Oklahoma City bombing

The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, United States on April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing happened at 9:02 am and killed at least 168 people, injured more than 680 others, destroyed one-third of the building; the blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, destroyed or burned 86 cars, causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage. Local, state and worldwide agencies engaged in extensive rescue efforts in the wake of the bombing, substantial donations were received from across the country; the Federal Emergency Management Agency activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations. Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the United States, remains the deadliest incident of domestic terrorism in the country's history.

Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession. Forensic evidence linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack. Michael and Lori Fortier were identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a U. S. militia movement sympathizer, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, had assisted with the bomb's preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U. S. federal government and unhappy about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas. The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons of evidence, collect nearly one billion pieces of information. The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997.

McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001 at the U. S. Federal Penitentiary in Terre Haute and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against Nichols; as a result of the bombing, the U. S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States, as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Remembrance services are held every year at the time of the explosion; the chief conspirators, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, met in 1988 at Fort Benning during basic training for the U. S. Army. Michael Fortier, McVeigh's accomplice, was his Army roommate; the three shared interests in survivalism. They expressed anger at the federal government's handling of the 1992 Federal Bureau of Investigation standoff with Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge as well as the Waco siege – a 1993 51-day standoff between the FBI and Branch Davidian members which began with a botched Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms attempt to execute a search warrant leading to a fire fight and ended with the burning and shooting deaths of David Koresh and 75 others.

In March 1993, McVeigh visited the Waco site during the standoff, again after its conclusion. McVeigh decided to bomb a federal building as a response to the raids. McVeigh said that he had contemplated assassinating Attorney General Janet Reno, Lon Horiuchi, others in preference to attacking a building, after the bombing he said that he sometimes wished he had carried out a series of assassinations instead, he intended only to destroy a federal building, but he decided that his message would be better received if many people were killed in the bombing. McVeigh's criterion for potential attack sites was that the target should house at least two of three federal law enforcement agencies: the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or the Drug Enforcement Administration, he regarded the presence of additional law enforcement agencies, such as the Secret Service or the U. S. Marshals Service, as a bonus. A resident of Kingman, Arizona, McVeigh considered targets in Missouri, Arizona and Arkansas.

He stated in his authorized biography that he wanted to minimize non-governmental casualties, so he ruled out a 40-story building in Little Rock, because of the presence of a florist's shop on the ground floor. In December 1994, McVeigh and Fortier visited Oklahoma City to inspect McVeigh's target: the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building; the Murrah building had been targeted in October 1983 by white supremacist group The Covenant, The Sword, the Arm of the Lord, including founder James Ellison and Richard Snell. The group had plotted to park "a van or trailer in front of the Federal Building and blow it up with rockets detonated by a timer." After Snell's appeal for murdering two people in unrelated cases was denied, he was executed the same day as the Murrah bombing. The nine-story building, built in 1977, was named for a federal judge and housed fourteen federal agencies, including the DEA, ATF, Social Security Administration, recruit

The Century Magazine

The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City, bought in that year by Roswell Smith and renamed by him after the Century Association. It was the successor of Scribner's Monthly Magazine and ceased publication in 1930. In 1921, The Cambridge History of English and American Literature summarized the early history of the magazine: After the death of Charles Scribner differences arose between the management, the publishing firm of Charles Scribner’s Sons, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Scribner interests and a change of name to The Century Magazine in 1881. Dr. Holland was to have continued in the editorship, but before the appearance of the first issue of the Century he died, was succeeded by Richard Watson Gilder, who from the first had been associate editor; the change of name brought no radical change in scope or policy, Scribner’s Monthly and the Century constitute an unbroken series from 1870 to the present time. Dr. Holland was a clever editor.

From the first he secured well-known contributors of high rank. A "Publisher’s Department," with "A word to our readers," or "A talk with our readers," though relegated to the advertising pages, continued the methods of the old-fashioned personal journalist. Richard Watson Gilder was a man of greater literary ability and finer taste, though he could hardly have gained initial success for the venture as well as did Holland it is to him that the high rank of the Century is due; the Century has always given much space to illustrated articles on history. There was something a trifle "journalistic" in a series of articles on the Civil War by Northern and Southern generals, yet in these the editorial control was such as to insure a reasonable standard of excellence; the Life of Lincoln by Nicolay and Hay, large parts of which appeared serially in the Century, was of higher grade. In literary criticism E. C. Stedman had in the days of Scribner’s Monthly, contributed articles on the American poets. Without neglecting fiction and other general literature the magazine has devoted rather more attention than has Harper’s to matters of timely, though not of temporary, interest.

The magazine was successful during the 19th century, most notably for the aforementioned series of articles about the American Civil War, which ran for three years during the 1880s. It included reminiscences of 230 participants from all ranks of the service on both sides of the conflict. According to an author writing in the New York Times, the publication of The Century "made New-York, instead of London, the centre of the illustrated periodicals published in the English language…" The magazine was a notable publisher of fiction, presenting excerpts of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884 and 1885 and Henry James' The Bostonians. Upon Gilder’s death in 1909, Robert Underwood Johnson replaced him as editor. According to Arthur John, the magazine’s "later history was marked by sudden shifts in content and editorial direction." Glenn Frank was editor from 1921-1925, a period during which The Century was known for its editorials on current events and began to cut back on illustrations, which were eliminated after Frank left the magazine.

In 1929, due to competition from cheaper magazines and newspapers, The Century became a quarterly, in 1930 it was merged with The Forum. At the time it folded, The Century had 20,000 subscribers, less than a tenth of its peak circulation of the late nineteenth century. Scribner’s Monthly Magazine, the periodical that became The Century in 1881, should not be confused with the Scribner’s Magazine that began publication in 1887; the noted critic and editor Frank Crowninshield served as the magazine's art editor. The tone and content of The Century changed over its long history, it began as an Evangelical Christian publication, but over time began to speak to a more general educated audience as it developed into the largest periodical in the country. Novelist and poet Josiah G. Holland was one of the three original founders of Scribner’s Monthly and wrote regular editorials for the periodical, setting the tone for the magazine's content; as Holland was religious, Scribner's to a great extent reflected the views and concerns of the Evangelical Christian community.

While hostile towards sectarianism within Protestantism, Scribner's took a strong stand against both Catholicism and those who doubted the divinity of Christ. In the first issue, under the heading "Papa and the Dogma," Holland claimed that it was freedom that made the Protestant nations of Europe strong while their Catholic neighbors were, as a result of their religion, in a state of decay. Less than one year the magazine attacked the skepticism of Henry David Thoreau. Mormon polygamy was a frequent target. One contributor traveled to Utah to observe the Mormon settlement there and argued that the new sect would have to end its practice of plural marriage if it was to survive and American control could be exercised over the western territories. At the same time, Scribner’s Monthly, being non-dogmatic in its Protestantism, expressed little hostility towards modern science. For example, a three-part series discussed how believing Christians should meet the intellectual challenges of religious skepticism, in 1874 two writers engaged one another in a debate over whether Christians should attempt to prove the divinity of Christ through science.

By the end of the 1870s, Scribner’s had departed from its original Evangelical orientation. An April 1879 editorial declared all seekers of truth, whether believing Christians or not, to be allies, regarding this new view as an application of the Golden Rule. Catholics were said to have

Girl's Not Grey

"Girl's Not Grey" is a song by American rock band AFI. It was released as the debut single from their sixth studio album Sing the Sorrow in 2003. "Girl's Not Grey" was released to radio on February 4, 2003. It is the band's third most successful single, peaking at #7 on the Alternative Songs Chart and #14 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 Chart. A music video directed by David Slade was made for the song, it is a playable track in the video games Rock Band 2 and Guitar Hero Live, a downloadable track for the video game Guitar Hero 5 and the iPod Touch application Tap Tap Revenge. "Girl's Not Grey" received positive reviews from critics, who considered it a pop punk song from the album. Allmusic reviewer Johnny Loftus felt that the chorus of the backing voices shifted the song from hardcore punk to pop, called the single "a car-radio singalong of pure genius". A music video directed by David Slade was released shortly after the single's release. According to the Fuse TV program IMX, the video is similar to Slade's directed music video, "Sour Girl" by Stone Temple Pilots, featuring a strange environment and human-sized rabbit characters as well.

The music video is similar to Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, featuring a little girl that follows a rabbit into an alternate reality. It features the band performing in an alley, where a girl follows a pink human-sized rabbit to an alternate reality; the band are seen performing in the location as well. The location is made up of the color pink, featuring a pink sky, pink flower petals encircling the area, the girl is dressed in pink as well; the band is shown performing in the alley again, covered in black paint. Meanwhile, in the alternate reality, the girl continues to follow the rabbit until it leads her to the top of a hill, where she sees AFI performing the chorus. Although she seems happy, she is devastated after realizing. A whirlwind of pink flower petals begin to encircles her, although she struggles to set herself free, she disappears, leaving behind her pair of golden ballet slippers; the pink flower petals burst out of vocalist Davey Havok's chest at the end of the video.

An alternate version features the band performing in the alley and covered in black paint, but does not feature the girl, human-sized rabbits, or the alternate reality itself. This is the more infamous version, is found on the Internet, rather than broadcast television. "Girl's Not Grey" was first performed live on January 2002 at the Forum in Inglewood, California. As of 1 April 2019, it has been performed 538 times, making it the most performed song by AFI. UK 7" "Girl's Not Grey" – 3:10 "The Hanging Garden" – 3:45Europe "Girl's Not Grey" – 3:10 "This Celluloid Dream" – 4:18 "Synesthesia" – 4:35 "Girl's Not Grey" Clip – 3:11Germany "Girl's Not Grey" – 3:10 "This Celluloid Dream" – 4:18UK CD 1 "Girl's Not Grey" - 3:10 "The Hanging Garden" - 3:45 "Synesthesia" - 4:35 "Girl's Not Grey" Clip - 3:11UK CD 2 "Girl's Not Grey" - 3:10 "Reiver's Music" - 3:23 "Now The World" - 4:01 "Girl's Not Grey" Clip - 3:11 Girl's Not Grey official video on YouTube