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Oklahoma Territory

The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma. The 1890 Oklahoma Organic Act organized the western half of Indian Territory and a strip of country known as No Man's Land into Oklahoma Territory. Reservations in the new territory were opened to settlement in land runs that year and in 1891 and 1893. Seven counties were defined upon the creation of the territory. Although they were designated by number, they would become Logan, Oklahoma, Kingfisher and Beaver counties; the Land Run of 1893 led to the addition of Kay, Woods, Garfield and Pawnee counties. The territory acquired an additional county through the resolution of a boundary dispute with the U. S. state of Texas, which today is split into Greer, Jackson and part of Beckham counties. Oklahoma Territory's history began with the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 when the United States Congress set aside land for Native Americans.

At the time, the land was unorganized territory that consisted of the federal land "west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas..." By 1856, the territory had been reduced to the modern-day borders of the State of Oklahoma, except for the Oklahoma Panhandle and Old Greer County. These lands became known as Indian Territory, as they had been granted to certain Indian nations under the Indian Removal Act, in exchange for their historic territories east of the Mississippi River; until this point, Native Americans had used the land. In 1866, after the American Civil War, the federal government required new treaties with the tribes that had supported the Confederacy, forced them into land and other concessions; as a result of the Reconstruction Treaties, The Five Civilized Tribes were required to emancipate their slaves and offer them full citizenship in the tribes if they wanted to stay in the Nations. This forced many of the tribes in Indian Territory into making concessions.

U. S. officials forced the cession of some 2,000,000 acres of land in the center of the Indian Nation Territory. Elias C. Boudinot a railroad lobbyist, wrote an article, published in the Chicago Times on February 17, 1879, that popularized the term Unassigned Lands to refer to this tract. Soon the popular press began referring to the people agitating for its settlement as Boomers. To prevent settlement of the land by European-Americans, President Rutherford B. Hayes, issued a proclamation forbidding unlawful entry into Indian Territory in April 1879. Despite federal obstruction, popular demands for the land did not end. Captain David L. Payne was one of the main supporters of the opening of Oklahoma to white settlement. Payne traveled to Kansas, where he founded the Boomer "Colonial Association." Payne's organization of 10,000 members hoped to establish a white colony in the Unassigned Lands. The formation of the group prompted President Hayes to issue a proclamation ordering Payne not to enter Indian Territory on February 12, 1880.

In response and his group traveled to Camp Alice in the Unassigned Lands, east of Oklahoma City. There, they made plans for a city, which they named "Ewing." The Fourth Cavalry arrested them, escorted them back to Kansas. Payne was furious, as public law prohibited the military from interfering in civil matters; the federal government freed Payne and his party denying them access to the courts. Anxious to prove his case in court, Payne and a larger group returned to Ewing in July; the Army again escorted them back to Kansas. Again they were freed but this time the federal government charged Payne with trespassing under the Indian Intercourse Act. Judge Isaac Parker fined him the maximum amount of one thousand dollars. Since Payne had no money and no property, the government could not collect the fine; the ruling settled nothing on the question of the public domain lands, Payne continued his activities. Payne tried a third time to enter the Unassigned Lands. In December and his group moved along the northern border of Indian Territory.

They were followed by a unit of cavalry under the command of Colonel J. J. Copinger. Colonel Copinger warned Payne that if he crossed the border that they would be "forcibly resisted." As the number of Boomers grew as people joined Payne, they sent a messenger to President Hayes asking permission to enter Indian Territory. After weeks of no response, Payne led his followers to the Unassigned Lands. Once again, they were arrested and Payne was sent back to Fort Smith, he was sentenced to pay a $1,000 fine. Upon his release, he returned to Kansas. During Payne's last venture, this time into the Cherokee Outlet in 1884, the Army again arrested him, they took him several hundred miles under severe physical circumstances over a tortuous route to Ft. Smith; the public was outraged about his treatment by the military, the US government decided to try his case. Payne was turned over to the United States District Court at Kansas, he was indicted for the crime of bringing whiskey into a Federal offense. In the fall term, Judge Cassius G. Foster quashed the indictments and ruled that settling on the Unassigned Lands was not a criminal offense.

