Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people", it is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U.
S. Interior Highlands, all regions prone to severe weather. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology. Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high plains in the state's northwestern corner harbor few natural forests. Partial plains interrupted by small, sky island mountain ranges like the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains dot southwestern Oklahoma; the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third increasing in elevation in an eastward direction. More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma's waterways, with 200 lakes created by dams, it holds the nation's highest number of artificial reservoirs. Most of the state lies in two primary drainage basins belonging to the Red and Arkansas rivers, though the Lee and Little rivers contain significant drainage basins. Due to Oklahoma's location at the confluence of many geographic regions, the state's climatic regions have a high rate of biodiversity. Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma and prairie grasslands composed of shortgrass, mixed-grass, tallgrass prairie, harbor expansive ecosystems in
The 54th Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Soldier Division, it was formed on 10 July 1940 at Himeji with 51st, 52nd, 55th, 56th, 57th divisions. The formation nucleus was the headquarters of the 10th division; the men for the 54th division were recruited from Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The 54th division was assigned to Central District Army. In February 1943, the division was assigned to 16th army; the bulk of division have sailed from Moji on-board of "Miike Maru" ship, together with 30th Independent Mixed Brigade. 23 April 1943 it landed in Shanghai, departed again for Saigon 19 July 1943, arriving 30 July 1943 to Saigon. The 154th infantry regiment and signals company has followed 12 May 1943 from the Ujina terminal of the Hiroshima, on-board "Takoma Maru" and "Nagato Maru" ships, arriving directly to Singapore 9 June 1943; the 54th division was sent to Burma. The 54th Division remained in the Arakan region of Burma during the Battle of the Admin Box in February 1944.
From December 1944, it suffered heavy losses in Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay, including Battle of Hill 170 in January 1945 and was in full retreat to Irrawaddy River in April 1945. During the Battle of the Sittang Bend in July-August 1945, it suffered over 50% losses. At the surrender of Japan on 15 August 1945 the 54th division was situated on the eastern coasts of the Sittaung River. List of Japanese Infantry Divisions This article incorporates material from Japanese Wikipedia page 第54師団, accessed 3 June 2016 List of Japanese Infantry Divisions Madej, Victor. Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937–1945. Allentown, PA: Game Publishing Company. OCLC 8930220
Boss of All Bosses is the second solo studio album by American rapper Slim Thug from Houston, Texas. It was released on March 2009, by his Boss Hogg Outlawz label, distributed by E1 Music; the album features guest appearances from Devin the Dude, Mannie Fresh, Z-Ro, Paul Wall, Mike Jones, Scarface and UGK, while the production on the album was handled by Mr. Lee, along with several producers, including Jim Jonsin, Mr. Rogers and Bigg Tyme. Upon its release, the album was met with favorable reviews from music critics and publications; the album debuted at number 15 on the US Billboard 200. The album's lead single, "I Run", was released on November 11, 2008; the song features guest vocals from American hip hop recording artist Yelawolf, was produced by Jim Jonsin. This song contains a sample of the chorus, based on the song "I Ran" performed by A Flock of Seagulls, with different lyrics; the album's second single, "Thug" was released on November 17, 2009. The song was produced by Mr. Lee. Boss of All Bosses received a positive reception from music critics who saw it as an improvement over his major label debut Already Platinum.
AllMusic's David Jeffries praised the album for being a return to Slim's early mixtape years, concluding that "this raw album is a welcome throwback that no longtime fan should be without." Pedro Hernandez of RapReviews praised the production for being a return to the Southern sound and Slim for expressing his voice through different topics throughout the whole album, saying that it "sounds like the triumphant introduction to Thug's unique brand of Texas rap rather than Thug trying to conform to the current trends." DJBooth gave a mixed review of the album, saying that some of the songs' lyrical material and production was given some flair but others felt by-the-numbers despite Slim's performance, concluding that, "All things considered, Slim Thug can still maintain his administrative position in the game despite this sophomore slump." Notes"Smile" features additional vocals by J. Lacy. Sample credits"I Run" contains a sample of "I Ran" performed by A Flock of Seagulls. "Top Drop" contains a sample of "Love Is" performed by Masterpiece.
"Thug" contains a sample of "Eazy-Duz-It" performed by Eazy-E. "My Bitch" contains a sample of "Faded Pictures" performed by Case featuring Joe. "Hard" contains a sample of "Hard Knocks" performed by Marc Broussard. Boss Of All Bosses at Discogs