SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Olaf III of Norway

Olaf Haraldsson, known as Olaf Kyrre, ruled Norway as King Olaf III from 1067 until his death in 1093. He was present at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in England in 1066 where his father, King Harald Hardrada, saw defeat and was killed in action, an event that directly preceded his kingship. During his rule, Olaf made peace with regards to earlier royal conflicts with the church, strengthened the power of the monarchy, is traditionally credited with founding the city of Bergen circa 1070. Around 1225, Snorri Sturluson wrote Olav Kyrres saga about King Olaf in the Heimskringla. Olaf was a son of King Harald Tora Torbergsdatter. Olaf joined his father during the invasion of England during 1066. However, he was only 16 years old during the Battle of Stamford Bridge in September 1066, he did not participate in the fighting. After the Norwegian defeat, he sailed with the remains of the Norwegian strike force back to Orkney, where they wintered; the return journey to Norway took place in summer 1067.

After the death of his father, Olaf shared the kingdom with his brother Magnus II who had become king the previous year. When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. During his reign, the nation of Norway experienced a rare extended period of peace, he renounced any offensive foreign policy, rather he protected Norway as a kingdom through agreements and marriage connections. Domestically he laid emphasis on the church's organization and modernizing the kingdom; the latter resulted in, among other things, the reorganization of the body-guard and of measures under which key cities Bergen, could better serve as a royal residence. According to the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, Olaf is said to have founded the city of Bergen; the death of Harald Hardrada and the serious defeat suffered by the Norwegians in 1066 tempted the Danish king, Svend Estridsen, to prepare for an attack on Norway. King Svend no longer felt bound by the ceasefire agreement signed with Harald Hardrada in 1064, since it would only be valid for the two kings during their own lives.

However Olaf married the king's daughter Ingerid. Olav's half sister Ingegerd of Norway married King Svend's son and heir Olaf I of Denmark, who would become the Danish king. Although there were some attacks on England by Danish forces, peace persisted between Denmark and Norway. Olaf made peace with William the Conqueror of England. King Olaf broke with his father's line in his relationship to the church. Harald Hardrada had developed a continuing conflict with the Archbishopric of Bremen due to the archbishop's authority over the Norwegian church. Unlike his father, Olav recognized that authority fully. Political considerations may have been behind this conciliatory attitude, as may have been Olaf's concern with the church organization; until his time bishops had formed part of the king's court and traveled with him around the country to take care of the ecclesiastical affairs while the king took care of worldly matters. The bishops established fixed residence in Oslo and Bergen. King Olaf took the initiative for the construction of churches, including Christ Church in Bergen and Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim.

Olaf instituted the system of guilds in Norway. There are strong indications that the government of King Olaf began writing secure provincial laws to a greater extent; the Norwegian law Gulatingsloven was put in writing for the first time during his reign. King Olaf died of illness on 22 September 1093 in Haukbø, Rånrike part of Norway, he was buried at the Nidaros Cathedral. His marriage to Ingerid did not produce any children, his successor as king, Magnus III nicknamed Magnus Barefoot, was acknowledged to be his illegitimate son. The Morkinskinna describes Olaf III as: tall man, everyone agrees that there has never been seen a fairer man or a man of nobler appearance, he had blond hair, a light complexion, pleasing eyes, he was well proportioned. He was taciturn for the most part, not much of a speechmaker, though he was good company after drink."Another description is found in the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturluson: Olaf was a stout man, well grown in limbs. His hair was yellow as silk, became him well.

He was rather silent in general, did not speak much at Things. He loved drinking much, was talkative enough then, he was cheerful in conversation, peacefully inclined during all his reign, loving gentleness and moderation in all things." A memorial to King Olaf Kyrre was placed in Bergen, Norway in connection with the city's 900 year anniversary. The abstract equestrian statue by noted Norwegian sculptor, Knut Steen, was unveiled on 21 May 1998; the Maine penny - a Norwegian silver coin discovered in the US State of Maine in 1957 and suggested as evidence of Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact - has been dated to the time of Olaf III. The circumstances of its arrival from Norway to a Native American village in the present US territory remain unclear and disputed. List of Norwegian monarchs Saga of Olaf Kyrre Part of Heimskringla King Olav Kyrre Sculpture in Bergen

Jesús Rueda (footballer)

Jesús Rueda Ambrosio is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a central defender or defensive midfielder for Gimnàstic de Tarragona. He spent most of his career with Valladolid, playing 163 competitive matches in Segunda División. Born in Corte de Peleas, Extremadura, Rueda played youth football with Real Valladolid, he made his senior debut with the reserve team, spending four full seasons with the side in Segunda División B. After spending the 2009–10 campaign on loan to Córdoba CF, in Segunda División, Rueda returned to Valladolid which were now in the same level, he totalled 3,867 minutes of action in his second year in his second spell – playoffs included – scoring in a 1–1 draw at Recreativo de Huelva on 15 October 2011 as the Castile and León side went on to return to the top flight. On 13 August 2015, after appearing as the club fluctuated between the first and second levels, Rueda terminated his contract with the Blanquivioletas, he subsequently moved abroad for the first time, receiving offers from teams in Bulgaria and Israel signing for Beitar Jerusalem F.

C. and becoming a regular in the Holy Land team alongside compatriot Pablo de Lucas. In June 2017, Rueda moved countries again when he signed a two-year deal for APOEL FC of the Cypriot First Division, a club whose director Juanjo Lorenzo was from Valladolid, his debut season in Nicosia ended at the halfway point when he suffered a knee injury in training, ruling him out for six months. On 21 July 2019, free agent Rueda returned to Spain and joined second division team Extremadura UD; the following 25 January, after only four league appearances, he cut ties with the club, signed a 18-month contract with third division side Gimnàstic de Tarragona four days later. As of match played on 11 December 2017 Jesús Rueda at BDFutbol Jesús Rueda at Futbolme

Bukharan Jews in Israel

Bukharan Jews in Israel known as the Bukharim, refers to immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Bukharan Jewish communities, who now reside within the state of Israel. The first Bukharan Jews to make Aliyah arrived in the 1870s and 1880s, establishing the Bukharim quarter in Jerusalem. In 1890, seven members of the Bukharan Jewish community formed the Hovevei Zion Association of the Jewish communities of Bukhara and Tashkent. By 1914, around 1,500 Bukharan Jews had immigrated, 4,000 more arrived in the early 1930s. In 1940, publications in Bukhori were shut down by the Soviets along with most Bukharan schools. In 1948 began the "Black Years of Soviet Jewry," where suppression of the Jewish religion resumed after stopping due to war. In 1950 thirteen religious Bukharan Jews in Samarkand were sentenced to 25 years. Similar arrests happened to prominent Bukharim in Bukhara; the Six-Day War led to a rise in Jewish patriotism among Bukharan Jews and many carried out demonstrations as refuseniks.

Until 1972, there was no major immigration of Bukharim to Israel. It was from until 1975 when 8,000 managed to immigrate from the USSR. By 1987, 32,000 Bukharan Jews lived around 40 % of the Bukharim. In 1990, there were riots against the Jewish population of nearby areas; this led to most Jews in the Fergana Valley immigrating to the United States. From 1989 to 2005 over 5,000 Bukharan Jews from Kyrgyzstan came to Israel due to increased hostility in the region. In 1992, there was a secret airlift operation which brought a small number of Bukharan Jews from Tajikistan to Israel. From 1989 to 2000, over 10,000 made aliyah from Tajikistan. Today, most Bukharim live in Israel with a significant population in America. Only 1,000 Jews remain in Tajikistan, 1,500 in Uzbekistan, only 150 in the city of Bukhara. Aliyah Iranian Jews in Israel Georgian Jews in Israel 1970s Soviet Union aliyah 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah