Canton is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, United States. Canton is located 60 miles south of Cleveland and 20 miles south of Akron in Northeast Ohio; the city lies on the edge of Ohio's extensive Amish country in Holmes and Wayne counties to the city's west and southwest. Canton is the largest municipality in the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Stark and Carroll counties; as of the 2010 Census, the population was 73,007, making Canton eighth among Ohio cities in population. Founded in 1805 alongside the Middle and West Branches of Nimishillen Creek, Canton became a heavy manufacturing center because of its numerous railroad lines. However, its status in that regard began to decline during the late 20th century, as shifts in the manufacturing industry led to the relocation or downsizing of many factories and workers. After this decline, the city's industry diversified into the service economy, including retailing, education and healthcare.
Canton is chiefly notable for being the home of the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the birthplace of the National Football League. 25th U. S. President William McKinley conducted the famed front porch campaign, which won him the presidency of the United States in the 1896 election, from his home in Canton; the McKinley National Memorial and the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum commemorate his life and presidency. Canton was chosen as the site of the First Ladies National Historic Site in honor of his wife, Ida Saxton McKinley. Canton is experiencing an urban renaissance, anchored by its growing and thriving arts district centrally located in the downtown area. Several historic buildings have been rehabilitated and converted into upscale lofts, attracting thousands of new downtown residents into the city. Furthering this downtown development, in June 2016, Canton became one of the first cities in Ohio to allow the open consumption of alcoholic beverages in a "designated outdoor refreshment area" pursuant to a state law enacted in 2015.
Canton was founded in 1805, incorporated as a village in 1822, re-incorporated as a city in 1838. The plat of Canton was recorded at New Lisbon, Ohio, on November 15, 1805 by Bezaleel Wells, a surveyor and devout Episcopalian from Maryland born January 28, 1763. Canton was named as a memorial to Captain John O'Donnell, an Irish merchant marine with the British East India Trading Company whom Wells admired. O'Donnell named his estate in Maryland after the Chinese city Canton as he had been the first person to transport goods from there to Baltimore; the name selected by Wells may have been influenced by the Huguenot use of the word "canton," which meant a division of a district containing several communes. Through Wells' efforts and promotion, Canton was designated the county seat of Stark County upon its division from Columbiana County on January 1, 1809. Canton was the adopted home of President William McKinley. Born in Niles, McKinley first practiced law in Canton around 1867, was prosecuting attorney of Stark County from 1869 to 1871.
The city was his home during his successful campaign for Ohio governor, the site of his front-porch presidential campaign of 1896 and the campaign of 1900. Canton is now the site of the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum and the McKinley National Memorial, dedicated in 1907. On June 16, 1918, Eugene V. Debs delivered the keynote speech at the annual Ohio Socialist Convention held in Canton's Nimisilla Park. At the time, Debs had been a four-time candidate for President and was considered the country’s leading socialist and labor organizer. During his speech he decried America’s involvement in the First World War, saying, “They have always taught you that it is your patriotic duty to go to war and slaughter yourselves at their command. You have never had a voice in the war; the working class who make the sacrifices, who shed the blood, have never yet had a voice in declaring war.”Among Debs' audience at Nimisilla Park were agents of the U. S. Department of Justice; the year before Debs' speech, a month following the American entry into the First World War, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Espionage Act of 1917 into law.
This Act made it a federal crime to interfere with, among other things, the Selective Service Act or military draft. On June 30, 1918, Debs was arrested and charged with, among other things, “unlawfully and feloniously cause and attempt to cause and incite and attempt to incite, disloyalty and refusal of duty, in the military and naval forces of the United States.” Debs' trial began on September 10, 1918 in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. On September 12, 1918, a jury found Debs guilty, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. On March 10, 1919, the U. S. Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of Debs' conviction in United States. Debs began serving his prison sentence on April 13, 1919, he and remained incarcerated until September 25, 1921 when he was released after President Warren Harding commuted his sentence to time served. The U. S. Supreme Court's decision affirming Debs' conviction was criticized by legal scholars at the time and is regarded as a low-point in First Amendment jurisprudence.
While Debs’ speech in Canton and subsequent conviction aided Debs in delivering the Socialist Party’s antiwar platform, his age and the deleterious effects of prison exhausted his ability as an orator. Debs died of heart failure on October 20, 1926. In June 2017 Canton applied for and received a historic marker from the Ohio History Connection the Ohio Historical Society, to commemorate Debs' spe
Air Force One (film)
Air Force One is a 1997 American political action-thriller film written by Andrew W. Marlowe, directed and co-produced by Wolfgang Petersen, it is about a group of terrorists who hijack Air Force One and the U. S. president's attempt to rescue everyone by retaking the plane. The film stars Harrison Ford and Gary Oldman, as well as Glenn Close, Xander Berkeley, William H. Macy, Dean Stockwell, Paul Guilfoyle. A box office success with positive critical reviews, it was one of the most popular action films of the 1990s. American and Russian Special Forces capture the dictator of Kazakhstan. Three weeks U. S. President James Marshall attends a diplomatic dinner in Moscow in Russia, during which he praises the capture and insists the U. S will no longer negotiate with terrorists. Marshall and his entourage, including his wife Grace and 12-year-old daughter Alice, several of his Cabinet and advisers, prepare to return to the U. S. on Air Force One. In addition, members of the press have been invited aboard, including Radek loyalists disguised as journalists led by Ivan Korshunov.
After takeoff, Secret Service agent Gibbs, a mole, enables Korshunov and his men to obtain weapons and storm the plane, killing many of the other agents and military personnel before taking the civilians hostage. Marshall is raced to an escape pod in the cargo hold and escapes as the pod is ejected. Korshunov breaches the cockpit and prevents the plane from making an emergency landing at Ramstein Air Force Base in Germany, secures Grace and Alice separately from the other hostages. Several F-15s escort Air Force One as Korshunov has it piloted towards Kazakh Airspace. Unknown to Korshunov, Marshall, a veteran of the Vietnam War and a Medal of Honor recipient, has remained hidden in the cargo hold instead of using the pod, begins to observe the mercenaries using his military training. Marshall manages to kill some of Korshunov's men and uses a satellite phone to make contact with his Vice President Kathryn Bennett, letting his staff know he is alive. Korshunov, believing that only a Secret Service agent is in the cargo hold, contacts Bennett and demands Radek's release, threatening to kill a hostage every half hour.
Marshall and military advisers devise a plan to trick Korshunov to take Air Force One to a lower altitude for a mid-air refueling, giving time for the hostages to parachute safely off the plane. As a KC-10 tanker docks with Air Force One, Marshall helps to escort the hostages to the cargo hold, where most parachute away. Capturing Marshall, Chief of Staff Lloyd Shepherd, Major Caldwell, Gibbs, Korshunov forces Marshall to contact Russian President Petrov and arrange for Radek's release from prison. Bennett is urged by Defense Secretary Walter Dean to declare the President incapable under the 25th amendment, so as to override Radek's release, but she refuses. In fact, because compromised nuclear launch codes were changed earlier in the movie, Marshall is incapable of performing Presidential duties. While Korshunov and his men celebrate the news of Radek's release, Marshall breaks his bonds, kills Korshunov and his remaining henchmen. Marshall lifts his order and Radek, free after a long walk to the prison gates, is subsequently killed when he attempts to reach the waiting helicopter.
Marshall and Caldwell attempt to direct the plane back to friendly airspace and return home, with help from military advisers, only to be tailed by a second batch of Radek loyalists piloting MiG-29s. F-15s approaching from friendly airspace waiting to accompany Air Force One are forced to speed up towards the aircraft to protect it. Marshall is able to evade most of the missile launches, while one F-15 pilot sacrifices himself to intercept a missile; the attacks from the MIGs have punctured the wings, leaving the aircraft losing altitude. A standby USAF Rescue HC-130 is called to help, sending parajumpers on tether lines to help rescue the survivors. Marshall insists that the injured Shepherd be transferred first; when there is time for only one more transfer due to engine failures, Gibbs reveals himself as the mole, killing Caldwell and the para-jumper. Marshall and Gibbs fight for control of the transfer line, Marshall manages to grab and detach it at the last second. Out of fuel, Air Force One crashes into killing Gibbs.
The HC-130 airmen reel Marshall in safely. The HC-130 serves as "Air Force One" as they fly back to Washington D. C. Harrison Ford as U. S. President James Marshall: Popular president and a family man who loves his wife Grace and daughter Alice. Marshall is a decorated Vietnam veteran and a Medal of Honor recipient, speaks reasonably fluent Russian. Feigning escape during Air Force One's hijacking, he attempts to retake the aircraft, to rescue everybody. Gary Oldman as Ivan Korshunov: A Russian Radek loyalist who leads the hijacking of Air Force One. Glenn Close as U. S. Vice President Kathryn Bennett: The Vice President of the United States. Bennett, throughout the Air Force One hijacking crisis, commands operations from the White House Situation Room, alongside Secretary of Defense Walter Dean and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Northwood. Despite all the tension, Bennett remains calm and collected during the entire ordeal, refuses to make risky or poor decisions. Wendy Crewson as U.
S. First Lady Grace Marshall Liesel Matthews as the President's daughter Alice Marshall Dean Stockwell as U. S. Defense Secretary Walter Dean Elya Baskin as Andrei Kolchak, Korshunov's second-in-command and pilot Andrew Divoff as Boris Bazylev, Korshunov's henchman David Vadim as Igor Nevsky, Ko
Paranormal events are purported phenomena described in popular culture and other non-scientific bodies of knowledge, whose existence within these contexts is described as beyond normal experience or scientific explanation. Proposals regarding the paranormal are different from scientific hypotheses or speculations extrapolated from scientific evidence because scientific ideas are grounded in empirical observations and experimental data gained through the scientific method. In contrast, those who argue for the existence of the paranormal explicitly do not base their arguments on empirical evidence but rather on anecdote and suspicion. Notable paranormal beliefs include those that pertain to telepathy, extrasensory perception and the pseudosciences of ghost hunting and ufology; the term "paranormal" has existed in the English language since at least 1920. The word consists of two parts: normal; the definition implies that the scientific explanation of the world around us is'normal' and anything, above, beyond, or contrary to that is'para'.
On the classification of paranormal subjects, Terence Hines in his book Pseudoscience and the Paranormal wrote: The paranormal can best be thought of as a subset of pseudoscience. What sets the paranormal apart from other pseudosciences is a reliance on explanations for alleged phenomena that are well outside the bounds of established science. Thus, paranormal phenomena include extrasensory perception, ghosts, life after death, faith healing, human auras, so forth; the explanations for these allied phenomena are phrased in vague terms of "psychic forces", "human energy fields", so on. This is in contrast to many pseudoscientific explanations for other nonparanormal phenomena, although bad science, are still couched in acceptable scientific terms. In traditional ghostlore and fiction featuring ghosts, a ghost is a manifestation of the spirit or soul of a person. Alternative theories include belief in the ghosts of deceased animals. Sometimes the term "ghost" is used synonymously with any spirit or demon, however in popular usage the term refers to a deceased person's spirit.
The belief in ghosts as souls of the departed is tied to the concept of animism, an ancient belief which attributed souls to everything in nature. As the 19th-century anthropologist George Frazer explained in his classic work, The Golden Bough, souls were seen as the creature within that animated the body. Although the human soul was sometimes symbolically or depicted in ancient cultures as a bird or other animal, it was held that the soul was an exact reproduction of the body in every feature down to clothing the person wore; this is depicted in artwork from various ancient cultures, including such works as the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead (ca. which shows deceased people in the afterlife appearing much as they did before death, including the style of dress. Although the evidence for ghosts is anecdotal, the belief in ghosts throughout history has remained widespread and persistent; the possibility of extraterrestrial life is not, by itself, a paranormal subject. Many scientists are engaged in the search for unicellular life within the solar system, carrying out studies on the surface of Mars and examining meteors that have fallen to Earth.
Projects such as SETI are conducting an astronomical search for radio activity that would show evidence of intelligent life outside the solar system. Scientific theories of how life developed on Earth allow for the possibility that life developed on other planets as well; the paranormal aspect of extraterrestrial life centers around the belief in unidentified flying objects and the phenomena said to be associated with them. Early in the history of UFO culture, believers divided themselves into two camps; the first held a rather conservative view of the phenomena, interpreting them as unexplained occurrences that merited serious study. They began calling themselves "ufologists" in the 1950s and felt that logical analysis of sighting reports would validate the notion of extraterrestrial visitation; the second camp consisted of individuals who coupled ideas of extraterrestrial visitation with beliefs from existing quasi-religious movements. These individuals were enthusiasts of occultism and the paranormal.
Many had backgrounds as active Theosophists, Spiritualists, or were followers of other esoteric doctrines. In contemporary times, many of these beliefs have coalesced into New Age spiritual movements. Both secular and spiritual believers describe UFOs as having abilities beyond what are considered possible according to known aerodynamic constraints and physical laws; the transitory events surrounding many UFO sightings limits the opportunity for repeat testing required by the scientific method. Acceptance of UFO theories by the larger scientific community is further hindered by the many possible hoaxes associated with UFO culture. Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience and subculture that aims to prove the existence of entities from the folklore record, such as Bigfoot, chupacabras, or Mokele-mbembe. Cryptozoologists refer to these entities as a term coined by the subculture. Approaching the paranormal from a research perspective is difficult because of the lack of acceptable physical evidence from most of the purported phenomena.
By definition, the paranormal does not conform to conventional expectations of nature. Therefore, a phenomenon cannot be confirmed as paranormal using the scientific method because, if it could be, it would no longer fit the definition. Despite this problem
Marilyn Manson (band)
Marilyn Manson is an American rock band formed by namesake lead singer Marilyn Manson and guitarist Daisy Berkowitz in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1989. Named Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids, they gained a local cult following in South Florida in the early 1990s with their theatrical live performances. In 1993, they were the first act signed to Trent Reznor's Nothing Records label; until 1996, the name of each member was created by combining the first name of a female sex symbol and the last name of a serial killer, for example Marilyn Monroe and Charles Manson. Their lineup has changed between many of their album releases. In the past, band members dressed in outlandish makeup and costumes, engaged in intentionally shocking behavior both onstage and off, their lyrics received criticism for their anti-religious sentiment and references to sex and drugs, while their live performances were called offensive and obscene. On several occasions and petitions led to the group being blocked from performing, with at least three US states passing legislation banning the group from performing at state-owned venues.
They released a number of platinum-selling albums, including Antichrist Superstar and Mechanical Animals. These albums, along with their stylized music videos and worldwide touring, brought public recognition to Marilyn Manson. In 1999, news media falsely blamed the band for influencing the perpetrators of the Columbine massacre; as this controversy began to wane throughout the 2000s, so did the band's mainstream popularity. Despite this, Jon Wiederhorn of MTV, in June 2003, referred to Marilyn Manson as "the only true artist today". Marilyn Manson is regarded as being one of the most iconic and controversial figures in heavy metal music, with the band and its lead singer influencing numerous other groups and musicians, both in metal-associated acts and in wider popular culture. VH1 ranked Marilyn Manson as the seventy-eighth best rock band on their 100 Great Artists of Hard Rock, they were inducted into the Kerrang! Hall of Fame in 2000, have been nominated for four Grammy Awards. In the U. S. the band has seen eight of its releases debut including two number-one albums.
Marilyn Manson have sold in excess of 50 million records worldwide. In 1989, Brian Warner was a college student working towards a degree in journalism at Broward College, gaining experience by writing music articles for the South Florida lifestyle magazine 25th Parallel, it was in this capacity that he met several of the musicians to whom his own band would be compared, including My Life with the Thrill Kill Kult and Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails. That December, he met Scott Putesky, who proposed that the two form a band together after reading some lyrics and poems written by Putesky, who wanted to be the vocalist of the proposed band. Warner, guitarist Putesky and bassist Brian Tutunick recorded their first demo tape as Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids in 1990, taking on the stage names of Marilyn Manson, Daisy Berkowitz and Olivia Newton Bundy, respectively. Bundy left the band soon after, was replaced by Gidget Gein, born Brad Stewart, they were joined on keyboard by Stephen Bier, who called himself Madonna Wayne Gacy.
In 1991, drummer Fred Streithorst joined the band under the name Sara Lee Lucas. The stage names adopted by each member were representative of a concept the band considered central: the dichotomy of good and evil, the existence of both, together, in every whole. "Marilyn Monroe had a dark side", explained Manson in his autobiography, "just as Charles Manson has a good, intelligent side." Over the next six years, all of the band's members would adopt names that combined the first name of a female sex symbol and the surname of a serial killer. Images of both Monroe and Manson, as well as of other famous and infamous figures, were common in the band's early promotional materials; the Spooky Kids' popularity in the area grew and because of the band's visual concerts, which drew from performance art and used many shock techniques such as "naked women nailed to a cross, a child in a cage, or bloody animal body parts." Band members variously performed in bizarre costumes. The band would contrast these theatrics with elements drawn from their youth: characters from 1970s and'80s children's television made regular grotesquely altered, appearances on band flyers and newsletters, were sampled in their music.
They continued to perform and release cassettes – shortening their name to Marilyn Manson in 1992 – until the summer of 1993, when they drew the attention of Reznor, who had just founded his own label, Nothing Records. Reznor offered the band a contract with the label, as well as an opening slot supporting Nine Inch Nails on their upcoming "Self Destruct Tour". After accepting both offers, recording sessions for their debut studio album began in July 1993 with Swans producer Roli Mosimann at Criteria Studios in Miami, Florida. Recording a selection of new songs along with material from their Spooky Kids repertoire, the first version of their debut, titled The Manson Family Album, was completed by the end of the month. However, it was not well received; the band's members, along with Reznor, criticized Mosimann's production as being flat and poorly representative of the band's live performances. At the same time, Gidget Gein had begun to lose control of his addiction to heroin. Before reworking the album, the band played two shows in Florida under the name Mrs. Scabtree.
This band featured Manson on drums, Gacy on keyboard, Ber
Ghost Hunters (TV series)
Ghost Hunters is an American paranormal reality television series that premiered on October 6, 2004, on Syfy and ran until October 26, 2016. The program features paranormal investigators Jason Hawes and Grant Wilson, who investigate places that are reported to be haunted; the two worked as plumbers for Roto-Rooter as a day job while investigating locations at night. In June 2016, Jason Hawes announced that Ghost Hunters would be ending their relationship with the SyFy channel at the conclusion of its eleventh season, which aired that year; the series is unrelated to the original 1996 Inca Productions' Ghosthunters produced for the Discovery Channel. The format was sold to Pilgrim Television in the United States to become Ghost Hunters; the only link between the two series is presenter Ian Cashmore. Cashmore piloted the U. S. show, but chose not to remain part of the U. S. venture after he filmed the promos. Jason Hawes and Grant Wilson, along with other team members who belong to the group they founded, The Atlantic Paranormal Society, investigate locations of interest by using various electronic equipment, which they believe is capable of detecting paranormal activity.
When investigating a location, TAPS team members first visit and survey the property with its owners, who describe their experiences at the site. Next, the team sets up electronic equipment in the apparent paranormal hotspots; the TAPS team spends several hours taking electromagnetic field and temperature readings, recording audio for EVPs, filming with digital video cameras. Many times, they will try to verbally coax the ghosts into responding, while recording. Afterwards, the team spends several days analyzing all of the data for evidence of possible paranormal activity. A few days after reviewing the information and Wilson discuss their findings with the location site owners, offer suggestions for dealing with any apparent activity, answer any questions the owners may have; the TAPS members state that they do not believe that every phenomenon captured is evidence of the paranormal and sometimes provide reasonable explanations such as cold spots which may be drafty windows, strange noises that may be a thumping branch or vermin in the walls, moving objects which may have been accidentally bumped or tugged, or phantom lights which can be reflections of light from a passing vehicle.
Since the series began airing, TAPS has recorded thousands of hours of video data. Most investigations, according to TAPS, turn up cold with little, if any, paranormal activity occurring. Syfy categorizes the program as a docu-soap. In addition to the investigative aspect, the show has presented personal conflicts and relationships among members of the TAPS team. Portions of some episodes portray Hawes and Wilson involved with their plumbing job or personal lives, but this varies by episode and is not always included; as the series progressed, the "behind-the-scenes" and "docu-soap" aspects have been reduced, the fifth season has so far focused on the investigations, with none of the docu-soap material that characterized earlier episodes. During investigations, the TAPS ghost hunters team use various equipment, including digital thermometers, EMF meters and night vision cameras and static digital video cameras, digital audio recorders, laptop computers; the team has experimented, in at least one episode, with a geiger counter during their investigation to see if it would register any anomalous readings.
Starting around the third season, the team has used the K-2 meter, a type of EMF meter that uses a series of LEDs to measure the strength of an energy field instead of a numerical LCD screen. During the Manson murders investigation in particular, the team used a K-2 meter in an attempt to get "yes" and "no" responses to verbal questions posed to a supposed entity in a room. In the fifth season's "Edith Wharton Estate" case, the team introduced two new pieces of equipment. One is a custom-made geophone, which detects vibrations and flashes a series of LEDs that measure the intensity of the vibration; the second is a new EMF detector that makes a buzzing sound when in the presence of an electromagnetic field, the stronger the field, the louder it buzzes. In the episode, the geophones were recorded on video flashing to the vibrations of what sound like footsteps across a floor though no one was in the room. Other gear not shown on screen are an ion generator, a device that charges the air with electricity and is theorized to help spirits manifest, the white noise generator, an audio device that makes a static background noise and is theorized to act as a catalyst for assisting entities in making EVPs.
Ghost Hunters has garnered some of the highest ratings of any Syfy reality programming. From the start, the show has found an audience for its mix of paranormal investigation and interpersonal drama, it has since been syndicated on NBC Universal sister cable channel Oxygen and airs on the Canadian cable network, OLN. In the early shows, TAPS was headquartered in a trailer located behind Jason Hawes' house, they drove one white van to investigations. Within one season, they had moved the entire operation to a storefront in Warwick, Rhode Island, acquired several new TAPS vehicles. In addition to their successful television venture, TAPS operates a website where they share their stories and ghost hunting videos with an ever-growing membership list; because of the popu
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups