Okavango Delta

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Okavango Delta
Okavango11.jpg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location Botswana Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates 19°17′00″S 22°54′00″E / 19.2833°S 22.9°E / -19.2833; 22.9
Criteria Natural: (vii), (ix), (x) Edit this on Wikidata
Reference 1432
Inscription 2014 (38th Session)
Okavango Delta is located in Botswana
Okavango Delta
Location of Okavango Delta
Map of the delta with basin boundary as dashed line
Satellite image (SeaWiFS) of Okavango Delta, with national borders added
Typical region in the Okavango Delta, with free canals and lakes, swamps and islands

The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Grassland) (formerly spelled Okovango or Okovanggo) in Botswana is a very large, swampy inland delta formed where the Okavango River reaches a tectonic trough in the central part of the endorheic basin of the Kalahari. All the water reaching the Delta is ultimately evaporated and transpired, and does not flow into any sea or ocean. Each year approximately 11 cubic kilometers of water spreads over the 6,000-15,000 km2 area. Some flood-waters drain into Lake Ngami.[1] The Moremi Game Reserve, a National Park, is on the eastern side of the Delta. The scale and magnificence of the Okavango Delta helped it secure a position as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa, which were officially declared on February 11, 2013 in Arusha, Tanzania.[2] On 22 June 2014, the Okavango Delta became the 1000th site to be officially inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.[3][4]

The area was once part of Lake Makgadikgadi, an ancient lake that mostly dried up by the early Holocene. Although the Okavango Delta is widely believed to be the world's largest inland delta, it is not. In Africa alone there are two larger similar geological features: the Sudd on the Nile in South Sudan, and the Inner Niger Delta in Mali.[5]

Geography[edit]

Floods[edit]

The Okavango is produced by seasonal flooding. The Okavango River drains the summer (January–February) rainfall from the Angola highlands and the surge flows 1,200 kilometres in approximately one month. The waters then spread over the 250 km by 150 km area of the delta over the next four months (March–June). The high temperature of the delta causes rapid transpiration and evaporation, resulting in a cycle of rising and falling water level that was not fully understood until the early 20th century. The flood peaks between June and August, during Botswana’s dry winter months, when the delta swells to three times its permanent size, attracting animals from kilometres around and creating one of Africa’s greatest concentrations of wildlife.

The delta is very flat, with less than 2 metres variation in height across its 15,000 km2.[6]

Water flow[edit]

Every year, approximately 11 cubic kilometres (11,000,000,000,000 litres) of water flow into the delta. Approximately 60% is consumed through transpiration by plants, 36% by evaporation, 2% percolates into the aquifer system; and 2% flows into Lake Ngami. This turgid outflow means that the delta is unable to flush out the minerals carried by the river and is liable to become increasingly salty and uninhabitable. Water salinity is reduced by salt collecting around plant roots as most of the incoming water is transpired by plants. Peat fires might contribute to deposit salt into layers below the surface. The low salinity of the water also means that the floods do not greatly enrich the floodplain with nutrients.[citation needed]

Salt islands[edit]

The agglomeration of salt around plant roots leads to barren white patches in the centre of many of the thousands of islands, which have become too salty to support plants, aside from the odd salt resistant palm tree. Trees and grasses grow in the sand around the edges of the islands that have not become too salty yet.

Approximately 70% of the islands began as termite mounds (often Macrotermes spp.), where a tree then takes root on the mound of earth.[citation needed]

Chief’s Island[edit]

Chief’s Island, the largest island in the delta, was formed by a fault line which uplifted an area over 70 km long and 15 km wide. Historically it was reserved as an exclusive hunting area for the chief. It now provides the core area for much of the resident wildlife when the waters rise.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Aerial view of Delta as floodwaters recede, August 2012

The Delta's profuse greenery is not the result of a wet climate; rather, it is an oasis in an arid country. The average annual rainfall is 450mm (approximately one third that of its Angolan catchment area) and most of it falls between December and March in the form of heavy afternoon thunderstorms.

December to February are hot wet months with daytime temperatures as high as 40 °C, warm nights, and humidity levels fluctuating between 50% and 80%. From March to May, the temperature becomes far more comfortable with a maximum of 30 °C during the day and mild to cool nights. The rains quickly dry up leading into the dry, cold winter months of June to August. Daytime temperatures at this time of year are mild to warm, but the temperature begins to fall after sunset. Nights can be surprisingly cold in the Delta, with temperatures barely above freezing.[citation needed]

September to November sees the heat and atmospheric pressure build up once more as the dry season slides into the rainy season. October is the most challenging month for visitors - daytime temperatures often push past 40 °C and the dryness is only occasionally broken by a sudden cloudburst.[citation needed]

Wildlife[edit]

A South African cheetah silhouetted against a sunset in Okavango Delta.

The Okavango delta is both a permanent and seasonal home to a wide variety of wildlife which is now a popular tourist attraction.[7]

Species include African bush elephant, African buffalo, hippopotamus, lechwe, tsessebe, sitatunga, blue wildebeest, South African giraffe, Nile crocodile, Southwest African lion, South African cheetah, African leopard, brown hyena, spotted hyena, springbok, greater kudu, sable antelope, impala, south-central black rhinoceros, southern white rhinoceros, Burchell's zebra, common warthog, chacma baboon and vervet monkey. Notably the endangered Cape wild dog survives within the Okavango Delta,[8] exhibiting one of the richest pack densities in Africa. The delta also includes over 400 species of birds, including African fish eagle, Pel's fishing owl, crested crane, lilac-breasted roller, hammerkop, South African ostrich, and sacred ibis.

The majority of the estimated 200,000 large mammals in and around the delta are not year-round residents. They leave with the summer rains to find renewed fields of grass to graze on and trees to browse, then make their way back as winter approaches. Large herds of buffalo and elephant total about 30,000 beasts.[citation needed]

Fish[edit]

The Okavango Delta is home to 71 fish species including tigerfish, tilapia and various species of catfish. Fish sizes range from 1.4 m African sharptooth catfish to 3.2 cm sickle barb. The same species are to be found in the Zambezi River, indicating a historic link between the two river systems.[9]

Lechwe[edit]

Small gathering of lechwe antelopes, Okavango Delta

The most populous large mammal is the lechwe antelope, with more than 60,000. It is a little larger than an impala with elongated hooves and a water repellent substance on their legs that enables rapid movement through knee deep water. They graze on aquatic plants and, like the waterbuck, take to water when threatened by predators. Only the males have horns.

Plants[edit]

Papyrus and reed rafts make up a large part of the Okavango's vegetation. During the flood season they float well above the sandy river bed with roots dangling free in the water. This gap between bed and roots is utilised as shelter by crocodiles. The plants of the Delta play an important role in providing cohesion for the sand. The banks or levees of a river normally have a high mud content and this combines with the sand in the river’s load to continuously build up the river banks. In the Delta, because of the clean waters of the Okavango, there is almost no mud and the river’s load consists almost entirely of sand. The plants capture the sand, acting as the glue and making up for the lack of mud and in the process creating further islands on which more plants can take root.

This process is not important in the formation of linear islands. They are long and thin and often curved like a gently meandering river. The reason for that is that they are actually the natural banks of old river channels which over time have become blocked up by plant growth and sand deposition, resulting in the river changing course and the old river levees becoming islands. Due to the flatness of the Delta, and the large tonnage of sand flowing into it from the Okavango River, the floor of the delta is slowly but constantly rising. Where channels are today, islands will be tomorrow and then new channels may wash away these existing islands.[10]

Game lodges[edit]

Tented Lodge in the Okavango-Delta

The Botswana Okavango Game Lodges (2011) cater to small numbers of guests, each one operating in its own Okavango Delta private concession area. There are many lodges with low-environmental-effect policies.[11]

People[edit]

Hambukushu guide poles his makoro on Delta floodwaters

The Okavango Delta peoples consist of five ethnic groups, each with its own ethnic identity and language. They are Hambukushu (also known as Mbukushu, Bukushu, Bukusu, Mabukuschu, Ghuva, Haghuva), Dceriku (Dxeriku, Diriku, Gciriku, Gceriku, Giriku, Niriku), Wayeyi (Bayei, Bayeyi, Yei), Bugakhwe (Kxoe, Khwe, Kwengo, Barakwena, G/anda) and ||anikhwe (Gxanekwe, //tanekwe, River Bushmen, Swamp Bushmen, G//ani, //ani, Xanekwe). The Hambukushu, Dceriku, and Wayeyi have traditionally engaged in mixed economies of millet/sorghum agriculture; fishing, hunting, and the collection of wild plant foods; and pastoralism.

The Bugakhwe and ||anikwhe are Bushmen who have traditionally practised fishing, hunting, and the collection of wild plant foods; Bugakhwe utilized both forest and riverine resources while the ||anikhwe mostly focused on riverine resources. The Hambukushu, Dceriku, and Bugakhwe are present along the Okavango River in Angola and in the Caprivi Strip of Namibia, and there are small numbers of Hambukushu and Bugakhwe in Zambia as well. Within the Okavango Delta, over the past 150 years or so Hambukushu, Dceriku, and Bugakhwe have inhabited the Panhandle and the Magwegqana in the northeastern Delta. ||anikhwe have inhabited the Panhandle and the area along the Boro River through the Delta, as well as the area along the Boteti River.

The Wayeyi have inhabited the area around Seronga as well as the southern Delta around Maun, and a few Wayeyi live in their putative ancestral home in the Caprivi Strip. Within the past 20 years many people from all over the Okavango have migrated to Maun, the late 1960s and early 1970s over 4,000 Hambukushu refugees from Angola were settled in the area around Etsha in the western Panhandle.

The Okavango Delta has been under the political control of the Batawana (a Tswana nation) since the late 18th century.[12] Led by the house of Mathiba I, the leader of a Bangwato offshoot, the Batawana established complete control over the Delta in the 1850s as the regional ivory trade exploded.[13] Most Batawana, however, have traditionally lived on the edges of the Delta, due to the threat that tsetse fly poses to their cattle. During a hiatus of some forty years, the tsetse fly retreated and most Batawana lived in the swamps from 1896 through the late 1930s. Since then the edge of the Delta has become increasingly crowded with its growing human and livestock populations.

Flood-control bunds for flood recession cropping in the molapo's of the Okavango delta, Botswana.

Molapo's[edit]

After the flooding season, the waters in the lower parts of the delta, near the base, recede, leaving moisture behind in the soil. This residual moisture is used for planting fodder and other crops that can thrive on it. This land is locally known as molapo.

During the years 1974 to 1978 the floodings were more intensive than normal and flood recession cropping was not possible, so that severe food and fodder shortages occurred. In response, the Molapo Development Project was initiated. It protected the molapo's with bunds to control the flooding and prevent severe flooding. The bunds are provided with sluice gates so that the stored water can be released and flood recession cropping can start. [14]

Possible threats[edit]

The Namibian government has presented plans to build a hydropower station in the Zambezi Region, which would regulate the Okavango's flow to some extent. While proponents argue that the effect would be minimal, environmentalists argue that this project could destroy most of the rich animal and plant life in the Delta.[15] Other threats include local human encroachment and regional extraction of water in both Angola and Namibia.[16][17]

The award-winning South African filmmaker and conservationist Rick Lomba warned in the 1980s of the threat of cattle invasion to the area. His documentary The End of Eden vividly portrays this and his lobbying on behalf of the Delta helped to preserve its integrity.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cecil Keen. 1997
  2. ^ http://sevennaturalwonders.org/africa Seven Natural Wonders of Africa
  3. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1159
  4. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1162
  5. ^ T.S. McCarthy. 1993. The great inland deltas of Africa, Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 275-291
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Africa_bespoke was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Bradley, John H. (October 2009). "Gliding in a Mokoro Through the Okavango Delta, Botswana". Cape Town to Cairo Website. CapeTowntoCairo.com. Retrieved 2009-11-10. 
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hogan_2009 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ http://www.orc.ub.bw/downloads/FS3_fish.pdf
  10. ^ http://blog.africabespoke.com/okavango-delta-part-2/
  11. ^ http://www.botswanaokavango.com/okavangodeltalodges.html
  12. ^ Moanaphuti Segolodi, "Ditso Tsa Batawana," 1940. https://www.academia.edu/12170767/Ditso_Tsa_Batawana_by_Moanaphuti_Segolodi_1940
  13. ^ Barry Morton, "The Hunting Trade and the Reconstruction of Northern Tswana Societies after the Difaqane, 1838-1880," South African Historical Journal 36 (1997): 220-239. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02582479708671276
  14. ^ L.F. Kortenhorst et al., 1986. Development of flood-recession cropping in the molapo's of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Published in Annual Report 1986, p. 8 – 19 International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement Wageningen, The Netherlands (public domain). On line: [1]
  15. ^ Namibia: Power plans face wall of objections
  16. ^ threats
  17. ^ [2]

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Cite error: A list-defined reference named "Hogan 2009" is not used in the content (see the help page).

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