Fulton County, Ohio
Fulton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio west of Toledo. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,698, its county seat is Wauseon. The county was created in 1850 with land from Henry and Williams counties and is named for Robert Fulton, inventor of the steamboat. Fulton County is part of the Toledo Metropolitan Area; the first seat of justice in Fulton County was Ottokee, located there because of its central location in the county. A wooden courthouse was built in 1851. However, a railroad was built further south. Wauseon sprung up in 1854 when the railroad was extended to that point, incorporated in 1859. With the commercial success that the railroad brought to Wauseon, the citizens of the county voted to move the county seat to Wauseon in 1871; the Fulton County Courthouse was built in 1872. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 407 square miles, of which 405 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Lenawee County, Michigan Lucas County Henry County Williams County Hillsdale County, Michigan Fulton Pond Wildlife Area Goll Woods State Nature Preserve Harrison Lake State Park Maumee State Forest Tiffin River Wildlife Area Wabash Cannonball Trail As of the census of 2000, there were 42,084 people, 15,480 households, 11,687 families residing in the county.
The population density was 104 people per square mile. There were 16,232 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.65% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.31% from other races, 1.08% from two or more races. 5.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,480 households out of which 37.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.20% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.50% were non-families. 21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.30% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,074, the median income for a family was $50,952. Males had a median income of $36,180 versus $25,137 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,999. About 4.00% of families and 5.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.10% of those under age 18 and 4.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,698 people, 16,188 households, 11,942 families residing in the county; the population density was 105.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,407 housing units at an average density of 42.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.9% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 45.5% were German, 11.9% were Irish, 10.7% were English, 6.9% were Polish, 6.2% were American.
Of the 16,188 households, 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families, 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,717 and the median income for a family was $59,090. Males had a median income of $42,561 versus $30,070 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,804. About 8.5% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. For over 80 years, Fulton County has voted for Republican candidates for president. Fulton County Airport is a public use airport located four nautical miles north of the central business district of Wauseon, Ohio, it is owned by the Fulton County Commissioners. Wauseon Archbold Delta Fayette Lyons Metamora Swanton https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Pettisville Tedrow National Register of Historic Places listings in Fulton County, Ohio Fulton County Government's website
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
The Ohio Statehouse is the state capitol building and seat of government for the U. S. state of Ohio. The Greek Revival building is located on Capitol Square in downtown Columbus; the capitol houses Ohio General Assembly, consisting of the House of the Senate. It contains the ceremonial offices of the governor, lieutenant governor, state treasurer, state auditor. Built between 1839 and 1861, it is one of the oldest working statehouses in the United States. Upon achieving statehood in 1803, Chillicothe was Ohio's original state capital. Due to political fighting among state leaders, the Ohio General Assembly temporarily moved the capital to Zanesville in 1810. Legislation enacted that same year provided for the selection of a new state capital "not more than 40 miles from what may be deemed the common center of the state." In 1812, the General Assembly restored Chillicothe as the temporary state capital until the new capitol could be built. State leaders faced ongoing pressure to make the capital city more accessible by moving it closer to the center of the state.
In response, the legislature appointed a committee to evaluate potential options for the new capital city. Four prominent Franklinton area land owners proposed a empty tract of land across the river from Franklinton; the land owners offered to donate two ten-acre parcels of land to the state and proposed spending up to $50,000 to build structures and make other improvements to the area. On February 14, 1812, the General Assembly created a new capital city on the "High Banks opposite Franklinton at the Forks of the Scioto most known as Wolf's Ridge". A week after intense debate, the legislature selected Columbus as the name of the new town. In the following months the new town was laid out in rectangular grid; the layout set aside two 10-acre parcels of land, one for a statehouse, at the location of the present day Statehouse, the other parcel would become the site of the Ohio State Penitentiary. Public sale of town lots for the new city began in June 1812. In 1816, the General Assembly met in Columbus for the first time in a brick building on the corner of High and State Streets.
In 1838, Ohio's government announced a competition to select the design for a new Statehouse. This strategy was not unusual at the time, as important public buildings such as the U. S. Capitol had resulted from similar contests. From about fifty entries, three winners were selected: first prize was awarded to Henry Walter of Cincinnati, the second to Martin Thompson of New York, the third to painter Thomas Cole of New York. However, the organizing commission responsible for choosing the winners was unable to agree on a final design for construction; when the cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1839, the commission was still without a final design. Consultation with New York architect Alexander Jackson Davis resulted in a composite design that merged some key features of the three winning entries, but it was rejected as being too expensive. Henry Walter, the first-place winner of the design contest, was chosen to supervise construction of the new capitol and he began working on another composite design, based on the design of third-place winner, Thomas Cole.
It seems that Henry Walter was chosen to receive the first premium because he was an Ohioan and though the entry submitted by Cole may have been more favored by the commission overseeing the design process, his status as an "outsider" may have been a problem. Cole had a personal friendship with one of the commissioners, a man named William A. Adams, from Steubenville. Cole's nephew, William Henry Bayless, coincidentally a Steubenville native, was apprenticed in the office of Alexander Jackson Davis. Work on the building's foundation and lower level had only just begun when the Statehouse project encountered the first of many difficulties; the legislation that made Columbus the official capital city of Ohio was set to expire. While various factions within the government engaged in debate over relocating the capitol to another city, construction of the Statehouse was stopped. Open excavations were refilled with earth, Capitol Square became open pasture for livestock; the Statehouse remained neglected until February, 1848, when William Russell West and J.
O. Sawyer of Cincinnati were appointed general supervisors of the project. By May of that same year construction had resumed. A cholera epidemic began in Columbus, prompting widespread flight to the countryside by residents. Once the epidemic subsided, work on the Statehouse continued, interrupted only by intermissions during the harsh Ohio winters. Comparing plans of the various architects it is apparent that the most striking change and one that has endured in the finished building, was the fact that West and Sawyer eliminated the rounded dome that all previous designers had suggested for the building, instead replacing it with a low conical roof. Fire consumed the old two-story capitol building in 1852, which created a new urgency to complete the Statehouse project as government offices were forced to relocate to various buildings around Columbus. While some suspected arson, the exact cause of the fire remains a mystery to this day. With the Statehouse exterior nearing completion by 1854, Columbus architect Nathan Kelley was hired to supervise the design and construction of the building's interiors.
One of his major tasks would be to provide a system for heating and ventilation in the building, which had not been considered previously. An innovative steam heating system was constructed, with warmed air moved through the building in what Kelley called "air sewers"—small passages made of bricks that linked the various floors of the building. With great fanfare, the new Statehouse opened to the
Ottawa County, Ohio
Ottawa County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,428, its county seat is Port Clinton. The county is named either for the Ottawa Indians who lived there, or for an Indian word meaning "trader". Ottawa County comprises the Port Clinton, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Toledo-Port Clinton, OH Combined Statistical Area. On September 10, 1813, during the War of 1812, nine vessels of the United States Navy under Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, decisively defeated six vessels of Great Britain’s Royal Navy in the Battle of Lake Erie near Put-in-Bay; this action was one of the major battles of the war. Ottawa County was formed on March 6, 1840 from portions of Erie and Sandusky counties, it was named after the North American Indian tribe of the Ottawa. In 1974, the County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the county is notable in presidential politics for being a bellwether, having continuously voted for the winning candidate for thirteen elections beginning in 1964.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 585 square miles, of which 255 square miles is land and 330 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in Ohio by land area. It borders Ontario across Lake Erie. Essex County, Canada Erie County Sandusky County Wood County Lucas County Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial As of the census of 2000, there were 40,985 people, 16,474 households, 11,729 families residing in the county; the population density was 161 people per square mile. There were 25,532 housing units at an average density of 100 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.56% White, 0.65% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. 3.75 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 16,474 households out of which 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families.
25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 26.80% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,224, the median income for a family was $51,919. Males had a median income of $39,823 versus $24,727 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,973. About 4.20% of families and 5.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.40% of those under age 18 and 5.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,428 people, 17,503 households, 11,884 families residing in the county; the population density was 162.5 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 27,909 housing units at an average density of 109.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.5% white, 0.8% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 44.6% were German, 11.9% were Irish, 9.8% were English, 6.3% were American, 6.1% were Polish. Of the 17,503 households, 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families, 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 46.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $53,463 and the median income for a family was $64,258. Males had a median income of $52,736 versus $33,557 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,809.
About 6.3% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over. The County elects 9 holders. 10 major highways run through Ottawa County, including two interstates, eight state routes. Erie-Ottawa Regional Airport Middle Bass-East Point Airport Middle Bass Island Airport North Bass Island Airport Put-in-Bay Airport Port Clinton https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Curtice Lakeside Williston Louis C. Shepard - American Civil War Medal of Honor recipient from Ashtabula County, buried in Lakeview cemetery, Port Clinton, Ohio. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ottawa County, Ohio Ottawa County Government's website
Ohio House of Representatives
The Ohio House of Representatives is the lower house of the Ohio General Assembly, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Ohio. The House of Representatives first met in Chillicothe on March 3, 1803, under the superseded state constitution of that year. In 1816, the capital was moved to Columbus; the 133rd General Assembly convened in January 2019. Members are limited to four consecutive two-year elected terms. Time served by appointment to fill out another representative's uncompleted term does not count against the term limit. There are 99 members in the house, elected from single-member districts; every even-numbered year, all the seats are up for re-election. Speaker of the House: Larry Householder Speaker pro tempore: Jim Butler Majority Floor Leader: Bill Seitz Assistant Majority Floor Leader: Anthony DeVitis Majority Whip: Jay Edwards Assistant Majority Whip: Laura Lanese Minority Leader: Emilia Sykes Assistant Minority Leader: Kristin Boggs Minority Whip: Kent Smith Assistant Minority Whip: Paula Hicks-Hudson ↑: Member was appointed to the seat.
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House. The current Speaker is a Republican from Glenford, Ohio, he became Speaker on January 7, 2019. The duties of the Speaker include preserving order and decorum at all times, recognizing visitors in the galleries and providing security for the Hall, appointing members to perform the duties of the Speaker for a temporary period of time, naming committees and subcommittees and appointing their chairs and members, overseeing the performance of House employees, signing bills, acts and more; the Clerk of the House of Representatives is in charge of and regulates the distribution of records of the House. The Clerk is the custodian of legislative documents within the House; the duties of the Clerk include examining bills or resolutions before introduction, numbering bills and resolutions for filing, providing bills and documents pertaining to the bill to the chair of the corresponding committee, publishing calendars to notify the public about bills and resolutions, keeping a journal of House proceedings, superintending the presentation of bills and resolutions, attesting writs and subpoenas issued by the House of Representatives.
The Sergeant-at-arms of the House of Representatives is tasked with maintaining security and order in the House. The Sergeant-at-arms may be ordered by the Speaker to clear the aisles if this is deemed necessary by the Speaker. Other duties of the Sergeant-at-arms include controlling admission to the building, serving subpoenas and warrants issued by the House, bringing any members found to be absent without leave to the House; the Speaker of the House is in charge of naming all subcommittees. The current committees and vice chairs are: Official website Project Vote Smart – State House of Ohio Map of Ohio House Districts Ohio District Maps 2002–2012 Election results from Ohio Secretary of State
Defiance County, Ohio
Defiance County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,037, its county seat is Defiance. The county was named after an early Army fortification, Fort Defiance, so named by Mad Anthony Wayne to signify the settlers' "defiance" of the Indians; the Defiance, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Defiance County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 414 square miles, of which 411 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. Williams County Henry County Putnam County Paulding County Allen County, Indiana DeKalb County, Indiana As of the census of 2000, there were 39,500 people, 15,138 households, 11,020 families residing in the county; the population density was 96 people per square mile. There were 16,040 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.59% White, 1.75% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.59% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races.
7.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 45.6% were of German, 13.5% American, 6.8% Irish and 5.1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 15,138 households out of which 34.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.50% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,938, the median income for a family was $50,876. Males had a median income of $37,936 versus $23,530 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $19,667. About 4.50% of families and 5.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.40% of those under age 18 and 5.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,037 people, 15,268 households, 10,792 families residing in the county; the population density was 94.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,729 housing units at an average density of 40.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 1.9% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.8% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 42.3% were German, 12.5% were Irish, 9.6% were English, 7.7% were American. Of the 15,268 households, 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families, 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 39.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,480 and the median income for a family was $54,472. Males had a median income of $44,354 versus $30,610 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,139. About 11.2% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Based on how the county came to matching the nationwide vote for the winning Presidential candidate, Defiance deviated the least of any county from 1980 to 2004. In 2004, the difference between the points swing vs. the national trend was just 0.05%. All the other elections since 1980 have been tight margins: 4.6% in 2000, 0.4% in 1996, 0.04% in 1992, 0.6% in 1988, 0.03 in 1984, 2.1% in 1980. In 2008, it lost its bellwether status, voting for John McCain with 54% of the vote in the year that Barack Obama won the presidency.
Defiance Hicksville Ney Sherwood https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites The closeness of elections in Defiance County has been referenced in fiction. National Register of Historic Places listings in Defiance County, Ohio Defiance County Government's website
Seal of Ohio
The Great Seal of the State of Ohio is the official insignia of the U. S. state of Ohio. All governmental offices and courts in Ohio use variations of the state seal, its primary feature is a circular coat of arms that depicts a sunrise in Chillicothe, Ohio's first capital, along with symbols of the state's origins. The seal sometimes appears with the state motto, "With God, all things are possible". Shortly after its establishment in 1803, the state adopted a seal based on a sketch by Secretary of State William Creighton, Jr. Except for a brief period during the 1860s, the layout and details were left unregulated until a standardized coat of arms, based on the original design, was introduced in 1967; the coat of arms was modified most in 1996. Each of Ohio's 88 counties maintains its own official seal based on the state seal; the design of the Great Seal of the State of Ohio is defined in Ohio Revised Code section 5.10: The great seal of the state shall be two and one-half inches in diameter and shall consist of the coat of arms of the state within a circle having a diameter of one and three-fourths inches, surrounded by the words "THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF OHIO" in news gothic capitals.
The coat of arms is defined in section 5.04: The coat of arms of the state shall consist of the following device: a circular shield. The coat of arms of the state shall correspond with the following design: When the coat of arms of the state is reproduced in color, the colors used shall be the same as the natural color of the terrain and objects shown; the hills shown in the seal are managed by the Department of Natural Resources as Great Seal State Park. Ohio's state seal has been redesigned at least ten times in the state's history. From 1805 to 1866, the seal's design was left a situation unique among the states. Before Ohio's statehood, the territorial government of the Northwest Territory had its own seal; the United States Congress passed legislation on May 8, 1792, that directed the U. S. Secretary of State to "provide proper seals for the several and respective public offices in the Territories". A seal was created by the State Department to be used on official papers of the territory.
The original seal was maintained by Governor Arthur St. Clair, its first recorded use was in a proclamation made on July 26, 1788. The seal bears a Latin inscription, Meliorem lapsa locavit, "He has planted one better than the one fallen," commemorating the decline of wilderness to make way for civilization; the first Constitution of Ohio, adopted on November 29, 1802, effective March 1, 1803, provided for a state seal but left the details unspecified: There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor and used by him and shall be called "The great Seal of the State of Ohio." The first Secretary of State, William Creighton, Jr. used his personal seal on official documents. On March 25, 1803, the General Assembly passed an act concerning the duties of the Secretary of State, introducing the first of many designs for the state seal, based on a sketch by Creighton: That the secretary of state shall procure a seal, two inches in diameter, for the use of the state; the state seal to be surrounded with these words, "The great seal of the state of Ohio."
The seal of the supreme court, with these words: "The supreme court of the state of Ohio. The design was traditionally said to depict the view from U. S. Senator Thomas Worthington's Chillicothe-area estate, Belle View: in 1803, Creighton emerged from an all-night meeting at the estate and saw "the rising sun of the new state" just beyond Mount Logan. Creighton and Worthington both belonged to the "Chillicothe Junto" that dominated early state politics. However, most historians regard the story to be apocryphal, noting that the sun and agricultural implements were common in seals of that era. Regardless, the present seal does represent the view from Worthington's estate, now known as Adena, as a matter of law; the physical seal of 1803 followed the adopted design loosely: from behind a full mountain range rose a sun with eyes. On February 19, 1805, the 1803 statute was replaced with identical wording, except for the omission of a design for the great seal; the original state seal had long since fallen out of use.
Despite the 1805 act being itself repealed on January 31, 1831, no replacement design was specified. Legislators neglected to address the issue after the Constitution of 1851 left intact the