Mintlaw is a large village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland lying along the A952 road and is geographically a route centre. The 2001 UK census records a population of 2,647 people; as the largest settlement within 11 miles it supports a number of shops and local amenities such as a police station, dental surgery and group doctors' practice. Aberdeenshire Museums Service is based in a new purpose-built museum building housing Aberdeenshire's large reserve collections, a conservation laboratory and the Discovery Centre; the service runs another three museums: the nearby Aberdeenshire Farming Museum at Aden Country Park, home to the service's nationally recognised agricultural collection, Arbuthnot Museum in Peterhead and Banchory Museum. Aden Country Park contains a ruined mansion house, forest walks and a theme park; the local area is rich with historical features. Somewhat to the south of Mintlaw are a number of prehistoric monuments including Catto Long Barrow, Silver Cairn and many tumuli. In that same vicinity of the Laeca Burn watershed is the point d'appui of historic battles between invading Danes and indigenous Picts.
Mintlaw was formed as a planned village around 1813 by James Ferguson the third Laird of Pitfour. Unlike many of the other planned villages of the time, trees lined the streets and instead of having a square at the centre of the village, it was diamond-shaped, it was re-designed to become a roundabout on the main route between Aberdeen and Fraserburgh. Victorian times saw the coming of the Maud to Peterhead line being built in the 1860s. Mintlaw was a scheduled stop on this line; the station was built a little to the west of the village. More affluent homes were built on Station Road to house business and professional people; the Post Office became a Crown Office. Mintlaw Station was the postal address for this whole district for many years; the Crown Post Office was combined with that in Peterhead with the closure of the railway in the 1960s, the village post office moved back to South Street. Telephone numbers too were Mintlaw Station until the early 1970s. Although the date of the village's founding is not known for certain, 2013 was marked as its bicentenary year.
Mintlaw has Mintlaw Primary School and Pitfour Primary School. It has a large secondary school, Mintlaw Academy which takes pupils from the town itself and the surrounding area. Mintlaw Academy is situated on Station Road. General Information about Mintlaw
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Clola is a hamlet in Buchan, Scotland. Clola is situated on the A952 road. There is considerable evidence of local habitation by early man in the vicinity of Clola; some of these nearby human traces are evident in Catto Long Barrow, a massive stone structure now surrounded by agricultural fields. The scattered residential and farming community of Clola, about three miles north of Ardallie, is centred on Clola crossroads on the A952 some 2.5 miles south of Mintlaw. The neighbourhood extends to a radius of a little over a mile around the former Church. 18th century spellings are Clolloch and Clolah, which came from the Gaelic clach or clachach meaning stony place. The picturesque church building stands to the east of the crossroads, it is now a dwelling house its exterior form has been retained, bearing clear witness to its original function. The first church at Clola was a simple heather thatched stone and clay structure on the opposite side of the A952, near the latter day manse; this was superseded in 1784 by a new building on the present site.
In the secessions of the early 19th century Clola became part of the Free Church of Scotland, in opposition to the Established Church, in keeping with its new status the church was rebuilt in its present form in 1864. The construction of the third church cost £1,500 and was funded by donations from the congregation; the plans were drawn up by James Stevenson from Glasgow. It featured a stained glass window to the memory of William Ferguson of Kinmundy, at one time chairman of the Great North of Scotland Railway Co. and this window survives in the private dwelling. The Free Church re-united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. Population drifts in the post-War years led to Clola being linked with Ardallie, this linked charge in turn united with Deer Parish on 4 May 1975; the last service at Clola had been held eight months earlier on 31 August 1974. Quarter of a mile south of the Church is the former Toll House, it is one of a small number of Tollhouses still used as a domestic dwelling and considered a good example of vernacular buildings.
It sits adjacent to an old stretch of road beside the A952. Under the Turnpike Act of 1795 the minimum distance between toll bars was six miles; the Toll of Birness to the south of Ardallie is six miles from Clola. The Tollhouse is home to Shannas Gordon Setters which have produced many champions in the breed in both the UK and overseas; the Toll House has an Ordnance Survey cut mark, a basic type of Benchmark on the corner of the house. The former school for Clola primary children was Shannas School south of the Toll house on the A952, it closed in 1967 at a time of "educational re-organisation". Clola children are now educated at Mintlaw, which has two primary schools and an academy taking children through to their sixth year of secondary education. Half a mile east of Clola Church is the former weaver's hamlet of Durie; as elsewhere in Clola, modern homes have been built here in recent years. Durie is mentioned in records as far back as 1588. By 1600 the modern day spelling is adopted; the name is believed to come from the Gaelic dobhar or dobhran meaning a small stream, the name Durie was applied to the Clola Burn which runs nearby.
South of Durie is the site of Kinmundy House to the Fergusons of Kinmundy. Like so many of Scotland's former mansion houses, the roof was removed in the early 1950s, part of the house was converted into farm buildings. McKean describes Kinmundy House as being "classical 18th century". To the west of Clola crossroads are Shannas Farm, Brae of Coynach and Aulton of Coynach. Brae of Coynach is renowned for its herd of prime cattle, taking prizes at major events throughout the U. K; the road leads across to home in earlier times to a branch of the Gordon family. Brae of Coynach is listed as category B by Historic Scotland; the house was built in 1851 to a design by Matthews. The age of commuting and ease of travel have brought many changes in Clola. Recent years have seen old properties modernised and new homes built, as a community Clola is increasing in size, but businesses which once made itself supporting have gone. South of the church are the former Joiner's Croft and Smiddy, Church Croft was the site of Foggie's Shop seventy years ago.
To the north is the former Meal Mill, which operated into the early 1960s. The dwelling on the right to the north of the meal mill was a shop and local post office until the late 1960s. A track on the left beyond this leads to the ruins of a shoemaker's shop and twelve cottages, abandoned in the 1920s, which housed workers employed at Millbreck Woollen Mill. Bridgestone Cottages were built for mill workers; the Woollen Mill stood in the clump of mature trees by the roadside leading to Barnyards farm and was famed for the quality of its blankets, tweed and Winsey aprons. The Millbreck Woollen Mill was established by Thomas and Joshua Smith when they commenced woollen manufacture in Millbreck Mill in 1818; the lease of the land there expired circa 1909 when they concentrated all work in Peterhead at their Kirkburn Mill. Barnyards today is home to a renowned flock of Suffolk sheep. On a happier note, new enterprises have set up in recent times. Bogbrae Laeca Burn Cruden Bay William Mackelvie and William Blair Annals and Statistics of the United Presbyterian Church, United Presbyterian Church, published by Oliphant and A. Elliot, 708 pages AA Great Britain Road Atlas
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages. Celtic Christianity has been conceived of with differing levels of specificity: some writers have described a distinct Celtic Church uniting the Celtic peoples and distinguishing them from the Roman Church, while others classify it as a set of distinctive practices occurring in those areas. Varying scholars reject the former notion, but note that there were certain traditions and practices present in both the Irish and British churches that were not seen in the wider Christian world; such practices include: a distinctive system for determining the dating of Easter, a style of monastic tonsure, a unique system of penance, the popularity of going into "exile for Christ". Additionally, there were other practices that developed in certain parts of Britain and Ireland, that were not known to have spread beyond particular regions.
The term denotes the regional practices among the insular churches and their associates, rather than actual theological differences. The term "Celtic Church" is deprecated by many historians as it implies a unified and identifiable entity separate from that of mainstream Western Christendom. For this reason, many prefer the term "Insular Christianity"; as Patrick Wormald explained, "One of the common misconceptions is that there was a Roman Church to which the Celtic Church was nationally opposed."Popularized by German historian Lutz von Padberg, the term "Iroschottisch" is used to describe this supposed dichotomy between Irish-Scottish and Roman Christianity. As a whole, Celtic-speaking areas were part of Latin Christendom at a time when there was significant regional variation of liturgy and structure. Though, a general collective veneration of the Papacy was no less intense in Celtic-speaking areas. Nonetheless, distinctive traditions developed and spread to both Ireland and Britain in the 6th and 7th centuries.
Some elements may have been introduced to Ireland by the Briton St. Patrick, others from Ireland to Britain through the Irish mission system of Saint Columba. However, the histories of the Irish, Scots, Breton and Manx Churches diverge after the 8th century. Interest in the subject has led to a series of "Celtic Christian Revival" movements, which have shaped popular perceptions of the Celts and their religious practices - most notably, Celtomania. People have conceived of "Celtic Christianity" in different ways at different times. Writings on the topic say more about the time in which they originate than about the historical state of Christianity in the early medieval Celtic-speaking world, many notions are now discredited in modern academic discourse. One prominent feature ascribed to Celtic Christianity is that it is inherently distinct from – and opposed to – the Catholic Church. Other common claims include that Celtic Christianity denied the authority of the Pope, was less authoritarian than the Catholic Church, more spiritual, friendlier to women, more connected with nature, more comfortable dealing with Celtic polytheism.
One view, which gained substantial scholarly traction in the 19th century, was that there was a "Celtic Church", a organised Christian body or denomination uniting the Celtic peoples and separating them from the "Roman" church of continental Europe. Others have been content to speak of "Celtic Christianity" as consisting of certain traditions and beliefs intrinsic to the Celts. However, modern scholars have identified problems with all of these claims, find the term "Celtic Christianity" problematic in and of itself. Modern scholarship roundly rejects the idea of a "Celtic Church" due to the lack of substantiating evidence. Indeed, distinct Irish and British church traditions existed, each with their own practices, there was significant local variation within the individual Irish and British spheres. While there were some traditions known to have been common to both the Irish and British churches, these were few; these commonalities did not exist due to the "Celticity" of the regions, but due to other historical and geographical factors.
Additionally, the Christians of Ireland and Britain were not "anti-Roman". Caitlin Corning further notes that the "Irish and British were no more pro-women, pro-environment, or more spiritual than the rest of the Church."Corning writes that scholars have identified three major strands of thought that have influenced the popular conceptions of Celtic Christianity. The first arose in the English Reformation, when the Church of England declared itself separate from papal authority. Protestant writers of this time popularised the idea of an indigenous British Christianity that opposed the foreign "Roman" church and was purer in thought; the English church, they claimed, was not forming a new institution, but casting off the shackles of Rome and returning to its true roots as the indigenous national church of Britain. Ideas of Celtic Christianity were further influenced by the Romantic movement of the 18th century, in particular Romantic notions of the noble savage and the intrinsic qualities of the "Celtic race".
Romantics idealised the Celts as a primitive, bucolic people who were far more poetic and freer of rationalism than their neighbours. The Celts were seen as having an inner spiritual nature that shone through after their form of Christianity had been destroyed by the authoritarian and rational Rome. In the 20th and 21st centuries, ideas about "Celtic Christia
Gospel meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. The four canonical gospels — Matthew, Mark and John — were written between AD 66 and 110, building on older sources and traditions, each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of Jesus and his divine role. All four are anonymous, it is certain that none were written by an eyewitness, they are the main source of information on the life of Jesus as searched for in the quest for the historical Jesus. Modern scholars are cautious of relying on them unquestioningly, but critical study attempts to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the authors. Many non-canonical gospels were written, all than the four, all, like them, advocating the particular theological views of their authors; the Gospel of Mark dates from c. AD 66–70, Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90, John AD 90–110. Despite the traditional ascriptions all four are anonymous, none were written by eyewitnesses.
Like the rest of the New Testament, they were written in Greek. In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment within their own lifetimes, in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings; the stages of this process can be summarised as follows: Oral traditions — stories and sayings passed on as separate self-contained units, not in any order. Gospels formed by combining written collections and still-current oral tradition. Mark, the first gospel to be written, uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the Gospel of Thomas and not the Q source used by Matthew and Luke; the authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the Q document and additional material unique to each called the M source and the L source.
Mark and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because of the close similarities between them in terms of content and language. The authors and editors of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark. There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source that circulated within the Johannine community expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses. All four use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes; such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the Parousia is made up entirely of quotations from scripture. Matthew is full of quotations and allusions, although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive, their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the Septuagint – they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew. The four gospels share a story in which the earthly career of Jesus culminates in his death and resurrection, an event of crucial redemptive significance, but are inconsistent in detail.
John and the three synoptics in particular present different pictures of Jesus' career. John has no baptism, no temptation, no transfiguration, lacks the Lord's Supper and stories of Jesus' ancestry and childhood. Jesus's career in the synoptics takes up a single year while in John it takes three, with the cleansing of the Temple at the beginning of his ministry while in the synoptics it happens at the end, in the synoptics the Last Supper takes place as a Passover meal, while in John it happens on the day before Passover; each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of his divine role. Mark never calls Jesus "God" or claims that Jesus existed prior to his earthly life, never mentions a virgin birth, makes no attempt to trace Jesus' ancestry back to King David or Adam. Crucially, Mark had no post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author may have known of the tradition.
Matthew reinterprets Mark, stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts and making subtle changes to the narrative in order to stress his divine nature – Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb, for example, becomes a radiant angel in Matthew. The miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God, but in Matthew they demonstrate his divinity. Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, eliminated some passages notably most of chapters 6 and 7, which he felt reflected poorly on the disciples and painted Jesus too much like a magician. John, t
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century. The translation was the work of Jerome, who in 382 had been commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina Gospels in use by the Roman Church. Jerome, on his own initiative, extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the books of the Bible, once published, the new version was adopted and eclipsed the Vetus Latina; the Catholic Church affirmed the Vulgate as its official Latin Bible at the Council of Trent, though there was no authoritative edition at that time. The Clementine edition of the Vulgate of 1592 became the standard Bible text of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church and remained so until 1979 when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated; the Vulgate has a compound text, not the work of Jerome. While Jerome revised all the Gospels of the Vetus Latina from the Greek, it is unknown who revised the rest of the New Testament.
Several unrevised books of the Vetus Latina Old Testament commonly became included in the Vulgate. Medieval Vulgate Bibles might further include the Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, the Epistle to the Laodiceans and Psalm 151. Jerome himself translated all books of the Jewish Bible from Hebrew; the Vulgate's components include: Independent translation from the Hebrew by Jerome: the books of the Hebrew Bible, including a translation of the Psalms from the Hebrew, found in early medieval Vulgate manuscripts but is supplanted by Jerome's Gallican version in bibles. This was completed in 405. Free translation from a secondary Aramaic version by Jerome: Tobias and Judith. Translation from the Greek of Theodotion by Jerome: The three additions to the Book of Daniel; the Song of the Three Children was retained within the narrative of Daniel, Susanna was moved by Jerome from before the beginning of Daniel to the end of the book along with Bel and the Dragon. These additions he marked with an obelus to distinguish them from the canonical text.
Translation from the Common Septuagint by Jerome: the Additions to Esther. Jerome gathered all these additions together at the end of the Book of Esther, marking them with an obelus. Translation from the Hexaplar Septuagint by Jerome: his Gallican version of the Book of Psalms. Jerome's Hexaplaric revisions of other books of Old Testament continued to circulate in Italy for several centuries, but only Job and fragments of other books survive. Revision of the Old Latin by Jerome: the Gospels, corrected with reference to the best Greek manuscripts Jerome considered available. Revision of the Old Latin: the Roman Psalter including Psalm 151, undertaken prior to Jerome but continuing in liturgical use, included in many medieval Vulgate Old Testaments and liturgical psalters. Revision of the Old Latin by a person or persons unknown, contemporary with Jerome: Acts, Pauline epistles, Catholic epistles and the Apocalypse. Old Latin, wholly unrevised: Epistle to the Laodiceans, Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, Ecclesiasticus, 1 and 2 Maccabees.
The Book of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah were excluded by Jerome as non-canonical, but sporadically re-admitted into the Vulgate tradition from the Additions to the Book of Jeremiah of the Old Latin from the 9th century onwards. Independent translation, distinct from the Old Latin, he had been commissioned by Damasus I in 382 to revise the Old Latin text of the four Gospels from the best Greek texts. By the time of Damasus' death in 384, Jerome had completed this task, together with a more cursory revision from the Greek Common Septuagint of the Old Latin text of the Psalms in the Roman Psalter, a version which he disowned and is now lost. How much of the rest of the New Testament he revised is difficult to judge today, but none of his work survived in the Vulgate text of these books; the revised text of the New Testament outside the Gospels is the work of one or more other scholars. This unknown reviser worked more than Jerome had done using older Greek manuscript sources of Alexandrian text-type, had published a complete revised New Testament text by 410 at the latest, when Pelagius quoted from it in his commentary on the letters of Paul.
In 385, Jerome was forced out of Rome and settled in Bethlehem. There he was able to use a surviving manuscript of the Hexapla from the nearby Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, a column
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed