presenter Chief Bola Ige SAN- Politician and Lawyer. Duro Ladipo – actor and dramatist Iyiola Omisore – Politician and Engineer Prince Olagunsoye Oyinlola- Former Governor of Osun State and Former Military Governor of Lagos State
Benin the Republic of Benin and Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north; the majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Benin covers an area of 114,763 square kilometres and its population in 2016 was estimated to be 10.87 million. Benin is a tropical nation dependent on agriculture. Benin is a big exporter of palm oil; the substantial employment and income arise from subsistence farming. The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba are spoken; the largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed by Islam and Protestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey, along with the city-state of Porto-Novo, a large area with many different nations to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of enslaved people who were shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After enslavement was abolished, France renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France; the sovereign state has had a tumultuous history since with many different democratic governments, military coups, military governments. A Marxist–Leninist state called the People's Republic of Benin existed between 1975 and 1990. In 1991, it was replaced by the current multi-party Republic of Benin. During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. On 30 November 1975, it was renamed to Benin, after the body of water on which the country lies—the Bight of Benin.
This had been named by Europeans after the Benin Empire in present-day Nigeria. The country of Benin has no connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes; the form "Benin" is the result of a Portuguese corruption of the city of Ubinu. The new name, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Fon Kingdom of Dahomey, limited to most of the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent Porto-Novo, central Benin, the multi-ethnic northwestern sector Atakora, nor the Bariba Kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern district; the current country of Benin combines three areas which had distinctly different political systems and ethnicities prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city-states along the coast and a mass of tribal regions inland; the Oyo Empire, located to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region. It conducted raids and exacted tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.
The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, consisting of Fon people, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast. By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo; the rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods. The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were apprenticed to older soldiers, taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the army. Dahomey was famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king's wives, or Mino, "our mothers" in the Fon language Fongbe, known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th-century explorers such as Sir Richard Burton.
The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery. They had a practice of killing war captives in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling African captives to European slave-traders. Though the leaders of Dahomey appear to have resisted the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants; the area was named the "Slave Coast" because of this flourishing trade. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area; the number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s. The decline was due to the Slave Trade Act 1807 banning the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and the United States following in