Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil. Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including major deposits in the United States. A 2016 estimate of global deposits set the total world resources of oil shale equivalent of 6.05 trillion barrels of oil in place. Heating oil shale to a sufficiently high temperature causes the chemical process of pyrolysis to yield a vapor. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas. Oil shale can be burned directly in furnaces as a low-grade fuel for power generation and district heating or used as a raw material in chemical and construction-materials processing. Oil shale gains attention as a potential abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises. At the same time, oil-shale mining and processing raise a number of environmental concerns, such as land use, waste disposal, water use, waste-water management, greenhouse-gas emissions and air pollution.
Estonia and China have well-established oil shale industries, Brazil and Russia utilize oil shale. General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix and kerogen. Oil shales differ from oil-bearing shales, shale deposits that contain petroleum, sometimes produced from drilled wells. Examples of oil-bearing shales are the Bakken Formation, Pierre Shale, Niobrara Formation, Eagle Ford Formation. Oil shale, an organic-rich sedimentary rock, belongs to the group of sapropel fuels, it does not have a definite geological definition nor a specific chemical formula, its seams do not always have discrete boundaries. Oil shales vary in their mineral content, chemical composition, type of kerogen, depositional history and not all oil shales would be classified as shales in the strict sense. According to the petrologist Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong, oil shales are not "geological nor geochemically distinctive rock but rather'economic' term." Their common defining feature is low solubility in low-boiling organic solvents and generation of liquid organic products on thermal decomposition.
Oil shale differs from bitumen-impregnated rocks, humic coals and carbonaceous shale. While oil sands do originate from the biodegradation of oil and pressure have not transformed the kerogen in oil shale into petroleum, that means that its maturation does not exceed early mesocatagenetic. General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix and kerogen. While the bitumen portion of oil shales is soluble in carbon disulfide, kerogen portion is insoluble in carbon disulfide and may contain iron, nickel and uranium. Oil shale contains a lower percentage of organic matter than coal. In commercial grades of oil shale the ratio of organic matter to mineral matter lies between 0.75:5 and 1.5:5. At the same time, the organic matter in oil shale has an atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon 1.2 to 1.8 times lower than for crude oil and about 1.5 to 3 times higher than for coals. The organic components of oil shale derive from a variety of organisms, such as the remains of algae, pollen, plant cuticles and corky fragments of herbaceous and woody plants, cellular debris from other aquatic and land plants.
Some deposits contain significant fossils. The mineral matter in oil shale carbonates. Inorganic matrix can contain quartz, clays, carbonates and some other minerals. Geologists can classify oil shales on the basis of their composition as carbonate-rich shales, siliceous shales, or cannel shales. Another classification, known as the van Krevelen diagram, assigns kerogen types, depending on the hydrogen and oxygen content of oil shales' original organic matter; the most used classification of oil shales, developed between 1987 and 1991 by Adrian C. Hutton, adapts petrographic terms from coal terminology; this classification designates oil shales as terrestrial, lacustrine, or marine, based on the environment of the initial biomass deposit. Known oil shales are predominantly aquatic origin. Hutton's classification scheme has proven useful in estimating the yield and composition of the extracted oil; as source rocks for most conventional oil reservoirs, oil shale deposits are found in all world oil provinces, although most of them are too deep to be exploited economically.
As with all oil and gas resources, analysts distinguish between oil shale resources and oil shale reserves. "Resources" refers to all oil shale deposits, while "reserves", represents those deposits from which producers can extract oil shale economically using existing technology. Since extraction technologies develop continuously, planners can only estimate the amount of recoverable kerogen. Although resources of oil shale occur in many countries, only 33 countries possess known deposits of possible economic value. Well-explored deposits classifiable as reserves, include the Green River deposits in the wester
The Human Dimension is a framework for United States Army to Optimize Human Performance as part of Force 2025 and Beyond. The Human Dimension White Paper expands on the topic covered in this page, it is not enough for leaders to tolerate or grow comfortable with uncertainty, the Army requires agile and ethical leaders trained and educated to improve and thrive in uncertainty. The cognitive and social components of Soldier, Army Civilian and organizational development and performance essential to raise and employ the Army in unified land operations. Establish a framework for the Army to assess and synchronize its training and education and technology, holistic health and fitness and personnel policies and initiatives in support of the Army Profession. Establishes an initial foundation for achieving human performance optimization as part of the Army's efforts to develop Force 2025 and Beyond. Provide an initial framework in the form of ends and means to frame development of the elements necessary to improve the performance of Army personnel – the strength of our Army.
Only through our ability to optimize human performance, building resilient Soldiers, adaptive leaders, cohesive teams, will we maintain the ability to prevent conflict, shape the international environment, win decisively. The strategic security environment is undergoing rapid evolution where a complex and dynamic mix of cultures, a broad range of actors, unprecedented proliferation of technology with military application create a competitive environment that challenges US interests; these geopolitical changes are rapid, generate ambiguity and lead to regional instability and conflict tied to ancient grievances. It is difficult to anticipate multiple emerging threats to US security interests and adjust the Army's doctrinal and material resources to cope with them. Therefore, we must design the Army to face threats that can adapt to exploit our weaknesses faster than what we have experienced in the past. Adjusting to this reality demands a different approach. To continue to dominate on the battlefield of the future, the Army must invest in its people as the most agile and adaptive resource.
Preserving a technological edge will remain important but technology alone is insufficient to retain overmatch in the face of adaptive adversaries. The Army must seek to exploit a decisive cognitive edge over potential adversaries. Realizing that technology remains an essential enabler with tremendous potential in the long-term, today few technological solutions exist. To overcome this shortfall, only the optimized Soldier provides the promise of meeting the cognitive demands of a modern and complex battlefield. With a shrinking force structure and growing demands on the individual Soldier, it is essential for the Army to design institutions and programs that develop the best talent and abilities in every member of the Total Army team; this holistic body of effort is defined as human performance optimization. In Operational Environments to 2028: The Strategic Environment for Unified Land Operations the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command G2 describes the strategic environment as “ambiguous, presenting multiple layers of complexity and a multiplicity of actors challenging the Army with requirements beyond traditional warfighting skills.”
From this complex picture of the future, four emerging trends illustrate the cognitive and social demands placed upon Soldiers of the future. Megacities: The world population of 2025 is urban, coastal and interconnected; the United Nations estimates that within the next forty years the urban population will grow by another 2.5 billion people. Many of these urban populations will inhabit vast, densely packed megacities, with populations in excess of ten million people, in countries struggling to provide governance and essential services for their current populations. Vast urban slums operating outside of the control of legitimate government will lead to increases in violence and lawlessness; these slums will become sanctuaries for adversaries who seek to remain indistinguishable from the population and negate the technological overmatch of the most sophisticated precision guided missiles. In this environment, where sustainable political outcomes may mandate the use of land power, military objectives cannot be achieved from standoff range.
The Army must therefore, develop leaders who thrive in the ambiguous and chaotic conditions present in these sprawling megacities. Ubiquitous Global Surveillance: By 2030, the increased availability of commercially manufactured drones, portable cameras, wireless bandwidth will make it possible to track nearly all activity in public spaces in near real time; the private use of drones, closed circuit television, satellites will allow social media users and traditional media outlets to secure live feeds of any event on the globe within minutes and proliferate them immediately. The social impact of live broadcasting of tactical battlefield actions is to place extraordinary pressures on small unit leaders. In the future, leaders will need to make stressful tactical decisions before a live global audience. In the past, leaders were expected to do the right thing. By contrast, tomorrow's small unit leaders will be expected to do the right thing with the whole world watching; this increased scrutiny requires leaders steeped in cultural awareness, ethical decision-making, professional judgment.
Rapid Technological Innovation: Advances in technology such as additive manufacturing will allow technologically savvy adversaries
McCook Ben Nelson Regional Airport is two miles east of McCook, in Red Willow County, Nebraska. It was McCook Municipal Airport and McCook Regional Airport, it sees one airline, subsidized by the Essential Air Service program. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 1,848 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 1,677 in 2009 and 1,993 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 called it a general aviation airport. The airport is named after McCook-born Ben Nelson, a United States Senator and the 37th Governor of Nebraska. During World War II a larger training airfield was built some eight miles north of McCook Regional to train heavy bomber crews. Known, somewhat confusingly, as McCook Army Airfield the base closed in 1945 and was transferred to state control and renamed McCook State Airfield, it closed for good in 1969 and has reverted to farmland, but the five massive World War II-era hangars are still visible from the air. The airport covers 667 acres at an elevation of 2,583 feet.
It has three runways: 12/30 is 6,449 by 100 feet concrete. In the year ending May 31, 2010 the airport had 16,900 aircraft operations, average 46 per day: 89% general aviation, 10% airline, 1% military. 29 aircraft were based at this airport: 93% single-engine and 7% multi-engine. Scheduled passenger service: First airline flights were Mid-West Airlines Cessna 190s in 1950-51. Frontier DC-3s arrived in 1959, its last Convair 580 left in 1979. Air Midwest began service on October 29, 2006, with two daily flights to Grand Island and on to Omaha Eppley Airfield and Kansas City International Airport. McCook Ben Nelson Regional Airport at City of McCook website Airport page from the Nebraska Department of Aeronautics FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 FAA Terminal Procedures for MCK, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for MCK AirNav airport information for KMCK ASN accident history for MCK FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures