The Gumelniţa–Karanovo VI culture was a Neolithic culture of the 5th millennium BC, named after the Gumelniţa site on the left bank of the Danube. At its full extent the culture extended along the Black Sea coast to central Bulgaria and into Thrace; the aggregate "Kodjadermen-Gumelnita-Karanovo VI" evolved out of the earlier Boian and Karanovo V cultures. In the East it was supplanted by Cernavodă I in the early 4th millennium BC. One of the most flourishing civilizations from the last half of the 5th millenium BC is Gumelniţa Culture... absolute chronology, still under discussion, according to the latest calibrated data, assigns this culture to the limits of the last half of the 5th millenium BC and maybe to early 4th millenium BC. —Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu, "Gumelniţa Culture" This matches the view of Blagoje Govedarica. The first periodization of Gumelnita culture was suggested by VI. Dumitrescu who split the civilization of Gumelniţa into two phases: A and B. On, Dinu V. Rosetti divided the civilization into Al, A2 and B1, B2.
With a centric evolution from geographic point of view, the intensity of the cultural trends decreased from the center towards peripheral area. Having a strong Boian background at the origins, mixed with Maritza elements, the Gumelnita culture lasted short of a millennium from the beginning of Chalcolithic to the start of the fourth millennium BC. 4700-4350 Gumelnita-Karanovo VI-Kodjadermen is aggregated with Varna culture, still are debates along historians considering the distinctive character of Varna culture. 4500-3950 The regional characteristics of A1 phase are diminished, a more uniform characteristics is identified in discovered artifacts. The evolution of the Gumelniţa-Kodjadermen-Karanovo VI is ended on the north bank of the Danube after the arrival of Cernavoda cultures population; the layers at Karanovo are employed as a chronological system for Balkans prehistory. The Gumelniţa is remarkable by the richness of its zoomorphic representations; some consider the achievements of prehistoric craftsmen to be true masterpieces.
The representation from Gumelnița art differ by other cultures by the following: statuettes morphology characterised by expressivity and attitude. Modelling technique arms pozitions on the belly, stretched laterally, in the position of the “thinker” sex representation decoration patternSeashell ornament is common. At least some of the shellfish used come from the Aegean regions, for example the spondylas and the dentals; as evidence from archaeology, thousands of artifacts from Neolithic Europe have been discovered in the form of female figurines. As a result a goddess theory has occurred; the leading historian was Marija Gimbutas, still this interpretation is a subject of great controversy in archaeology due to her many inferences about the symbols on artifacts. Gumelniţa culture has some sign of work specialisation:...we do not have enough data on the internal organization of the community, but next to the dwellings themselves, arranged or not in a certain order, we encounter workshop-dwellings for processing lithic material, horns, statuettes, etc.).
—Gumelniţa Culture by Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu During the Middle Copper Age, the Danube script appears in three horizons: The Karanovo VI–Gumelniţa–Kodžadermen cultural complex, the Cucuteni A3-A4–Trypillya B, Coțofeni I. The first, rates 68.6% of the frequencies. Old Europe Vinča culture Tărtăria tablets Vinča symbols Sesklo culture Cucuteni–Trypillia culture Hamangia culture Butmir Culture Tisza culture Linear Pottery culture Lengyel culture Funnelbeaker culture Stefan Hiller, Vassil Nikolov, Karanovo III. Beiträge zum Neolithikum in Südosteuropa Österreichisch-Bulgarische Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Karanovo, Band III, Vienna, ISBN 3-901232-19-2. Cimec.ro Cimec.ro Brukenthalmuseum.ro Civa.uv.ro Civa.uv.ro Bulgariatravel.org Worldmuseumofman.org Culture.gouv.fr Cimec.ro Cimec.ro Arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro Pnas.org Arheologie.ro
Shepherd Neolithic is a name given by archaeologists to a style of small flint tools from the Hermel plains in the north Beqaa Valley, Lebanon. The Shepherd Neolithic industry has been insufficiently studied and was provisionally named based on a limited typology collected by Jesuit archaeologist "Père" Henri Fleisch. Lorraine Copeland and Peter J. Wescombe suggested it was "of quite late date". Shepherd Neolithic material can be found dispersed over a wide area of the north Beqaa Valley in low concentrations. M. Billaux and Henri Fleisch suggested that the flints were of a higher quality than the brittle flint in the nearby conglomerates indicating origin from elsewhere. Three groups of flint could be determined. Characteristics of the industry include smallness in size between 2.5 cm and 4 cm and being quite thick, unlike geometric microliths. The small number of tools within the assemblage is another distinguishable characteristic, including short denticulated or notched blades, end scrapers, transverse racloirs on thin flakes and borers with strong points.
They display a lack of recognizable typology although Levallois technique was observed to have been used. They show signs of having been worked with cores being re-used and turned into scrapers. Fleisch suggested the industry was Epipaleolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Pottery Neolithic, he further suggested. The relationship and dividing line between the related Heavy Neolithic zone of the south Beqaa Valley could not be defined but was suggested to be in the area around Douris and Qalaat Tannour. Not enough exploration had been carried out to conclude whether the bands of Neolithic surface sites continues south into the areas around Zahle and Rayak; the type sites of the Shepherd Neolithic are at Qaa and Maqne I, with other sites with Shepherd Neolithic finds include Douris, Hermel II, Hermel III, Kamouh el Hermel, Qalaat Tannour, Wadi Boura I and at Rayak North, Riha Station and Serain
The Ubaid period is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. The name derives from Tell al-'Ubaid where the earliest large excavation of Ubaid period material was conducted by Henry Hall and by Leonard Woolley. In South Mesopotamia the period is the earliest known period on the alluvial plain although it is earlier periods exist obscured under the alluvium. In the south it has a long duration between about 6500 and 3800 BC when it is replaced by the Uruk period. In North Mesopotamia the period runs only between about 5300 and 4300 BC, it is preceded by the Halaf period and the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period and succeeded by the Late Chalcolithic period. The term "Ubaid period" was coined at a conference in Baghdad in 1930, where at the same time the Jemdet Nasr and Uruk periods were defined; the Ubaid period is divided into four principal phases: Ubaid 0, sometimes called Oueili, an early Ubaid phase first excavated at Tell el-'Oueili Ubaid 1, sometimes called Eridu corresponding to the city Eridu, a phase limited to the extreme south of Iraq, on what was the shores of the Persian Gulf.
This phase, showing clear connection to the Samarra culture to the north, saw the establishment of the first permanent settlement south of the 5 inch rainfall isohyet. These people pioneered the growing of grains in the extreme conditions of aridity, thanks to the high water tables of Southern Iraq. Ubaid 2, after the type site of the same name, saw the development of extensive canal networks from major settlements. Irrigation agriculture, which seems to have developed first at Choga Mami and spread elsewhere, form the first required collective effort and centralised coordination of labour in Mesopotamia. Ubaid 3/4, sometimes called Ubaid I and Ubaid II — In the period from 4500–4000 BC saw a period of intense and rapid urbanisation with the Ubaid culture spread into northern Mesopotamia and was adopted by the Halaf culture. Ubaid artifacts spread all along the Arabian littoral, showing the growth of a trading system that stretched from the Mediterranean coast through to Oman. Spreading from Eridu, the Ubaid culture extended from the Middle of the Tigris and Euphrates to the shores of the Persian Gulf, spread down past Bahrain to the copper deposits at Oman.
The archaeological record shows that Arabian Bifacial/Ubaid period came to an abrupt end in eastern Arabia and the Oman peninsula at 3800 BC, just after the phase of lake lowering and onset of dune reactivation. At this time, increased aridity led to an end in semi-desert nomadism, there is no evidence of human presence in the area for 1,000 years, the so-called "Dark Millennium"; that might be due to the 5.9 kiloyear event at the end of the Older Peron. Ubaid culture is characterized by large unwalled village settlements, multi-roomed rectangular mud-brick houses and the appearance of the first temples of public architecture in Mesopotamia, with a growth of a two tier settlement hierarchy of centralized large sites of more than 10 hectares surrounded by smaller village sites of less than 1 hectare. Domestic equipment included a distinctive fine quality buff or greenish colored pottery decorated with geometric designs in brown or black paint, but in the north and sometimes metal were used. Villages thus contained specialised craftspeople, potters and metalworkers, although the bulk of the population were agricultural labourers and seasonal pastoralists.
During the Ubaid Period, the movement towards urbanization began. "Agriculture and animal husbandry were practiced in sedentary communities". There were tribes that practiced domesticating animals as far north as Turkey, as far south as the Zagros Mountains; the Ubaid period in the south was associated with intensive irrigated hydraulic agriculture, the use of the plough, both introduced from the north through the earlier Choga Mami, Hadji Muhammed and Samarra cultures. The Ubaid period as a whole, based upon the analysis of grave goods, was one of polarised social stratification and decreasing egalitarianism. Bogucki describes this as a phase of "Trans-egalitarian" competitive households, in which some fall behind as a result of downward social mobility. Morton Fried and Elman Service have hypothesised that Ubaid culture saw the rise of an elite class of hereditary chieftains heads of kin groups linked in some way to the administration of the temple shrines and their granaries, responsible for mediating intra-group conflict and maintaining social order.
It would seem that various collective methods instances of what Thorkild Jacobsen called primitive democracy, in which disputes were resolved through a council of one's peers, were no longer sufficient for the needs of the local community. Ubaid culture originated in the south, but still has clear connections to earlier cultures in the region of middle Iraq; the appearance of the Ubaid folk has sometimes been linked to the so-called Sumerian problem, related to the origins of Sumerian civilisation. Whatever the ethnic origins of this group, this culture saw for the first time a clear tripartite social division between intensive subsistence peasant farmers, with crops and animals coming from the north, tent-dwelling nomadic pastoralists dependent upon their herds, hunter-fisher folk of the Arabian littoral, living in reed huts. Stein and Özbal describe the Near East oecumene that resulted from Ubaid expansion, contrasting it to the colonial expansionism of the Uruk period. "A contextual analysis comparing different regions shows that the Ubaid expansion took place through the peaceful spre
Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe between 7000 BCE and c. 1700 BCE. The Neolithic overlaps the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe as cultural changes moved from the southeast to northwest at about 1 km/year - this is called Neolithic Expansion; the duration of the Neolithic varies from place to place, its end marked by the introduction of bronze implements: in southeast Europe it is 4,000 years while in parts of Northwest Europe it is just under 3,000 years, although copper metallurgy was in use on a small scale from c.2800 BC. Regardless of specific chronology, many European Neolithic groups share basic characteristics, such as living in small-scale, family-based communities, subsisting on domesticated plants and animals supplemented with the collection of wild plant foods and with hunting, producing hand-made pottery, that is, pottery made without the potter's wheel. Polished stone axes lie at the heart of the neolithic culture, enabling forest clearance for agriculture and production of wood for dwellings, as well as fuel.
There are many differences, with some Neolithic communities in southeastern Europe living in fortified settlements of 3,000-4,000 people whereas Neolithic groups in Britain were small and mobile cattle-herders. The details of the origin, social organization, subsistence practices and ideology of the peoples of Neolithic Europe are obtained from archaeology, not historical records, since these people left none. Since the 1970s, population genetics has provided independent data on the population history of Neolithic Europe, including migration events and genetic relationships with peoples in South Asia. A further independent tool, has contributed hypothetical reconstructions of early European languages and family trees with estimates of dating of splits, in particular theories on the relationship between speakers of Indo-European languages and Neolithic peoples; some archaeologists believe that the expansion of Neolithic peoples from southwest Asia into Europe, marking the eclipse of Mesolithic culture, coincided with the introduction of Indo-European speakers, whereas other archaeologists and many linguists believe the Indo-European languages were introduced from the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the succeeding Bronze Age.
Archeologists trace the emergence of food-producing societies in the Levantine region of southwest Asia at the close of the last glacial period around 12,000 BCE, developed into a number of regionally distinctive cultures by the eighth millennium BCE. Remains of food-producing societies in the Aegean have been carbon-dated to around 6500 BCE at Knossos, Franchthi Cave, a number of mainland sites in Thessaly. Neolithic groups appear soon afterwards in the Balkans and south-central Europe; the Neolithic cultures of southeastern Europe show some continuity with groups in southwest Asia and Anatolia. Current evidence suggests that Neolithic material culture was introduced to Europe via western Anatolia, that similarities in cultures of North Africa and the Pontic steppes are due to diffusion out of Europe. All Neolithic sites in Europe contain ceramics, contain the plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia: einkorn, barley, pigs, goats and cattle. Genetic data suggest that no independent domestication of animals took place in Neolithic Europe, that all domesticated animals were domesticated in Southwest Asia.
The only domesticate not from Southwest Asia was broomcorn millet, domesticated in East Asia. The earliest evidence of cheese-making dates to 5500 BCE in Poland. Archaeologists seem to agree that the culture of the early Neolithic is homogeneous, compared both to the late Mesolithic and the Neolithic; the diffusion across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years. The Baltic region was penetrated a bit around 3500 BCE, there was a delay in settling the Pannonian plain. In general, colonization shows a "saltatory" pattern, as the Neolithic advanced from one patch of fertile alluvial soil to another, bypassing mountainous areas. Analysis of radiocarbon dates show that Mesolithic and Neolithic populations lived side by side for as much as a millennium in many parts of Europe in the Iberian peninsula and along the Atlantic coast. With some exceptions, population levels rose at the beginning of the Neolithic until they reached the carrying capacity; this was followed by a population crash of "enormous magnitude" after 5000 BCE, with levels remaining low during the next 1,500 years.
Populations began to rise after 3500 BCE, with further dips and rises occurring between 3000 and 2500 BCE but varying in date between regions. A study of twelve European regions found most experienced boom and bust patterns and suggested an "endogenous, not climatic cause."In 2018, an 8,000-year-old ceramic figurine portraying the head of the "Mother Goddess", was found near Uzunovo, Vidin Province in Bulgaria, which pushes back the Neolithic revolution to 7th millennium BC. Genetic studies since the 2010s have identified the genetic contribution of Neolithic farmers to modern European populations, providing quantitative results relevant to the long-standing "replacement model" vs. "demic diffusion" dispute in archaeology. The component due to Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers expanding from the Near East were called "Western Hunter-Gatherers" and "Early European Farmers" (EEF
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era. It flourished between 4400 and 4000 BCE, might have emerged by 5000 BCE, it was first identified in Asyut Governorate. About forty settlements and six hundred graves have been located. Social stratification has been inferred from the burying of more prosperous members of the community in a different part of the cemetery; the Badarian economy was based on agriculture and animal husbandry. Tools included end-scrapers, axes, bifacial sickles and concave-base arrowheads. Remains of cattle and sheep were found in the cemeteries. Wheat, barley and tubers were consumed; the Badari culture is known from cemeteries in the low desert. The deceased were placed on mats and buried in pits with their heads laid to the south, looking west; this seems contiguous with the dynastic traditions regarding the west as the land of the dead. The pottery, buried with them is the most characteristic element of the Badarian culture.
It had been given a decorative rippled surface. Badari culture is so named because of its discovery at El-Badari, an area in the Asyut Governorate in Upper Egypt, it is located between Matmar and Qau 200 km northwest of present-day Luxor. El-Badari includes numerous Predynastic cemeteries, as well as at least one early Predynastic settlement at Hammamia; the area stretches for 30 km along the east bank of the Nile. It was first excavated by Guy Brunton and Gertrude Caton-Thompson between 1922 and 1931. Most of the local cemeteries have yielded distinctive pottery vessels, as well as terracotta and ivory anthropomorphic figures, slate palettes, stone vases and flint tools; the contents of Predynastic cemeteries at el-Badari have been subjected to a number of analyses attempting to clarify the chronology and social history of the Badarian period. Populations in the Badari culture planted wheat and barley, kept cattle and goats, they used boomerangs, hunted gazelle. Little is known of their buildings, although remains of wooden stumps have been found at one site and may have been associated with a hut or shelter of unknown construction.
Pits that have been found may have served as granaries. Some Badarian sites show evidence of predynastic use; the Badarians discovered. They wore jewelry made of ivory and quartz. Amulets in the shape of animals such as the antelope and hippopotamus have been found. Badarian grave goods were simple and the deceased wrapped in reed matting or animal skins and placed with personal items such as shells or stone beads. Green malachite ore used for personal decoration, has been detected on stone palettes, their dead were buried facing west, sometimes accompanied by female mortuary figures carved from ivory. Basalt vases found at Badari sites were most traded up the river from the Delta region or from the northwest. Shells came in quantities from the Red Sea. Turquoise came from Sinai. A Syrian connection is suggested for a four-handled pot of hard pink ware; the black pottery, with white incised designs, may have come directly from the West, or from the South. The porphyry slabs are like the ones in Nubia, but the material could have come from the Red Sea Mountains.
The glazed steatite beads were not made locally. These all suggest that the Badarians were not an isolated tribe, but were in contact with the cultures on all sides of them. Nor were they nomadic, having pots of such size and fragility that would have been unsuitable for use by wanderers; the Badarian culture seems to have had multiple sources, of which the Western Desert was the most influential. Badari culture was not to have been restricted to the Badari region since related finds have been made farther to the south at Mahgar Dendera, Armant and Nekhen, as well as to the east in the Wadi Hammamat. Dental trait analysis of Badarian fossils found that they were related to other Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting Northeast Africa and the Maghreb. Among the ancient populations, the Badarians were nearest to other ancient Egyptians, C-Group and Pharaonic era skeletons excavated in Lower Nubia, followed by the A-Group culture bearers of Lower Nubia, the Kerma and Kush populations in Upper Nubia, the Meroitic, X-Group and Christian period inhabitants of Lower Nubia, the Kellis population in the Dakhla Oasis.
Among the recent groups, the Badari makers were morphologically closest to the Shawia and Kabyle Berber populations of Algeria as well as Bedouin groups in Morocco and Tunisia, followed by other Afroasiatic-speaking populations in the Horn of Africa. The Badarian skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to some other populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Merimde culture Tasian culture Badarian Art Badarian figurines in the British Museum Badarian Government and Religious Evolution The Journal of African History
The Amratian culture called Naqada I, was a culture of prehistoric Upper Egypt. It lasted from 4000 to 3500 BC; the Amratian culture is named after the archaeological site of el-Amra, located around 120 km south of Badari in Upper Egypt. El-Amra was the first site where this culture group was found without being mingled with the Gerzeh culture. However, this period is better attested at the Nagada site, thus it is referred to as the Naqada I culture. Black-topped ware continued to be produced, but white cross-line ware, a type of pottery, decorated with close parallel white lines being crossed by another set of close parallel white lines, begins to be produced during this time; the Amratian falls between S. D. 30 and 39 in Flinders Petrie's sequence dating system. The Amratians possessed slaves, constructed rowboats of bundled papyrus in which they could sail the Nile. Trade between the Amratian culture bearers in Upper Egypt and populations of Lower Egypt is attested during this time through new excavated objects.
A stone vase from the north has been found at el-Amra. The predecessor Badarian culture had discovered that malachite could be heated into copper beads. Obsidian and a small amount of gold were both imported from Nubia during this time. Trade with the oases was likely. Cedar was imported from marble from Paros, as well as emery from Naxos. New innovations such as adobe buildings, for which the Gerzeh culture is well known begin to appear during this time, attesting to cultural continuity. However, they did not reach nearly the widespread use that they were known for in times. Additionally and theriomorphic cosmetic palettes appear to be used in this period. However, the workmanship was still rudimentary and the relief artwork for which they were known is not yet present; each Amratian village had an animal deity. Food, statuettes, decorations and dogs were buried with the deceased. 5.9 kiloyear event Prehistoric Egypt Naqada culture Gerzeh culture Naqada III Footnotes Citations