Ohio is a state in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. Ohio is bordered by Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the east, West Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Indiana to the west, Michigan to the northwest; the state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transitioning to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.

The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Seven presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the third largest US state for manufacturing, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie.

Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.

Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark. The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.

In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region". This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a


Chilobrachys is a genus of Asian tarantulas, first described by Ferdinand Anton Franz Karsch in 1892. As of December 2019 it contains twenty-eight species, found in Asia: Chilobrachys andersoni – India, Malaysia Chilobrachys annandalei Simon, 1901 – Malaysia Chilobrachys assamensis Hirst, 1909 – India Chilobrachys bicolor – Myanmar Chilobrachys brevipes – Myanmar Chilobrachys dyscolusVietnam Chilobrachys femoralis Pocock, 1900 – India Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899 – India Chilobrachys flavopilosus – India, Myanmar Chilobrachys fumosus – India Chilobrachys guangxiensis – China Chilobrachys hardwickei – India Chilobrachys himalayensis – India Chilobrachys huahini Schmidt & Huber, 1996 – Thailand Chilobrachys hubei Song & Zhao, 1988 – China Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansickleae Nanayakkara, Sumanapala & Kirk, 2019 – Sri Lanka Chilobrachys khasiensis – India Chilobrachys liboensis Zhu & Zhang, 2008 – China Chilobrachys nitelinus Karsch, 1892 – Sri Lanka Chilobrachys oculatus – Myanmar Chilobrachys paviei – Thailand Chilobrachys pococki – Myanmar Chilobrachys sericeus – Myanmar Chilobrachys soricinus – Myanmar Chilobrachys stridulans – India Chilobrachys subarmatus – India Chilobrachys thorelli Pocock, 1900 – India Chilobrachys tschankhoensis Schenkel, 1963 – ChinaIn synonymy: C. decoratus = Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899 C. jingzhao Zhu, Song & Li, 2001 = Chilobrachys guangxiensis List of Theraphosidae species

Intelsat 603

Intelsat 603 or IS-603 named Intelsat VI F-3, is a communications satellite operated by Intelsat. Launched in 1990, it was the second of five Intelsat VI satellites to be launched; the Intelsat VI series was constructed based on the HS-389 satellite bus. Intelsat 603 was launched at 11:52:31 UTC on 14 March 1990, atop a Commercial Titan III carrier rocket, flight number CT-2, with an Orbus-21S upper stage; the launch took place from Launch Complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, was intended to place Intelsat 603 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Orbus-21S failed to separate from the Titan's second stage, as a result it was unable to fire, leaving Intelsat 603 in low Earth orbit. Following the launch failure, Intelsat commissioned NASA to launch a replacement perigee motor to raise the satellite's orbit. During its maiden flight, STS-49, in 1992 Space Shuttle Endeavour rendezvoused with and captured Intelsat 603, astronauts attached a new Orbus-21S to the satellite; this motor raised the satellite into the planned transfer orbit.

The satellite raised itself into its final geostationary orbit using two liquid-fuelled R-4D-12 engines, with the satellite arriving in geostationary orbit on 21 May 1992. Intelsat 603 operated in a geostationary orbit with a perigee of 35,776 kilometres, an apogee of 35,797 kilometres, 0.3 degrees of inclination. The satellite carried 38 IEEE C band and ten IEEE Ku band transponders, had a design life of 13 years and a mass of 4,215 kilograms. Upon arrival in geostationary orbit, Intelsat 603 was placed at a longitude of 34.5 degrees west. It remained there until October 1997. In August 2002 it was relocated to 19.95 degrees west, where it operated until March 2010. From May 2010 it operated at 11.5 degrees east until it was removed from geostationary orbit in Jan 2013. Intelsat confirmed in February 2015 that Intelsat 603 had been retired to a graveyard orbit