The Boomers celebrated. Payne planned another expedition, but he would not lead it. On November 28, 1884, i

Diego Fuma├ža

Diego César de Oliveira known as Diego Fumaça, is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Atlético Goianiense. Diego Fumaça spent his early years playing in the lower divisions of Campeonato Mineiro, he represented Araxá and Valeriodoce, won the Modulo II with Patrocinense in 2017 and won the 2nd division with Ipatinga in 2017. In 2019 he competed in Campeonato Goiano with Goiânia, earned himself a transfer to Atlético Goianiense on 15 April 2019, he made his national league debut for Atlético Goianiense in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B match against Vitória on 26 May 2019, coming on as a late substitute in the 1–1 draw. Diego Fumaça at Soccerway

Quest (Anderson novelette)

"Quest" is a science fiction novelette by American writer Poul Anderson, about the consequences of an extraterrestrial scoutship landing in Medieval England. It is a sequel to Anderson's 1960 novel The High Crusade. Poul Anderson described the original as "one of the most popular things I've done, going through many book editions in several languages." "Quest" appeared in Ares magazine in the same issue that saw the original publication of The High Crusade wargame. The novelette was included in two collections of Anderson's short work, Space Folk and Going for Infinity, before being added to the Baen Books fiftieth anniversary edition of The High Crusade. In 1375, in the English capital of Troynovaunt, King Roger is recruiting a military force to seek out the Holy Grail. King Roger formulates a plan that with the mustered ship, which they come to call the Bonaventura, he can take the small army to the planet where the Holy Grail is held; the small army, with all of their belongings, board the ship at the king's instruction, prepare to take off.

King Roger: Roger, the king of England is fictional. He was known as Baron de Tourneville in The High Crusade, his wife is Lady Catherine. Lady Catherine Brother Parvus, the narrator of Quest Sir Owain Montbelle Red John Hameward, a soldier under king Roger Sir Brian Fitz-William, a knight under king Roger Alfred Edgarson, a soldier under king Roger Thomas Bullard, a soldier under king Roger Branithar Chief Huruga Hubert the executioner Tertiary Eggmaster of the Northwest Hive, aka "Ethelbert" The High Crusade Quest in Ares


Kubaneh is a traditional Yemenite Jewish pull-apart yeast bread. Found in Israel. A Jewish community existed in Yemen for thousands of years, until the 20th century when pogroms and discrimination forced the Jewish population to flee Yemen en masse, to seek refuge in Israel. Only a small community of Jews remains in Yemen today. Yemenite Jews traditionally made their kubaneh from either sorghum flour or cornmeal during the regular weekdays, but made use of wheat flour on Sabbath days and holidays; some would add to the dough either honey or black cumin. Baking was done in a greased pot sealed, left to cook overnight; the kubāneh was eaten the following day while it was still hot, many of the diners have been known to ask for the qaʻeh – the hard and oily lower crust, known for its delicate taste. During the winter months, some were known to insert in the kubāneh the fatty-tail of sheep, or some other piece of meat, baked overnight along with the dough, have thereby turned the kubāneh into an unforgettable delicacy.

Kubaneh is baked by Yemenite Jews overnight and eaten for breakfast or brunch on Shabbat, has become more broadly popular also. It is prepared baked at a low temperature in a covered container. Ingredients include flour, sugar and butter. Eggs in their shell can be served as an accompaniment; the bread is sometimes sprinkled with sugar, served with resek avganiyot, a grated tomato dip or sauce or served with zhug and hot pepper-garlic chutney. Kubaneh was featured in the popular Israeli television series, The Beauty and the Baker, as the lead character Amos Dahari, played by Aviv Alush is from a Yemenite Jewish family. Jachnun Malawach Mouna- a similar bread prepared by Algerian Jews Russian Mennonite zwieback Monkey bread

Double-decker tram

A double-decker tram is a tram that has two levels. Some double-decker trams have open tops. Double-deck trams were once popular in some European cities, like Berlin and London, throughout the British Empire countries in the early half of the 20th century including Auckland and Wellington in New Zealand, they are still in service or newly introduced in Hong Kong, Dubai, Blackpool, Franschhoek and Douglas as heritage or tourist trams. The earliest double-deck trams were horse-drawn; the first electric double-deck trams were those built for the Blackpool Tramway in 1885, where Conduit tramcar No. 4 is the sole survivor of its class and is preserved at the National Tramway Museum in Crich, UK. They were common in the United Kingdom until the 1950s. London Transport was a heavy user of double-deck trams until the system closed in 1952. Apart from the Blackpool tramway, the Glasgow Corporation Tramways was the last urban British tramway to close, in 1962. In the United States double-deck tramcars were used by the Pittsburgh Railways between 1913 and 1924, a rare use of such tramcars in the United States of America.

From 1910 to 1964 double-deck trams were in use in India. They were in use in Johannesburg, South Africa, where trams were operational from 1906 to 1961. Several tramcars have been preserved at the UK's National Tramway Museum, Beamish Museum, Black Country Living Museum, East Anglia Transport Museum, Heaton Park Tramway, Seaton Tramway, Summerlee Museum and the Wirral Transport Museum, where the cars are still in operation; some have been preserved at New Zealand's Ferrymead Museum in Christchurch and MOTAT Museum in Auckland, which operates restored Wellington double-deck tramcar No. 47, which operated in 1906 and has Auckland double-deck tramcar No. 17 in storage. The Douglas Bay Horse Tramway on the Isle of Man, opened in 1876 and continuously operating since still operates the only remaining horse-drawn double-deck tramway cars in the world, as a heritage tramway. Blackpool Tramway still operates several double-deckers on weekends, of which there are several Balloon Cars from the 1930s and one Standard Car from the 1920s.

Hong Kong Tramways operates a frequent service on three routes on a main line and a side line to Happy Valley, only served with double deckers built from the 1960s to 2018. The last double-deck tram built in the UK was Blackpool "Jubilee" Class No. 762, which entered service in 1982. However, it was built in 1935 as Blackpool "Balloon" Class No. 251 renumbered No. 714. Its rebuild as No. 762 gave it a longer body and its pointed ends were replaced with rectangular ones. It was the second and final rebuild of two Blackpool "Balloon" tramcars into "Jubilee" tramcars, following on from "Jubilee" Class No. 761. Unlike No. 761, "Jubilee" tramcar No. 762 retained its central doors as exits for improved passenger flow at stops. For these reasons, it was considered to be an new tram and on this basis, when it was retired in 2011, it was gifted to the National Tramway Museum in Crich. A few of the tramcars in Alexandria, are double-deckers built by Kinky Shario in Japan in 1975-1995, but they are unpowered trailers that are towed/pushed by a powered tram as a steering car in a three car train.

In 2012 a new tram service operated with double-decker cars, was opened in Franschhoek, South Africa, as the Franschhoek Wine Tram. It serves as a tourist tram connecting several wineries on eight lines and operates on the restored tracks of an old railway line, openened in 1904 and closed in the 1990s; the cars were built by DCD Rolling Stock, South Africa, for the opening in 2012, but modelled after a Blackpool car from the 1920s. A service in Dubai, the Dubai Trolley with hydrogen-fuelled double-deck trams in vintage style with an open upper deck, built by US manufacturer TIG/m, was announced in 2009 and opened in 2015 on a single-track line of 1.1km with plans for further extension, but frequenly suspended due to the heat and according to some sources closed by 2019, the tracks barred by poles, the depot used as a shopping center, the only car on public display. The same technology by the same manufacturer was used in the four cars for the new Tram of Oranjestad, opened in 2012/13, operates a daily regular service on a single-track line of 1.9 km.

In 2009-2016 Hong Kong extended its fleet with new cars that were based on the traditional exterior but showed new technological features, such as a VVVT drive and a full aluminum body. Blackpool Tramway - Standard tramcars and rebuilt English Electric tramcars Brush Engineering Falcon Works Dick, Kerr & Co. English Electric and United Electric Car Glasgow Corporation Tramways Hong Kong Tramways Rouse and Son, New Zealand Bilevel rail car Double-decker bus Franschhoek Wine Tram: Manufacturer of hydrogen-powered trams in Aruba and Dubai: MOTAT tramway collection Auckland, New Zealand: Media related to Double-decker trams at Wikimedia Commons

Coquitlam Adanacs

The Coquitlam Adanacs are a Canadian box lacrosse team based in Coquitlam, British Columbia. The Adanacs play in B. C.'s seven team Western Lacrosse Association, whose champion competes against Ontario's Major Series Lacrosse champion for the Mann Cup every September. The Adanacs started as a basketball team during the 1920s in New Westminster; the team expanded to lacrosse and played as the Adanacs until 1951. In 1965, a new Coquitlam Adanacs lacrosse team was formed by old Adanac players, won the Mann Cup in 2001; the Adanacs play their home games at the Poirier Leisure Complex. The Adanacs hold the unique distinction of winning the "Nations in 1980" the first world championship of indoor lacrosse by defeating the North American Natives, composed of First Nations players, in a nationally televised game from Vancouver's Pacific Coliseum on July 17, 1980; this event was unique in that the North American Natives were the first to team to represent First Nations people in a world championship in any sport.

The name "ADANAC" is "CANADA" spelled backwards. The team played the 1968 season in Portland, but returned the following season. Coquitlam Adanacs homepage Western Lacrosse Association