SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Old Chinese

Old Chinese called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty; the latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, the Zuo zhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese, which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese was written with several early forms of Chinese characters, including Oracle Bone and Seal scripts. Throughout the Old Chinese period, there was a close correspondence between a character and a monosyllabic and monomorphemic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, the majority of characters were created based on phonetic considerations.

At first, words that were difficult to represent visually were written using a "borrowed" character for a similar-sounding word. On, to reduce ambiguity, new characters were created for these phonetic borrowings by appending a radical that conveys a broad semantic category, resulting in compound xingsheng characters. For the earliest attested stage of Old Chinese of the late Shang dynasty, the phonetic information implicit in these xingsheng characters which are grouped into phonetic series, known as the xiesheng series, represents the only direct source of phonological data for reconstructing the language; the corpus of xingsheng characters was expanded in the following Zhou dynasty. In addition, the rhymes of the earliest recorded poems those of the Shijing, provide an extensive source of phonological information with respect to syllable finals for the Central Plains dialects during the Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods; the Chuci provides rhyme data for the dialect spoken in the Chu region during the Warring States period.

These rhymes, together with clues from the phonetic components of xingsheng characters, allow most characters attested in Old Chinese to be assigned to one of 30 or 31 rime groups. For late Old Chinese of the Han period, the modern Southern Min dialects, the oldest layer of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, a few early transliterations of foreign proper names, as well as names for non-native flora and fauna provide insights into language reconstruction. Although many of the finer details remain unclear, most scholars agree that Old Chinese differed from Middle Chinese in lacking retroflex and palatal obstruents but having initial consonant clusters of some sort, in having voiceless nasals and liquids. Most recent reconstructions describe Old Chinese as a language without tones, but having consonant clusters at the end of the syllable, which developed into tone distinctions in Middle Chinese. Most researchers trace the core vocabulary of Old Chinese to Sino-Tibetan, with much early borrowing from neighbouring languages.

During the Zhou period, the monosyllabic vocabulary was augmented with polysyllabic words formed by compounding and reduplication, although monosyllabic vocabulary was still predominant. Unlike Middle Chinese and the modern Chinese dialects, Old Chinese had a significant amount of derivational morphology. Several affixes have been identified, including ones for the verbification of nouns, conversion between transitive and intransitive verbs, formation of causative verbs. Like modern Chinese, it appears to be uninflected, though a pronoun case and number system seems to have existed during the Shang and early Zhou but was in the process of disappearing by the Classical period. By the Classical period, most morphological derivations had become unproductive or vestigial, grammatical relationships were indicated using word order and grammatical particles. Middle Chinese and its southern neighbours Kra–Dai, Hmong–Mien and the Vietic branch of Austroasiatic have similar tone systems, syllable structure, grammatical features and lack of inflection, but these are believed to be areal features spread by diffusion rather than indicating common descent.

The most accepted hypothesis is that Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family, together with Burmese and many other languages spoken in the Himalayas and the Southeast Asian Massif. The evidence consists of some hundreds of proposed cognate words, including such basic vocabulary as the following: Although the relationship was first proposed in the early 19th century and is now broadly accepted, reconstruction of Sino-Tibetan is much less developed than that of families such as Indo-European or Austronesian. Although Old Chinese is by far the earliest attested member of the family, its logographic script does not indicate the pronunciation of words. Other difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, the effects of language contact. In addition, many of the smaller languages are poorly described because they are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach, including several sensitive border zones. Initial consonants correspond regarding place and manner of articulation, but voicing and aspiration are much less regular, prefixal elements vary between languages.

Some researchers believe. Proto-Tibeto-Burman as reconstructed by Benedict and Matisoff lacks an aspiration distinction on initial stops and affricates. Aspiration in Old Chinese corresponds to pre-initial consonants in Tibetan and Lolo-Burmese, is believed to be a

Atherleigh railway station

Atherleigh railway station served an area of Leigh in what was Lancashire, England. It was located on the Bolton and Leigh Railway line which ran from Kenyon Junction to Bolton Great Moor Street. Opened by the London Midland and Scottish Railway to serve local housing estates built after World War 1; the station was located on the west side of the railway at Westbourne Avenue with a connecting footbridge between the two parts of the road. The station structure was a simple wooden building. There was a platform on each side of the tracks; the station passed on to the London Midland Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948, only to be closed by the British Transport Commission six years later. The station is believed to have been used for Rugby League specials and holiday traffic after closure. By 2015 the station site was buried under the A579 road. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present.

Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Holland, Plodder Lane for Farnworth, Leigh: Triangle Publishing, ISBN 0-9529333-6-5 Smith, Paul. A Lancashire Triangle Part One, Triangle Publishing, ISBN 978-0-9529333-0-4 The station on a 1948 OS map via npe maps The closed station on a 1955–61 series OS map via National Library of Scotland The station and line via railwaycodes

Le shérif

Le shérif is an opéra comique in three acts composed by Fromental Halévy to a libretto by Eugène Scribe. It was premiered by the Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse in Paris on 2 September 1839. Based on a short story by Balzac, the opera is set in the London Docklands during the late 18th century. Scribe borrowed from Balzac's collection of interlinked novels and stories, La Comédie humaine, for his plays and libretti; the basic plot of his libretto for Le shérif was taken from the Comédie humaine novella Maître Cornélius. Balzac's Master Cornelius is Louis XI's money-lender who lives in an old mansion where his gold keeps mysteriously disappearing. Scribe provided a happy ending. Cornelius became the High-Sheriff of London. Like Cornelius, he is discovered as the thief of his own property which occurs while he is sleepwalking. However, unlike Cornelius who commits suicide on learning the truth, Sheriff Turner lives to tell the tale. According to cultural historian Robert Letellier, Halévy's score for Le shérif revealed a "powerful originality", as had the scores for two of his previous opéras comiques, L'éclair and Les treize.

However, the score's eclecticism proved unpopular with the Parisian public. Following its premiere on 2 September 1839 with Henry Deshaynes in the title role, the opera ran for thirteen more performances at the Théâtre de l'Opéra-Comique-Bourse but was not revived there. A brief article in The Foreign Quarterly Review reported that Le shérif was given in Prague in early 1841 with a Czech libretto adapted by Alois Svoboda, but it was not a success "owing to the inefficient manner" in which the role of Sir James Turner was sung; the opera's orchestral score was published by Maurice Schlesinger in 1839. The following year Stephen Heller composed his Op. 17, six caprices for piano based on an aria from Le shérif. Various fantasies based on the opera and arrangements for solo piano or violin were published by minor composers such as Edouard Wolff, Henri Panofka, Auguste Panseron