click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ohmmeter

An ohmmeter is an electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance. Micro-ohmmeters make low resistance measurements. Megohmmeters measure large values of resistance; the unit of measurement for resistance is ohms. The first ohmmeters were based on a type of meter movement known as a'ratiometer'; these were similar to the galvanometer type movement encountered in instruments, but instead of hairsprings to supply a restoring force they used conducting'ligaments'. These provided no net rotational force to the movement; the movement was wound with two coils. One was connected via a series resistor to the battery supply; the second was connected to the same battery supply via a second resistor and the resistor under test. The indication on the meter was proportional to the ratio of the currents through the two coils; this ratio was determined by the magnitude of the resistor under test. The advantages of this arrangement were twofold. First, the indication of the resistance was independent of the battery voltage and no zero adjustment was required.

Second, although the resistance scale was non linear, the scale remained correct over the full deflection range. By interchanging the two coils a second range was provided; this scale was reversed compared to the first. A feature of this type of instrument was that it would continue to indicate a random resistance value once the test leads were disconnected. Ohmmeters of this type only measured resistance as they could not be incorporated into a multimeter design. Insulation testers that relied on a hand cranked generator operated on the same principle; this ensured that the indication was wholly independent of the voltage produced. Subsequent designs of ohmmeter provided a small battery to apply a voltage to a resistance via a galvanometer to measure the current through the resistance; the scale of the galvanometer was marked in ohms, because the fixed voltage from the battery assured that as resistance is increased, the current through the meter would decreased. Ohmmeters form circuits by themselves, therefore they cannot be used within an assembled circuit.

This design is much simpler and cheaper than the former design, was simple to integrate into a multimeter design and was by far the most common form of analogue ohmmeter. This type of ohmmeter suffers from two inherent disadvantages. First, the meter needs to be zeroed by shorting the measurement points together and performing an adjustment for zero ohms indication prior to each measurement; this is because as the battery voltage decreases with age, the series resistance in the meter needs to be reduced to maintain the zero indication at full deflection. Second, consequent on the first, the actual deflection for any given resistor under test changes as the internal resistance is altered, it remains correct at the centre of the scale only, why such ohmmeter designs always quote the accuracy "at centre scale only". A more accurate type of ohmmeter has an electronic circuit that passes a constant current through the resistance, another circuit that measures the voltage across the resistance; these measurements are digitized with an analog digital converter after which a microcontroller or microprocessor make the division of the current and voltage according to Ohm's Law and decode these to a display to offer the user a reading of the resistance value they're measuring at that instant.

Since these type of meters measure current and resistance all at once, these type of circuits are used in digital multimeters. For high-precision measurements of small resistances, the above types of meter are inadequate; this is because the change in deflection itself is small when the resistance measured is too small in proportion to the intrinsic resistance of the ohmmeter, but because the meter's reading is the sum of the resistance of the measuring leads, the contact resistances and the resistance being measured. To reduce this effect, a precision ohmmeter has four terminals, called Kelvin contacts. Two terminals carry the current from and to the meter, while the other two allow the meter to measure the voltage across the resistor. In this arrangement, the power source is connected in series with the resistance to be measured through the external pair of terminals, while the second pair connects in parallel with the galvanometer which measures the voltage drop. With this type of meter, any voltage drop due to the resistance of the first pair of leads and their contact resistances is ignored by the meter.

This four terminal measurement technique is called Kelvin sensing, after William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, who invented the Kelvin bridge in 1861 to measure low resistances. The Four-terminal sensing method can be utilized to conduct accurate measurements of low resistances. Megohmmeter Ammeter Multimeter Measuring instrument Electronic test equipment Electronics Electric circuit List of electronics topics Series and parallel circuits Galvanometer Rheochord DC Metering Circuits chapter from Lessons In Electric Circuits Vol 1 DC free ebook and Lessons In Electric Circuits series

Robert Mullineux Walmsley

Dr Robert Mullineux Walmsley FRSE was a British electrical pioneer. He was one of the first to bridge the gap between academic theory and practical use of electricity in the working world, he was born near Liverpool in the eldest of nine children. He studied Sciences at the University of London graduating BSc in 1882, he began teaching Physics in London took on a post as assistant Demonstrator to Prof Ayrton at Finsbury Technical College. He worked under Prof Silvanus Thompson, receiving a doctorate in 1886. In 1890 he went to Edinburgh as Professor of Electrical Engineering at Heriot-Watt University. In 1891 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were Francis Grant Ogilvie, William Henry Perkin, Alexander Bruce, Sir Byrom Bramwell. In 1895 he was living at 5 Seton Place in the Grange district in south Edinburgh. In 1896 he relocated from Edinburgh to Northhampton Polytechnic Institute in Clerkenwell as its first Principal; the college evolved into City, University of London.

He was struck by a vehicle on a London street near his home in Islington on 12 June 1924 and never regained consciousness. He died in London on 14 June 1924. In 1896 he married Emily Victoria Hicks. Electric Current: How Produced and How Used Transatlantic Engineering Schools and Engineering Engineering Colleges and the War Electricity in the Service of Man Modern Practical Electricity

Anglican Diocese of Melbourne

The Anglican Diocese of Melbourne is the metropolitan diocese of the Province of Victoria in the Anglican Church of Australia. The diocese was founded from the Diocese of Australia by letters patent of 25 June 1847 and includes the cities of Melbourne and Geelong and some more rural areas; the cathedral church is Melbourne. The ordinary of the diocese is the Archbishop of Melbourne, Philip Freier, translated from the Anglican Diocese of The Northern Territory, and, the Anglican Primate of Australia since 2014; the Diocese of Melbourne is divided into areas of episcopal care in which assistant bishops exercise a pastoral role on behalf of the Archbishop. These areas are divided into archdeaconries, with further subdivision into area deaneries. Following consultation with the Wurundjeri people of Melbourne, local Indigenous names have been used for the areas of episcopal care; the areas are: Marmingatha, covering the inner city along major transport corridors. Marmingatha means “being with the divine or supreme being”.

Monomeeth means "rightness and goodness". Together, they comprise the Woi Wurrung equivalent of the diocesan vision of Making the Word of God known through “gathering in the divine presence to speak out and proclaim”. Churchmanship within the Melbourne diocese is diverse and the three principal Anglican traditions, Evangelical and Anglo-Catholic, are all represented; the existence of such differing traditions within the diocese is sometimes a cause of tensions. The difficulty with which an archbishop was elected in 2006 provided a recent example; the diocese has two theological colleges, both in the suburb of Parkville, which prepare men and women for ordination and other forms of ministry. Trinity College Theological School, founded in 1878, is part of Trinity College, a residential college within the University of Melbourne and is more Liberal and Anglo-Catholic in tradition. Ridley Melbourne was founded in 1910 in the Evangelical tradition. A founding member of the Melbourne College of Divinity in 1910, Trinity was a partner in the ecumenical United Faculty of Theology until its disbanding at the end of 2014.

From 1 January 2015 it has been a college of the University of Divinity. Ridley is affiliated with the Australian College of Theology; the Diocese of Melbourne has been affected by issues that have been debated in the worldwide Anglican Communion. The theological diversity of the diocese means that there is sometimes disagreement over more contentious matters. In addition, it is perceived that there is a significant tension between the theologically broad Melbourne diocese and the far more conservative Sydney diocese; the diocese has ordained women to the diaconate since 1986 and to the priesthood since 1992. The September 2007 decision of the Appellate Tribunal opening the way for the consecration of women to the episcopate was welcomed by the present archbishop, Philip Freier. General Synod approved a motion in October 2007. Melbourne's first woman to become a bishop, Barbara Darling, was consecrated at St Paul's Cathedral on 31 May 2008; the ordination of women to be bishops is opposed by some within the diocese conservative Evangelicals and some Anglo-Catholics, necessitating the provision of alternative episcopal oversight.

The diocese subscribes to the traditional Anglican stance on homosexuality. Most conservatives and Evangelicals remain opposed to the blessing of same-sex unions and the ordination of non-celibate gay and lesbian clergy. However, the diocese contains a number of liberal parishes and prominent laypeople, such as Muriel Porter, who have been vocal in their support for changes in the church's teaching on human sexuality. In November 2007, an all-female committee from the Diocese of Melbourne made a submission to the Victorian Law Reform Commission outlining its position in relation to abortion; the submission stated that "the Anglican Church is for life" and acknowledged "diversity of... views" within the diocese. However it declared that the diocese "supports the provision of safe and affordable abortions with appropriate safeguards for women who, for whatever reasons, request them"; the underlying ethical view concerning embryonic life is that "while the embryo/foetus is human from the time of conception, it accrues moral significance and value as it develops... we believe the moral significance increases with the age and development of the foetus.

The significance increases over time, in parallel with its physical development. As a pregnancy advances, more powerful moral reasons are required to allow the destruction of the embryo/foetus." The submission was announced in The Melbourne Anglican, in an article entitled "Decriminalise abortion, say Anglican women". This is seen to be the first official approval of abortion by Australian Anglicans. In 1866, there were four archdeaconries: Hussey Burgh Macartney was Archdeacon of Melbourne and Dean of the Cathedral. Lloyd Crossley was Vicar of All Saint's, St Kilda and Archdeacon of Geelong from 18 September 1905 until 1911. St Peter's Eastern Hill - Parish church of the City of Melbourne List of Anglican c

Maninderjeet Singh Bitta

Maninderjeet Singh Bitta is the chairman of the All-India Anti-Terrorist Front, former President of Indian Youth Congress. He was made President of Indian Youth Congress by P. V. Narasimha Rao. Maninderjeet Singh Bitta was a Minister in Punjab Government in the govt of Beant Singh. On May 9, 1992: Bitta's was injured in a car bombing that killed 13 people in Amritsar holy city of Punjab on May 9, 1992. On Sept 11, 1993: Bitta survived a deadly attack on him at Indian Youth Congress premises on Raisina Road, New Delhi; the blast occurred at mid-day as Maninderjeet Singh Bitta president of the governing Congress Party's youth wing, left his office in a car. His two bodyguards were among the dead, he escaped with shrapnel wounds to the chest. Burning tires and pieces of metal and glass were strewn across a 100-yard area near Parliament and many Government buildings. Rescuers pulled mangled bodies from damaged cars as smoke billowed into the sky. Passengers in a passing public bus were wounded; the death toll would have been much higher if it had not been raining heavily.

After investigation, authorities named Devinder Pal Singh Bhullar, a militant affiliated with the Khalistan Liberation Force, as one of the persons responsible for the 1993 Raisina Road car bomb and is sentenced to death by hanging. Bhullar's appeal against the conviction was dismissed by the Supreme Court of India on 27 December 2006, his plea for clemency was rejected by the President of India in May 2011. He again asked for commutation of hanging sentence, rejected by the Supreme court of India on 12 April 2013. Death penalty of Devinderpal Singh Bhullar commuted to life imprisonment by the Supreme Court on 31 March 2014 on the ground of inordinate delay on part of President to decide their mercy pleas, he works for the martyred soldiers and the families of those killed in the terrorist incident. At the same time, he runs a variety of campaigns to eliminate terrorism from the country, his supporters say that terrorists fear him. Some people call his front his army, he is provided with Z+ security 5.

Maninderjeet Singh Bitta's Social works

November 2010 Taiwanese local elections

Local elections were held in Taiwan on 27 November 2010 to elect mayors and village chiefs of special-municipalities, known as the Five Municipalities Elections. Mayoral candidates for the Kuomintang were elected in New Taipei and Taichung, while candidates for the Democratic Progressive Party were elected in Kaohsiung and Tainan. On the eve of the election, Sean Lien, son of former Vice President Chan Lien, was shot in face when he was campaigning for a Kuomintang New Taipei councillor candidate; the newly created central municipality Taichung will be formed from the merging and elevation of Taichung County and Taichung City, both of which are county-level divisions of Taiwan. At present, both Taichung County and Taichung are under the administration of the Kuomintang, with the incumbent Taichung County Magistrate being Huang Chung-sheng and the incumbent Taichung City Mayor being Jason Hu Chih-chiang; the electoral composition of Taichung County is balanced with only a slight overall inclination towards the Pan-Blue political camp, whereas Taichung City is considered to be mildly leaning towards the Pan-Blue political camp.

It is estimated that in Taichung County 52% of voters who identify themselves with political inclination support the Pan-Blue Coalition, whilst 48% support the Pan-Green Coalition. In Taichung City, the proportion of Pan-Blue to Pan-Green supporters within voters who identify themselves with political inclination is 55% to 45%; the newly created central municipality Tainan will be formed from the merging and elevation of Tainan County and Tainan City, both of which are county-level divisions of Taiwan. The incumbent Tainan County Magistrate Su Huan-chih and the incumbent Tainan City Mayor being Hsu Tain-tsair are both members of the Democratic Progressive Party. Having been under the administration of the Democratic Progressive Party for the past seventeen and thirteen years both Tainan County and Tainan City are considered to be strongholds of the Pan-Green political camp, it is estimated that in both the county and the city 60% of voters who identify themselves with political inclination support the Pan-Green Coalition, whilst 40% support the Pan-Blue Coalition.

The newly created central municipality Kaohsiung will be formed from the merging of Kaohsiung County and the current central municipality Kaohsiung City. The incumbent Kaohsiung Municipal Mayor Chen Chu and the incumbent Kaohsiung County Magistrate Yang Chiu-hsing are both members of the Democratic Progressive Party. Having been under the administration of the Democratic Progressive Party for the past twelve years, the electoral composition of Kaohsiung City has a slight overall inclination towards the Pan-Green political camp. On the other hand, Kaohsiung County has been under the control of Tangwai members and the Democratic Progressive Party for 25 years, is considered to be solidly in the Pan-Green political camp, it is estimated that in Kaohsiung County 60% of voters who identify themselves with political inclination support the Pan-Green Coalition, whilst 40% support the Pan-Blue Coalition. A forum entitled "Policy Direction after Five Metropolitan Elections in Taiwan", organized by the Institute for National Policy Research on Monday, November 29, 2010, concluded that although the Kuomintang won three of the five mayoral positions, in terms of the overall votes won, the real victor was in fact the Democratic Progressive Party.

Raymond Burghardt, chairman of the American Institute in Taiwan, said that the way both parties handled the shooting which wounded Sean Lien, son of former vice-president Lien Chan, "was a sign of political maturity."Taiwanese political scientist Hsu Yung-ming believed that the elections signalled the era of the new "Four Heavenly Kings" Tsai Ing-wen, Chen Chu, William Lai and Su Jia-chyuan within the Democratic Progressive Party. Elections in the Republic of China

Acoustic Sounds, Inc.

Acoustic Sounds, Inc. is a mail-order business specializing in the sale of audiophile vinyl LPs, Direct Stream Digital/PCM downloads, SACDs, Reel-To-Reel album reissues, DVD-Audios, high-quality CDs and high-end stereo equipment. Located in Salina, United States; the business is as of 2016 employed 98 people. Kassem started Acoustic Sounds in 1986 running it solo out of a two-bedroom apartment; when CDs were being introduced to the public and people were dumping their LP records in favor of CDs, Kassem was purchasing collectible high-quality LPs and reselling them via buy-sell-and-trade advertisements in various record collector and audiophile magazines. Kassem's record collection grew until he lived in a field of Vinyl records. LPs stacked in the living room, the bedrooms, the closets, the kitchen and even the bathroom. A small apartment shrunk to only a few pathways — one from the listening position to the kitchen. Orders grew and Acoustic Sounds was born; that was 1988, Kassem’s budding success allowed him to purchase a four-bedroom, ranch-styled house.

It looked like a home. But soon came more records, they devoured the basement. They started soon controlled the living room and bedroom; this time the bathrooms were spared, but little else in Kassem’s workplace and home escaped the vinyl. He hired more employees for a shrinking workspace; when 18-wheelers started pulling up to Kassem’s residential address to deliver pallets, it was time to move. In 1991, Kassem scouted out a 3,500-square-foot former dance studio in this mid-sized Kansas downtown. At first the space was a dream. There was room for shelves to stock inventory. There was a conventional shipping-and-receiving area, but Acoustic Sounds continued to grow. In 1992, Kassem launched. Kassem contracted with record labels – majors and independents – and licensed the original analog master tapes of choice recordings, he had those titles remastered and pressed on a superior grade of vinyl and offered the finished product for sale through his Acoustic Sounds catalog and to wholesale accounts around the world.

Analogue Productions now has more than 450 titles in print. During this time, in 1993, Kassem began APO Records, an original record label focused on recording the most authentic and legendary blues artists still living. APO’s first title – Jimmy Rogers/Blue Bird – won the 1995 W. C. Handy Traditional Blues Album of the Year. APO Records as of 2011 had 43 titles available. By 1994, Acoustic Sounds had again outgrown its space. Kassem found a warehouse with enough room for plenty of office space. There was a loading dock for the shipping. There was a large basement for overstock; the building was perfect for about eight years. But records began to stack on and around employees’ desks, across the floor of what was supposed to be the shipping and receiving area and in every single corner of the building. Plus, Acoustic Sounds started to sell more equipment, which meant turntables, CD players and the like had to compete with the LPs and CDs for the limited space. So, after 10 years in the warehouse, it was time to move.

In the meantime, Acoustic Sounds further branched into new musical endeavors with the addition of Blue Heaven Studios. In 1996, Kassem purchased an old Gothic-style church in downtown Salina, he planned to use the space for storage for Acoustic Sounds’ overflow inventory. But after recognizing how incredible the church’s natural Acoustics were, Kassem decided to outfit it as a state-of-the-art recording studio. After a significant financial investment, including new electrical service, the building of a control room and the outfitting of the church with modern recording equipment and microphones, Blue Heaven was born. Kassem left the original pew and balcony seats in the church sanctuary and so the space doubles as a concert hall. In August 1997, Jimmy Rogers performed the first concert at Blue Heaven. Beginning in 1998, Blue Heaven began hosting an annual two-night concert series called the Blues Masters at the Crossroads. Fans flock from around the world each October to see the most legendary lineup of Blues artists assembled.

Blue Heaven became the home of APO Records and is where all of the APO titles have been recorded since 1998. The studio is available for anyone to book session time and additionally is available for weddings. Kassem was photographed for the cover of Billboard magazine, a leading publication in the music industry, in a profile written by Chris Morris for the Aug. 17, 2002, issue titled "Audiophile Labels Put a New Spin On Vinyl." In 2004, Acoustic Sounds moved from their 6,000-square-foot warehouse to an 18,000-square-foot former grocery store. At the time, the space seemed big enough to allow for as much growth as could be foreseen, but just six years in 2010, Acoustic Sounds had once again outgrown its space. Kassem purchased three buildings. All of the inventory was moved to a 28,000-square-foot warehouse; the office workers were moved to a 20,000-square-foot office building. The third building – 21,000 square feet – was used to launch the latest Acoustic Sounds venture, Quality Record Pressings, a modern record pressing plant.

QRP operates three different kinds of record presses and has equipped each with pioneering modifications, including adding microprocessors to the presses so that they will cycle based on temperature rather than the less accurate cy