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Ohrid

Ohrid is a city in North Macedonia and the seat of the Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the eighth-largest city in the country, with over 42,000 inhabitants as of 2002. Ohrid once had 365 churches, one for each day of the year, has been referred to as a "Jerusalem of the Balkans"; the city is rich in picturesque houses and monuments, tourism is predominant. It is located southwest of west of Resen and Bitola. In 1979 and in 1980 Ohrid and Lake Ohrid were accepted as Cultural and Natural World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Ohrid is one of only 28 sites that are part of UNESCO's World Heritage that are Cultural as well as Natural sites. In antiquity the city was known under the ancient Greek name of Λυχνίς and Λυχνιδός and the Latin Lychnidus meaning "city of light" "a precious stone that emits light", from λύχνος, "lamp, portable light". Polybius, writing in the second century BC, refers to the town as Λυχνίδιον - Lichnidion, it became capital of the First Bulgarian Empire in the early medieval period, was referred to by Byzantine writers as Achrida.

By 879 AD, the town was referred to as Ohrid. In Macedonian language and the other South Slavic languages, the name of the city is Ohrid. In Albanian, the city is known in modern Greek Ochrida and Achrida; the earliest inhabitants of the widest Lake Ohrid region were the Enchele, an Illyrian tribe and the Dassaretae, an ancient Greek tribe based further East in the region of Lynkestis. According to recent excavations this was a town as early as of king Phillip II of Macedon, they conclude that Samuil's Fortress was built on the place of an earlier fortification, dated to 4th century BC. During the Roman conquests, towards the end of 3rd and the beginning of 2nd century BC, the Dassaretae and the region Dassaretia were mentioned, as well as the ancient Greek city of Lychnidos; the existence of the ancient Enchelean city of Lychnidos is linked to the Greek myth of the Phoenician prince Cadmus who, banished from Thebes, in Boeotia, fled to the Enchele and founded the town of Lychnidos on the shores of the modern Lake Ohrid.

The Lake of Ohrid, the ancient Greek Lacus Lychnitis, whose blue and exceedingly transparent waters in antiquity gave to the lake its Greek name. It was located along the Via Egnatia. Archaeological excavations prove early adoption of Christianity in the area. Bishops from Lychnidos participated in multiple ecumenical councils; the South Slavs began to arrive in the area during the 6th century AD. By the early 7th century it was colonized by a Slavic tribe known as the Berziti. Bulgaria conquered the city around 840; the name Ohrid first appeared in 879. The Ohrid Literary School established in 886 by Clement of Ohrid became one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire. Between 990 and 1015, Ohrid was the stronghold of the Bulgarian Empire. From 990 to 1018 Ohrid was the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. After the Byzantine reconquest of the city in 1018 by Basil II, the Bulgarian Patriarchate was downgraded to an Archbishopric of Ohrid, placed under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

The higher clergy after 1018 was invariably Greek, including during the period of Ottoman domination, until the abolition of the archbishopric in 1767. At the beginning of the 16th century the archbishopric reached its peak subordinating the Sofia, Vidin and Moldavian eparchies, part of the former medieval Serbian Patriarchate of Peć, the Orthodox districts of Italy and Dalmatia; as an episcopal city, Ohrid was a cultural center of great importance for the Balkans. All surviving churches were built by the Byzantines and by the Bulgarians, the rest of them date back to the short time of Serbian rule during the late Middle Ages. Bohemond, leading a Norman army from southern Italy, took the city in 1083. Byzantines regained it in 1085. In the 13th and 14th century the city changed hands between the Despotate of Epirus, the Bulgarian, the Byzantine and the Serbian Empires, as well as local Albanian rulers. In the mid-13th century Ohrid was one of the cities ruled by Pal Gropa, a member of the Albanian noble Gropa family.

In 1334 the city was incorporated in the Serbian Empire. After Dusan's death the city came under the control of Andrea Gropa, while after his death Prince Marko incorporated it in the Kingdom of Prilep. In the early 1370s Marko lost Ohrid to Pal II Gropa, another member of the Gropa family and unsuccessfully tried to recapture it in 1375 with Ottoman assistance. In 1395 the Ottomans under Bayezid I captured the city which became the seat of the newly established Sanjak of Ohrid. In 14–15 September 1464 12,000 troops of the League of Lezhë and 1,000 of the Republic of Venice defeated a 14,000-man Ottoman force near the city; when Mehmed II returned from Albania after his actions against Skanderbeg in 1466 he dethroned Dorotheos, the Archbishop of Ohrid, expatriated him together with his clerks and boyars and considerable number of citizens of Ohrid to Istanbul because of their anti-Ottoman activities during Skanderbeg's rebellion when many citizens of Ohrid, including Dorotheos and his clergy, supported Skanderbeg and his fight.

The Christian population declined during the first centuries of Ottoman rule. In 1664 th

Tara Street

Tara Street is a major traffic route in Dublin, Ireland due to the current one-way traffic flow in the city centre. It links Pearse Street to the northern side of the city via Butt Bridge - traffic flows to the north; the street gives its name to Tara Street railway station, around the corner on Georges Quay, near the northern end of Tara Street. It was developed as a new street in 1885 replacing Shoe Lane and George's Street; the street was named after the home of the ancient high kings of Ireland. In April 1907 Dublin Fire Brigade opened its headquarters at the new fire station at the corner of Tara Street and Pearse Street; this would be the headquarters of the Fire Brigade until a new headquarters was opened in Townsend Street in 1998. The brick watch tower at the intersection of the two streets is now a protected structure. During the Easter Rising, British artillery shelled Liberty Hall from Tara Street, though the road surface made it difficult. Tara Street was widened in 1932 after Butt Bridge was changed from a swing bridge to a three span fixed structure.

In October 2006, The Irish Times moved to new headquarters in Tara Street. It had been based on D'Olier Street Leopold Bloom thinks about using the Tara Street public baths in the Calypso section of the novel Ulysses

World Gliding Championships

The World Gliding Championships is a gliding competition held every two years or so by the FAI Gliding Commission. The dates are not always two years apart because the contests are sometimes held in the summer in the Southern Hemisphere. Gliding had been a demonstration sport at the 1936 Summer Olympics and was due to become an official Olympic sport in the Helsinki Games in 1940. However, since the Second World War, gliding has not featured in the Olympics, so the World Championships are the highest level in the sport. There are now contests for six classes of glider and so in recent years the Championships have been divided between two locations; the women's, grand prix and aerobatic events are held separately. Each of the following entries give the year and location of the contest followed by the winner of each class and the glider used. A list of future events is available here Gliding Grand Prix, or Sailplane Grand Prix, is a newer type of gliding competition, it has a more spectacular appearance than conventional soaring competitions.

The Women's World Gliding Championships is a women-only gliding competition. From 1979 to 1999 women's gliding competitions were held as International European Women's Gliding Championships; the Junior World Gliding Championships is a competition for glider pilots under the age of 26. From 1991 to 1997, international junior gliding competitions were held as European Junior Gliding Championships. World Glider Aerobatic Championships take place each year since 1985 under the auspices of the FAI, they are administrated by the FAI Aerobatics Commission "Commission Internationale de Voltige Aerienne". The 2001 championships were part of the World Air Games. Since 1994, European Glider Aerobatic Championships are held in the years between the World Championships. Since 2010, an additional event is organized in a less demanding "Advanced" category – the World Advanced Glider Aerobatic Championships. WAGAC is organized yearly accompanying the WGAC. 1st FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Austria, 26 August – 3 September 1985individual results: Jerzy Makula glider: Kobuz 3 Ludwig Fuß, glider: Lo 100 Marek Szufa glider: Kobuz 3 team winners: Poland: Jerzy Makula, Marek Szufa, Marian Bednorz Federal Republic of Germany: Ludwig Fuß, Helmut Laurson, Josef Eberl Austria: Siegfried Duchkowitsch, Reinhard Haggenmüller, Otto Salzinger 2nd FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Bielsko-Biała, Poland, 1–15 August 1987individual results: Jerzy Makula, glider: Kobuz 3 Andrzej Tomkowicz, glider: Kobuz 3 Nancy Blank glider: Kobuz 3 team winners: Poland: Jerzy Makula, Andrzej Tomkowicz...

Federal Republic of Germany Austria 3rd FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Federal Republic of Germany, 15–26 August 1989individual results: Jerzy Makula, glider: Kobuz 3 Andrzej Jozef Solski, glider: Kobuz 3 Hubert Jänsch, glider: Lo 100 team winners: Poland: Jerzy Makula, Jozef Solski... Federal Republic of Germany: Hubert Jänsch... Switzerland: Walter Martig, Peter Gafner, Franz Studer 4th FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Zielona Góra, Poland, 18–31 August 1991individual results: Jerzy Makula, glider: Swift S-1 Tadeusz Mezyk, glider: Swift S-1 Marek Hernik, glider: Swift S-1 team winners: Poland: Jerzy Makula, Tadeusz Mezyk, Marek Hernik Germany: Martin Scheuermann, Hubert Jänsch, Konrad Huber United States of America: Stephen Coan, Charles Kalko, Chris Smisson 5th FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, the Netherlands, 15–28 August 1993individual results: Jerzy Makula Adam Michałowski Tadeusz Mezyk team winners: Poland: Jerzy Makula, Adam Michałowski, Tadeusz Mezyk France: Sándor Katona, Pierre Albertini, Daniel Serres Germany: Hubert Jänsch, Ulf Kramer, Henry Bohlig 6th FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Var, France, 11–23 September 1995individual results: Mikhail Mamistov, glider: Swift S-1 Jerzy Makula, glider: MDM-1 Fox Sergey Rakhmanin, glider: Swift S-1 team winners: Russia: Mikhail Mamistov, Sergey Rakhmanin, Victor Tchmal Poland: Jerzy Makula, Andrzej Tomkowicz, Marek Hernik France: Daniel Serres, Etienne Meyrous, Pierre Albertini 7th FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Turkey, 9–21 September 1997individual results: Mikhail Mamistov Sergei Krikalevcosmonaut Georgij Kaminski team winners: Russia: Mikhail Mamistov, Sergei Krikalev, Georgij Kaminski 8th FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships, Niederöblarn, Austria, 15–28 August 1999individual results: Jerzy Makula, glider: MDM-1 Fox Henry Bohlig, glider: Swift S-1 Krzystof Brzakalik, glider: Swift S-1 team winners: Poland: Jerzy Makula, Krzysztof Brząkalik, Adam Michałowski Germany: Henry Bohlig, Helmut Lindner, Detlef Eilers Russia: Valentin Barabanov, Georgij Kaminski, Alexandr Panfierov 9th FAI World Glider Aerobatic Championships and 2nd World Air Games Glider Aerobatics Championships, Palma del Río, Córdoba, Spain, 19 June – 1 July 2001individual results: Alexandr Panfierov Jerzy Makula Adam Michałowski team winners: P