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Oil painting

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, safflower oil; the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired; the paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by painters in central and western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the 15th century, its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became known.

The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe. In recent years, water miscible. Water-soluble paints are either engineered or an emulsifier has been added that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, allows, when sufficiently diluted fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is'fat over lean', meaning that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will peel; this rule does not ensure permanence.

There are many other media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or'body' of the paint, the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke; these aspects of the paint are related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the painting surface using paintbrushes, but there are other methods, including using palette knives and rags. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew; this can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, but after a while the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, is dry to the touch within a span of two weeks, it is dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year.

Although the history of tempera and related media in Europe indicates that oil painting was discovered there independently, there is evidence that oil painting was used earlier in Afghanistan. Outdoor surfaces and surfaces like shields—both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations—were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports. However, Theophilus gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Various Arts, written in 1125. At this period, it was used for painting sculptures and wood fittings especially for outdoor use. However, early Netherlandish painting with artists like Van Eyck and Robert Campin in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, only Italy.

Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular as the support, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, allowed larger works, did not require complicated preliminary layers of gesso. Venice, where sail-canvas was available, was a leader in the move to canvas. Small cabinet paintings were made on metal copper plates; these supports were more expensive but firm, allowing intricately fine detail. Printing plates from printmaking were reused for this purpose; the popularity of oil spread through Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late 15th century. By 1540, the previous method for painting on panel had become all but extinct, although Italians continued to use chalk-based fresco for wall paintings, less successful and durable in damper northern climates; the linseed oil itself comes from a common fiber crop. Linen, a "support" for oil painting comes from the flax plant. Safflower oil or the walnut or poppyseed oil are sometimes used in formulating ligh

Ruotsinsalmi-class minelayer

The Ruotsinsalmi-class minelayers were a two-strong class of minelayers in the Finnish Navy. Both ships were launched in 1940 and named after famous 18th-century sea battles between Sweden and Russia. Funding for two new minelayers had been secured as early as in 1937, but instead the money was used to refurbish the garrison at Mäkiluoto. Riilahti was launched on December 1940, three weeks after her sister ship Ruotsinsalmi; the vessels differed somewhat, Riilahti having an extensively modified propulsion system and hull, compared to its sister vessel. The vessels were intended as escort minesweepers for the Finnish navy's coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen, they were therefore designed with a draft of only 1.5 metres. The ships were armed with one 75 mm gun, one Bofors 40 mm guns and two Madsen 20 mm anti-aircraft cannons; the vessel had three mine dropping rails, could carry about 100 mines. The ship could hunt submarines, was equipped with hydrophones, depth charge throwers and rails.

The vessel was strong enough to be able to tow minesweeping equipment. It was equipped with smoke generators so it could protect itself, other near-by vessel from enemy vessels. Ruotsinsalmi Riilahti

Suzhou High School

Suzhou High School the Suzhou High School of Jiangsu Province, is a Chinese public high school of one-millennium rich history, located in Suzhou, Jiangsu. In AD 1035, the Northern Song politician and writer Fan Zhongyan founded the predecessor of Suzhou High school, Suzhou Prefecture School. During the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Boxing established the Ziyang College inside the Suzhou Prefecture School, it was one of the most prestigious colleges in the nation, several emperors of Qing Dynasty praised its achievements. In the 1900s, the imperial examination was abandoned, Duan Fang, the governor of Jiangsu, transformed the school into a modern school, he invited sinology masters Wang Guowei and Luo Zhenyu to join the faculty of the school. In addition, during the Republic of China period, Zhang Taiyan and Qian Mu taught sinology here, it is regarded as one of the four most famous high school in Jiangnan. After the establishment of People's Republic of China, Suzhou High School became one of the 24 key high schools of China in 1953, selected by the Ministry of Education, one of the top four high schools in Jiangsu Province as well.

In 1997, Suzhou High School became the first batch of national model high school in Jiangsu Province. After the key school concept was abolished, it became four-starred high school in 2004. In a 2016 ranking of Chinese high schools that send students to study in American universities, Suzhou High School ranked number 39 in mainland China in terms of the number of students entering top American universities. In 1035, Fan Zhongyan, the Prime Minister of the Northern Song Dynasty founded the Suzhou Prefecture School, the first time in Chinese history that combined prefecture school with Confucian temple; the same year, Fan Zhongyan donated a house, began the construction of quasi-government school after the approval of the Emperor Ren Zong. He employed the educator Hu Yuan, the implementor of "sub-Studio" teaching style. Since with the school in Suzhou, Suzhou High School began the "Millennium Prefecture School" of history. During the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Boxing established the Ziyang College in the Suzhou Prefecture School.

At that time, most of the governmental schools are examination-oriented while the Ziyang College focused on Neo-Confucianism. Zhang engaged famous teachers from all over the country and the college attracted students nationwide. In 1860, Suzhou Prefecture School was damaged in the catastrophe of Taiping Rebellion. Fourteen years governor Zhang Shusheng arranged a huge budget in its reconstruction. In 1902, Ziyang College was renamed to Xiaoshiguan. Two years Duan Fang, the provincial governor of Jiangsu, established Jiangsu Normal School on its campus, he invited sinology great masters Luo Zhenyu and Wang Guowei to the school, serving as principal and teacher respectively. After that, the renowned elite college in Jiangnan became a public high school. In 1911, the school was renamed to Jiangsu Provincial No.1 Normal School. During May Fourth Movement, students in the school established a student council with some universities to protest the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. In mid-May, the students' strike affected the government's decision.

In 1927, Wang Maozu, an educationist who studied at Harvard University and Columbia University and former principal of Beijing Normal University, became the principal of Jiangsu Provincial Suzhou High School. After that, he modified the English name of this school to Soochow Academy, he invited some famous scholars, including Zhang Taiyan and Lü Shuxiang. After Wang resigned in 1931, Jiangsu Province Department of Education let geographer Hu Huanyong at National Central University to take this position temporarily. In July 1932, SHS started to admit girls, considered as a progress in China at that time. In the 1st Jiangsu Provincial High School Graduate Examination held in 1933, SHS students attracted nationwide attention by having 24 of them ranked in Top 100 in the province. Two years Hu Huanyong returned to National Central University after the negotiation of university and the Department of Education. On November 19, 1937, the Japanese Army invaded Suzhou and occupied the campus of Suzhou High School.

During the 8-year war, the school relocated seven times and changed its name twice, in order to minimize attention. After the fall of Suzhou, SHS moved to rural Yixing—the Suzhou High School at Boyang; the students and faculty members had to change their campus again when Japanese occupied the whole Sunan region. The Suzhou High School at Shanghai was located at Shanghai International Settlement. On December 8, 1941, the U. S. declared war upon Japan and the Japanese Army annexed the International Settlement. As a result, SHS moved to Changzhou, though in the name of private schools. On October 1945, Suzhou High School returned to its original campus after the surrender of Japan. During the 1940s and 1950s, Suzhou High School continued to be one of China's top high schools, with 40-50 students admitted by Peking University, Tsinghua University and Jiaotong University each year. Despite this, the high-level academic atmosphere comparable with top universities no longer existed. During the Chinese Communist Revolution, the People's Liberation Army occupied Suzhou on April 27, 1949 and the Communist Party took over the school.

In 1978, the school was named as a high school in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, became the first school to restore one of the key secondary schools. In 1985, the