Ie Island romanized in English as Ie Shima, is an island in Okinawa Prefecture, lying a few kilometers off the Motobu Peninsula on Okinawa Island. The island covers 23 square kilometres; as of December 2012 the island had a population of 4,610. Ie Village, which covers the entire Island, has a ferry connection with the town of Motobu on Okinawa Island. Iejima is flat; the most notable geographic feature is a peak called Mount Gusuku at a height of 172 meters. The mountain resembles a volcano but is an erosion artifact. Alternately called "Peanut Island," for its general shape and peanut crop, or "Flower Island," for its abundant flora and more sizeable crop, Iejima draws tourists by ferry during late April when the Ie Lily Festival begins; the Youth Excursion Village accommodates campers for 400 yen a person and includes access to a good beach. The YYY Resort and Hotel located just east of the ferry port is available for those who do not wish to camp. During World War II, American troops landed on Iejima in April 1945 as part of the Battle of Okinawa and there was heavy fighting from April 16 until the island was secured on April 21.
U. S. journalist Ernie Pyle was killed during the battle. There is a monument dedicated to his memory on the southern part of the island; every year on the weekend closest to his April 18 death there is a memorial service. Iejima called Ie Shima by US military and media, was the major starting point for the Surrender of Japan in World War II, it was the home of the 413th Fighter Group which comprised the 1st, 21st and 34th Fighter Squadrons, the 345th Bombardment Group, consisting of the 498th, 499th, 500th and 501st Squadrons, along with the 548th and 549th Night Fighter Squadrons of the 7th Fighter Command. All three groups were stationed there toward the end of the war; the surrender preparations started on August 17, 1945, with the flight of two Japanese Betty bombers to Iejima where the Japanese emissaries transferred to U. S. Army Air Force C-54s to complete their journey to Corregidor to meet with General Douglas MacArthur's staff. B-25 Mitchells of the 345th were assigned to escort the Japanese bombers from the Japanese mainland to Iejima, P-38s were assigned the duty of top-cover.
Japanese officials ordered the remaining Japanese Air Force to shoot down their own bombers, because they believed that honor required that Japan should fight to the last person. Instead of flying directly to Iejima, the two Japanese planes flew northeast, toward the open ocean, to avoid their own fighters. One of the Japanese delegates aboard remarked, after looking through a bullet hole in the side of the plane, that a squadron of fighters was approaching and he thought that their surrender mission had failed. However, the squadron of fighters were U. S. P-38 Lightnings assigned as top-cover; the 345th had been directed to send two B-25s as escorts. However aware of the difficulty in communication with the Japanese and anticipating the possibility of necessary deviation from plans, the 345th had dispatched three flights of B-25s so as to bracket the enemy's proposed flight path; this proved to be excellent planning, as only the second of the three flights intercepted the Japanese and the top-cover, off-course and headed on a route that would not have brought them to Iejima.
Operating under orders to come no nearer than 305 m to the Japanese planes, Major J. C. McClure found it impossible to keep the Japanese on the proper course flying abreast of them, so he pulled out well ahead of them to lead their formation. Seconds he was surprised to find the Japanese tucked in under his wings. To them it was the safest way; the four planes arrived over Iejima in perfect show formation. The Japanese emissaries continued on to the Philippines as planned, concluded the arrangements for the formal surrender scheduled to take place on September 2 in Tokyo Bay, returned to Iejima on August 18; as the Bettys were taxiing into place to receive their passengers for the return trip to Tokyo, one of them ran off of the runway and broke its landing gear, leaving it unable to continue the trip that day. The Japanese delegation split, with the less important delegates staying on Iejima overnight as the damaged plane was repaired, while the operable aircraft proceeded that evening. For some unexplained reason, that plane ran out of fuel some 210 km from their destination and was ditched in shallow water.
The emissaries arrived in Tokyo the next day. In 1955, the United States military embarked upon a wide-scale campaign to seize land from the farmers of Iejima; the campaign began in 1954 with a so-called survey project. After the island's farmers signed the papers, they realized that in fact they had agreed to their voluntary evacuation. In 1955, the American military landed on Iejima's southern beaches and seized the farmers' lands by force. Following this seizure, the residents of Iejima began a five decade campaign to oppose the American military. Led by Shoko Ahagon, they traveled throughout the Okinawan islands garnering support for their campaign; this Beggars' March took the islanders all over the prefecture where they were treated hospitably by their fellow Okinawans. However, when they returned to Iejima and started to farm their land once more, the American military razed their crops and arrested the islanders. In the late 1950s, many residents of Iejima resorted to collecting scrap metal from the military bombing range.
This was dangerous work resulting in the deaths or disfigurement of local men. The United States military maintains a small "auxiliary l
Aka Island is an island in the Pacific Ocean and is part of the Kerama Islands group in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The island is known as Aka or Aka-shima and is located some 15 miles to the southwest of Okinawa Island, it has a subtropical climate and a population of 330 people. The water surrounding Aka-jima is supplied from the Kuroshio current. Healthy coral reefs, with a rich diversity of sea life, make the area a treasure trove for marine scientists and snorkelers. In 1988 Akajima Marine Science Laboratory was established under the auspices of the Japanese Science and Technology Agency. A number of scientists visit AMSL every year to research the coral reef ecosystems. Around 360 fish species and 1,640 invertebrate species and 220 seaweed species have been recorded in the Kerama Islands, but many groups of organisms have not yet been surveyed. Green turtles and hawksbill turtle lay eggs on the beaches in summer. Humpback whales are regular visitors in January to April and use the Kerama Islands as their breeding ground.
Akajima is noted for its terrestrial wildlife its birds and Golden silk orb-weaver spiders. Kerama deer are able to swim between the islands; these deer have been designated a national protected species of Japan. Summers have extreme oceanographic conditions and about five typhoons approach Akajima every year in early summer; the northern monsoon large swells from October to April. Akajima port has a regular ferry service that links the island with neighbouring Zamami and the capital of Okinawa; the Island is served by a small airstrip on Fukajijima. Fukajijima and Akajima are connected by road bridges; the Kerama Island group was a part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. For some 600 years, the islanders were employed as navigators for the Kingdom’s trading vessels between Okinawa and China; the islands provided good moorings on the sea route. A house of the Takara family, one of the captains of these vessels, is preserved as an Important Cultural Property of Japan. Aka was one of the first landing places for US Forces in the Battle of Okinawa.
US Forces landed on March 26, 1945, went on to take islands of Zamami and Tokashiki. Over 500 residents committed suicide by order of the Japanese troops. Aka-jima is famous for the story of two dogs: Shiro on Aka-jima and Marilyn on Zamami-jima, they met when Shiro travelled on his owners boat to Zamami but the passion was such that he started swimming over every day to rendezvous with Marilyn on Zamami's Ama beach. The locals sighted Shiro paddling across the strait, his feat was so amazing that it inspired the film: Marilyn ni Aitai. Marilyn died in 1987, bringing an end to Shiro's seafaring days, he himself died at the advanced age of 17. There is a statue of Shiro on Nishihama beach and a similar monument to Marilyn exists on Zamamijima. Hayashibara T Ecological studies on reef-building corals and their sexual reproduction around Akajima Island, Kerama Islands group. PhD thesis, Tokyo University Fisheries, 123 pp. Iwao K Study on the effect of geographical features on the cause of coral bleaching.
In: Research and Development Bureau and Technology Agency: Report on the Urgent Research on the Mechanism Elucidation of Coral Bleaching, pp. 15–39 Iwao K Surveys of marine fauna around Kerama Islands by visiting scientists and staff members of AMSL. Midoriishi, 14: 38-41 Iwao K Kerama Islands. In: Tsuchiya M et al.: Coral Reefs of Japan. Ministry of the Environment and Japanese Coral Reef Society, Tokyo, pp. 185–189 Kizaki K Geological history of the Kerama Islands. Midoriishi, 3: 1-2 Nadaoka K, Nihei Y, Wakaki K, Kumano R, Kakuma S, Moromizato S, Omija T, Iwao K, Shimoike K, Taniguchi H, Nakano Y, Ikema T Regional variations of water temperature around Okinawan coasts and its relationship to offshore thermal environments and coral bleaching. Coral Reefs, 20: 373-384 Ohba H A list of seaweeds of Akajima Island and its vicinity in Kerama Islands, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Midoriishi, 6: 23-28 Omori M and Fujiwara S Manual for the Restoration and Remediation of Coral Reefs. Bureau of Natural Environment, Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo, 84pp.
Veron JEN Conservation of biodiversity: a critical time for the hermatypic corals of Japan, Coral Reefs, 11: 13-21 Zamami Village History Compilation Committee History of Zamami Village. Vol. 1, Zamami Village Office, Okinawa, 710pp
The Kerama Islands are a group of islands located 32 kilometres southwest of Okinawa Island in Japan. The Kerama Island group was a part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. For some 600 years, the islanders were employed as skillful navigators for the Kingdom’s trading vessels between Okinawa and China. Four of the islands are inhabited: Tokashiki Island, Zamami Island, Aka Island, Geruma Island; the islands are administered as Zamami Village within Shimajiri District. The Kerama-shotō coral reef is a Ramsar Site. During World War II and preliminary to the Battle of Okinawa, soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division landed in the Kerama Islands on March 26, 1945. Further landings followed, the Kerama group was secured over the next five days. Kerama was used as a staging area for the assault on Okinawa. During the battle the first civilian mass suicides that marked the Battle of Okinawa took place; the first US Navy ship to anchor in the harbor was USS Makin Island, a small "jeep" carrier. It was the site of a true story about romance between two dogs who lived on neighboring islands, made into the 1988 Japanese film I Want to See Marilyn.
It is now a popular diving destination for visitors to Okinawa. The Kerama Islands are served by the Kerama Airport, located on Fukaji Island. Regular ferries are available from Naha to the three largest islands, Aka and Tokashiki. Ferries between the islands are available, as are boat tours. IMDB entry for I Want to See Marilyn
Naha is the capital city of the Okinawa Prefecture, the southernmost prefecture of Japan. As of December 2012, the city has an estimated population of 321,467 and a population density of 8,244.46 persons per km². The total area is 38.99 km². Naha is a city on the East China Sea coast of the southern part of Okinawa Island, the largest of Okinawa Prefecture; the modern city was founded on May 20, 1921. Before that, Naha had been for centuries one of the most populous sites in Okinawa. Naha is the political and education center of Okinawa Prefecture. In the medieval and early modern periods, it was the commercial center of the Ryūkyū Kingdom. Central Naha consists of the Palette Kumoji shopping mall, the Okinawa Prefecture Office, Naha City Hall, many banks and corporations, located at the west end of Kokusai-dōri, the city's main street. Kokusai-dōri boasts a 1.6 kilometre long stretch of stores and bars. Kokusai-dōri ends at the main bus terminal in Okinawa and is served by several stations along the Okinawa Urban Monorail, the only train system in the prefecture.
Spurring off from Kokusai-dōri is the covered Heiwa-dōri Shopping Arcade and Makishi Public Market, a massive shōtengai filled with fresh fish and produce stands, tourist goods shops, liquor shops. Just outside the market area is the neighborhood of Tsuboya, once a major center of ceramic production. Northeast of Kokusai-dōri is a new commercial district called Shintoshin; the area United States military housing, was released to Okinawa in 1987, but major development only began in the mid-1990s. Omoromachi Station is attached directly to an upscale shopping mall. Frequented by young people, the area boasts large stores such as Toys R Us and Best Denki, a co-op market, many restaurants and a movie theater; the Okinawa Prefectural Museum, containing sections devoted to the art and natural history of the Ryukyus, opened in the area in November 2007 and sits in front of Shintoshin Park. According to the Irosetsuden, the name of Naha comes from its original name, the name of a large, mushroom-shaped stone in the city.
The stone wore away and became buried, the name's pronunciation and its kanji changed. In Naha, some archeological relics of the Stone Age were found. From a Jōmon period kaizuka, ancient Chinese coins were found. Pottery found by archaeologists indicates that the area was an active site of trade with the Japanese archipelago and Korean peninsula at least as early as the 11th century. Though it is not known just when the area first became organized as a functioning port city, it was active as such by the time of the unification of the Ryūkyū Kingdom in the early 15th century. Though today Naha has grown to incorporate the former royal capital city of Shuri, center of Chinese learning Kumemura, other towns and villages, in the period of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, it was a smaller city, prominent as a major port, but not as a political center. Medieval Naha was on a tiny island called Ukishima, connected to the mainland of Okinawa Island by a narrow causeway called Chōkōtei which led on to Shuri; the main port area for international trade, Naha proper, was divided into the East and West districts and was on the southwestern portion of Ukishima.
A large open-air marketplace was oyamise. A number of Japanese temples and shrines were located here, along with a residence and embassy, known as the Tenshikan, for visiting Chinese officials. A pair of forts built atop embankments extending out across the entrance to the harbor defended the port, a small island within the harbor held a warehouse, Omono gusuku, used for storing trade goods. Tomari, on the mainland of Okinawa Island to the northeast of Ukishima, served as the chief port for trade within the Ryūkyū Islands; the administrators of Tomari were responsible for collecting and managing the tribute paid to the kingdom by the Amami Islands, whose tribute ships made port here. Kume-Ōdōri ran across Ukishima from southeast to northwest, forming the center of the walled community of Kumemura, the center of classical Chinese learning in Ryūkyū for centuries. Kumemura is traditionally believed to have been founded by 36 Min families sent to Ryūkyū by the Ming Chinese Imperial Court and to be inhabited or by descendants of those settlers.
Major sites in the community included the Tensonbyō Taoist temple near the northern end of Kume-Ōdōri and two shrines called Upper and Lower Tenpigū, dedicated to the Taoist goddess of the sea Tenpi known as Matsu. A Confucian temple, the gift of the Kangxi Emperor, was built in Kumemura in the 1670s. Following their destruction in World War II, the Meirindō, Confucian temple, Tenpigū shrines were rebuilt on the site of the Tensonbyō in northern Kume, where they stand today as the
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months, dry summer climate or, where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months. Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth. A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter.
Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, mango, pistachio and avocado are grown within the subtropics; the tropics have been defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at latitudes 23.45° north and south, respectively. According to the American Meteorological Society, the poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at latitudes 35° north and south, respectively. Several methods have been used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a mean temperature greater than 10 °C and at least one month with a mean temperature under 18 °C. German climatologists Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen defined Warm temperate zones as plain and hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month between 2 °C and 13 °C in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6 °C and 13 °C in the Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic and continental climates.
According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone, subdivided into seven smaller areas. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into two parts: Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into three parts: high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six climate zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone; the upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As the air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge. Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics; this regime is known as an arid subtropical climate, located in areas adjacent to powerful cold ocean currents. Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of southern Africa, the south of the Canary Islands and the coasts of Peru and Chile; the humid subtropical climate is located on the western side of the subtropical high. Here, unstable tropical airmasses in summer bring convective overturning and frequent tropical downpours, summer is the season of peak annual rainfall. In the winter the monsoon retreats, the drier trade winds bring more stable airmass and dry weather, frequent sunny skies. Areas that have this type of subtropical climate include Australia, Southeast Asia, parts of South America, the deep south of the United States. In areas bounded by warm ocean like the southeastern United States and East Asia, tropical cyclones can contribute to local rainfall within the subtropics.
Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons. The Mediterranean climate is a subtropical climate with a wet season in winter and a dry season in the summer. Regions with this type of climate include the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia around the Perth area, parts of the west coast of South American around Santiago, the coastal areas of western Mexico, coastal California in the United States; these climates do not see hard frosts or snow, which allows plants such as palms and citrus to flourish. As one moves toward the tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears, while at the poleward threshold of the subtropics the winters become cooler; some crops which have been traditionally farmed in tropical climates, such as mango and avocado, are cultivated in the subtropics. Pest control of the crops is less difficult than within the tropics, due to the cooler winters. Tree ferns are grown within subtropical areas within the subtropics and within topography within the tropics.
Dracaena and yucca can grow within the subtropics. Tre
United States Forces Japan
The United States Forces Japan is an active subordinate unified command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command. It was activated at Fuchū Air Station in Tokyo, Japan on 1 July 1957 to replace the Far East Command. USFJ is commanded by the Commander, U. S. Forces, Japan commander of the Fifth Air Force. At present, USFJ is headquartered at Yokota Air Base in Tokyo. COMUSJAPAN plans and supervises the execution of missions and responsibilities assigned by the Commander, U. S. Indo-Pacific Command, they establish and implement policies to accomplish the mission of the United States Armed Forces in Japan and are responsible for developing plans for the defense of the country. COMUSJAPAN supports the Security Treaty and administers the Status of Forces Agreement between the United States and Japan, they responsible for coordinating various matters of interest with the service commanders in Japan. These include matters affecting US-Japan relationships among and between the United States Department of Defense.
S. Ambassador to Japan. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States is obliged to protect Japan in close cooperation with the Japan Self-Defense Forces for maritime defense, ballistic missile defense, domestic air control, communications security and disaster response operations. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in Asia, the United States Armed Forces assumed administrative authority in Japan; the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy were decommissioned, the U. S. Armed Forces took control of Japanese military bases until a new government could be formed and positioned to reestablish authority. Allied forces planned to demilitarize Japan, new government adopted the Constitution of Japan with a no-armed-force clause in 1947. After the Korean War began in 1950, Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan and the Japanese government established the paramilitary "National Police Reserve", developed into the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.
In 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco was signed by the allied countries and Japan, which restored its formal sovereignty. At the same time, the U. S. and Japan signed the Japan-America Security Alliance. By this treaty, USFJ is responsible for the defense of Japan; as part of this agreement, the Japanese government requested that the U. S. military bases remain in Japan, agreed to provide funds and various interests specified in the Status of Forces Agreement. At the expiration of the treaty, the United States and Japan signed the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan; the status of the United States Forces Japan was defined in the U. S.–Japan Status of Forces Agreement. This treaty is still in effect, it forms the basis of Japan's foreign policy. During the Vietnam War, US military bases in Japan those in the Okinawa Prefecture, were used as important strategic and logistic bases. In 1970, the Koza riot occurred against the US military presence in Okinawa.
The USAF strategic bombers were deployed in the bases in Okinawa, which were still administered by the U. S. government. Before the 1972 reversion of the island to Japanese administration, it has been speculated but never confirmed that up to 1,200 nuclear weapons may have been stored at Kadena Air Base in Okinawa during the 1960s; as of 2013, there are 50,000 U. S. military personnel stationed in Japan, along with 40,000 dependents of military personnel and another 5,500 American civilians employed there by the United States Department of Defense. The United States Seventh Fleet is based in Kanagawa Prefecture; the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force is based in Okinawa. 130 USAF fighters are stationed in Kadena Air Base. The Japanese government paid ¥217 billion in 2007 as annual host-nation support called Omoiyari Yosan; as of the 2011 budget, such payment was no longer to be referred to as omoiyari yosan or "sympathy budget". Japan compensates 75 percent of U. S. basing costs — $4.4 billion. After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 9,720 dependents of United States military and government civilian employees in Japan evacuated the country to the United States.
The relocation of the U. S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Henoko was resolved in December 2013 with the signing of a landfill agreement by the governor of Okinawa. Under the terms of the U. S.-Japan agreement, five thousand U. S. Marines were relocated to Guam and four thousand U. S. Marines to other Pacific locations such as Hawaii or Australia while around ten thousand Marines were to remain on Okinawa. No timetable for the Marines redeployment was announced, but The Washington Post reported that U. S. Marines would leave Okinawa as soon as suitable facilities on elsewhere were ready; the relocation move was expected to cost 8.6 billion US dollars, including a $3.1bn cash commitment from Japan for the move to Guam as well as for developing joint training ranges on Guam and on Tinian and Pagan in the Northern Mariana Islands. Certain parcels of land on Okinawa which were leased for use by the American military were supposed to be turned back to Japanese control via a long-term phased return process according to the agreement.
These returns have been ongoing since 1972. However, as of July 2016, the situation has not been settled. In May 2014, in a strategic shift by the United States to Asia and the Pacific, it was revealed the US was deploying two unarmed Global Hawk long-distance su
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands