A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses. These vehicles had two or four wheels and were used to carry passengers and/or a load, they were once common worldwide, but they have been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport. A wide variety of arrangements of horses and vehicles have been used, from chariot racing, which involved a small vehicle and four horses abreast, to horsecars or trollies, which used two horses to pull a car, used in cities before electric trams were developed. A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle is a cart. Four-wheeled vehicles have many names – one for heavy loads is most called a wagon. Light carts and wagons can be pulled by donkeys, ponies or mules. Other smaller animals are used, such as large dogs and goats. Heavy wagons and agricultural implements can be pulled by other large draught animals such as oxen, water buffalo, yaks or camels and elephants. Vehicles pulled by one animal have two shafts.
Two animals in single file are referred to as a tandem arrangement, three as a randem. Vehicles which are pulled by a pair have a pole. Other arrangements are possible, for example, three or more abreast, a wheel pair with a single lead animal, or a wheel pair with three lead animals abreast. Heavy loads sometimes had an additional team behind to slow the vehicle down steep hills. Sometimes at a steep hill with frequent traffic, such a team would be hired to passing wagons to help them up or down the hill. Horse-drawn carriages have been in use for at least 3,500 years. Two-wheeled vehicles are balanced by the distribution of weight of the load over the axle, held level by the animal – this means that the shafts must be fixed rigidly to the vehicle's body. Four-wheeled vehicles remain level on their own, so the shafts or pole are hinged vertically, allowing them to rise and fall with the movement of the animals. A four-wheeled vehicle is steered by the shafts or pole, which are attached to the front axle.
From the 15th century drivers of carts were known as Carmen, in London were represented by the Worshipful Company of Carmen. Ambulance: much the same purpose as the modern sense. Details of the design varied but would be a built and well-sprung, enclosed vehicle with provision for seated casualties and stretchers. Barouche: an elegant, high-slung, open carriage with a seat in the rear of the body and a raised bench at the front for the driver, a servant. Berlin: A four-wheeled covered carriage developed in the 17th century. Brake: Describes several types of vehicles. A large, four-wheeled carriage frame, circa late 19th and early 20th century. Britzka: A long, spacious carriage of four wheels, pulled by two horses. Brougham: A specific, light four-wheeled carriage, circa mid 19th century. Buckboard: A simple four-wheeled wagon, circa early 19th century. Bus: see omnibus As the name implies, a large vehicle; as a horse-drawn vehicle, circa early 19th century. Buggy: a light, four-wheeled carriage driven by its owner.
Cab: a shortening of cabriolet. Joseph Hansom based the design of his public hire vehicle on the cabriolet so the name cab stuck to vehicles for public hire. Cabriolet: Calash or Calèshe: see barouche: A four-wheeled, shallow vehicle with two double seats inside, arranged vis-à-vis, so that the sitters on the front seat faced those on the back seat. Cape cart: A two-wheeled four-seater carriage drawn by two horses and used in South Africa. Cariole: A light, two- or four-wheeled vehicle, open or covered, drawn by a single horse. Carriage: in the late eighteenth century equivalent to the modern word "vehicle", it came to be restricted to "passenger vehicle" and to "private, enclosed passenger vehicle". This last is the sense adopted by the linked article. Carryall: A type of carriage used in the United States in the 19th century, it is a light, four-wheeled vehicle drawn by a single horse and with seats for four or more passengers. Chaise: A light two- or four-wheeled traveling or pleasure carriage, with a folding hood or calash top for one or two people.
Charabanc: A larger wagon pulled by multiple horses. Cidomo: a form of horse-drawn carriage popular in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. Clarence: A closed, four-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle with a projecting glass front and seats for four passengers inside. Coach: A large closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman. Coupé: The horse-drawn carriage equivalent of a modern coupe automobile. Covered wagon: the name given to canvas-topped farm wagons used by North American settlers to move both their families and household goods westward. Varieties of this wagon include the Conestoga prairie schooner. Curricle: A smart, light two-wheeled chaise or "chariot", large enough for the driver and a passenger and drawn by a matched pair of horses. Diligence: a French stagecoach; the 19th-century ones came in three sizes, La petite diligence
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Carols by Candlelight
Carols by Candlelight is an annual Australian Christmas tradition that originated in southeastern Australia in the 19th century and was popularised in Melbourne in 1938. The tradition has since spread around the world, it involves people gathering outdoors in a park, to sing carols by candlelight, featuring live performances by both national and international celebrities accompanied by a band or orchestra. Today, the largest such event is held annually at the Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Melbourne's King's Domain Gardens on Christmas Eve since 1938. Vision Australia's Carols by Candlelight is the largest Carols by Candlelight event in Australia; the Victorian event was introduced in 1938 by Norman Banks, a radio announcer with Melbourne radio station 3KZ. Whilst walking home from his night-time radio shift on Christmas Eve in 1937, he passed a window and saw an elderly woman sitting up in bed inside listening to Away in a Manger being played on the radio and singing along with her face being lit by candlelight.
Wondering how many others spent Christmas alone, he had the idea to gather a large group of people to all sing Christmas carols together by candlelight. The first event was held in Alexandra Gardens the following Christmas in 1938, was attended by around 10,000 people. Following World War II, the Carols became so well patronised that the decision was made to move it to the neighbouring park in King's Domain. In 1959, the newly constructed Sidney Myer Music Bowl provided a permanent venue, where they are still held to this day. Funds raised from donations and candle sales are given to Vision Australia; however all profits went to the Austin Hospital. During World War II the Red Cross and the Australian Comforts Fund joined the Austin Hospital as co-recipients, in the immediate post-war era the RVIB received funds, as did the Austin Hospital. In recent years, the dress rehearsal on 23 December has become open to the public. Tickets to the event are cheaper than the main event, while funds raised still go towards Vision Australia.
The event has become as popular as the main event in recent years. Christmas Eve 2012 marked the 75th anniversary of Carols by Candlelight and Christmas Eve 2017 marked the 80th anniversary of the event; the event was hosted by its founder Melbourne broadcaster Norman Banks and broadcast over 3KZ. The 1956 Carols By Candlelight was the first to be broadcast on television, as part of GTV9's pre-launch test transmission, with 3KZ maintaining a separate radio broadcast of the event; when Banks left 3KZ in 1952, Philip Gibbs became host. During the time that Philip Gibbs was hosting, the program became a radio/TV simulcast on 3KZ and ATV-0, with ATV-0's first telecast in 1969, extending to other stations across the 0-10 Network. From 1979 it was telecast nationally through the Nine Network. Radio broadcast partners included 3MP, 3AW and 3EE and across the Macquarie Radio Network as well as Vision Australia's own national radio network; the event is broadcast and telecast live to eastern Asia, many Pacific Islands and New Zealand.
Performers for the event vary from year to year. Regular performers include David Hobson, Marina Prior, Silvie Paladino, Denis Walter and Anthony Callea. Australian children's band Hi-5 have been headlining the children's segment in recent years. Nine Network stars and contestants from The Voice Australia have starred in the event in recent years; the Vision Australia's Carols by Candlelight Choir, Australian Girls Choir and National Boys Choir of Australia appear on the show each year as supporting acts in numerous of the performances. In 1938 the massed choirs were led by Horace Stevens, followed in the position by Max Balderson; the musical director since 2003 has been John Foreman, from 1984 to 2002 the other musical director was Geoff Harvey. In earlier years, Carols by Candlelight had a strong classical music theme, a noticeable religious influence; the Sun Aria winner for each year was automatically invited to sing at Carols by Candlelight. However, since the 1960s, the program has moved towards popular culture.
Ray Martin holds the record for hosting the most Carols by Candlelight shows, from 1989 to 2007. Amazingly enough, out of those, he sang at only one show in 1996 when he sang Harry Connick Jr's "When My Heart Finds Christmas". Most capital cities in Australia and many country towns hold a carols event in the lead up to Christmas. Carols in the Domain have been held annually since 1983 on the last Saturday evening before Christmas Eve, on the last Sunday evening before Christmas Eve since 2016, they are televised sometimes in other countries. Carols in the City is held on Riverstage in the Brisbane Botanic Gardens and on television throughout Queensland. In Perth, Carols by Candlelight are held in mid December at the Supreme Court Gardens, while other events are held at Fremantle and Rockingham. In 2012, Suzie Mathers performed during the IGA Carols by Candlelight in Perth In Adelaide, Carols by Candlelight is held in the weeks before Christmas in Elder Park on the banks of the River Torrens. In 2012, 30,000 people witnessed the event.
In Modbury, about a 15 minutes drive north-east from Adelaide, the annual Civic Park Carols attract the second biggest crowd of its type in Australia with more than 40,000 people turning up to the 2018 event. In Hobart, due to the urban nature of the city, there are three main carols services. One each in Clarence and the main ceremony in St David's Park, Hobart itself. In Canberra the annual Carols by Candlelight is held in Commonwealth Park on Stage 88. 2012 was its 68th occurrence. It is a traditional Carols with community singing of carol
Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, located in the south-eastern part of that state. It covers an area of 41,556 square kilometres, lies to the east of the eastern suburbs of Greater Melbourne, to the north of Bass Strait, to the west of the Tasman Sea, to the south of the Black-Allan Line that marks part of the Victorian/New South Wales border, to the east and southeast of the Great Dividing Range that lies within the Hume region and the Victorian Alps. Gippsland is broken down into the East Gippsland, South Gippsland, West Gippsland, the Latrobe Valley statistical divisions; as at the 2016 Australian census, Gippsland had a population of 271,266, with the principal population centres of the region, in descending order of population, being Traralgon, Warragul, Sale, Drouin and Phillip Island. Gippsland is best known for its primary production such as mining, power generation and farming as well as its tourist destinations— Phillip Island, Wilsons Promontory, the Gippsland Lakes, the Baw Baw Plateau, the Strzelecki Ranges.
The area was inhabited by Indigenous Australians of the Gunai nation and part of West Gippsland by the Bunurong nation. Before permanent European settlement, the area was visited by sealers and wattle bark gatherers, but who did not settle. Samuel Anderson, a Scottish immigrant from Kirkcudbright and explorer, arrived in Hobart, Tasmania in 1830, in 1835 established a squatter agricultural settlement on the Bass River in Gippsland, the third permanent settlement in Victoria, his business partner Robert Massie joined him in 1837. Both had worked for the Van Diemen's Land Company at Tasmania. Samuel's brothers Hugh and Thomas arrived at Bass shortly after, where they established a successful farming venture. Further European settlement followed two separate expeditions to the area. During his expedition to the South in March 1840, Polish explorer Paweł Edmund Strzelecki led an expedition across the terrain, gave his own names to many natural landmarks and places. Following these expeditions, the area was named "Gippsland", a name chosen by Strzelecki in honour of the New South Wales Governor, George Gipps, his sponsor.
See Count Strzelecki - a magic name in Gippsland Angus McMillan led the second European expedition between 1840, naming the area "Caledonia Australis". The naming of this geographical region, remained the name given by P. E. Strzelecki - Gippsland The township of Bass was surveyed and settled in the early 1860s; the intensive settlement of south Gippsland began late in the 1870s. The story of that process is told in, The land of the Lyre Bird. Gippsland is traditionally subdivided into four or five main sub–regions or districts: West Gippsland South Gippsland the Latrobe Valley East Gippsland. Sometimes a fifth region, Central Gippsland, is added to refer to the drier zone between the Gippsland Lakes and Yarram; the climate of Gippsland is temperate and humid, except in the central region around Sale, where annual rainfall can be less than 600 millimetres. In the Strzelecki Ranges annual rainfall can be as high as 1,500 millimetres, while on the high mountains of East Gippsland it reaches similar levels – much of it falling as snow.
In lower levels east of the Snowy River, mean annual rainfall is about 900–950 millimetres and less variable than in the coastal districts of New South Wales. Mean maximum temperatures in lower areas range from 24 °C in January to 15 °C in July. In the highlands of the Baw Baw Plateau and the remote Errinundra Plateau, temperatures range from a maximum of 18 °C to a minimum of 8 °C. However, in winter, mean minima in these areas can be as low as −4 °C, leading to heavy snowfalls that isolate the Errinundra Plateau between June and October; the soils in Gippsland are very infertile, being profoundly deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Apart from flooded areas, they are classed as Spodosols and Ultisols. Heavy fertilisation is required for agriculture or pastoral development. Despite this, parts of Gippsland have become productive dairying and vegetable-growing regions: the region supplies Melbourne with most of its needs in these commodities. A few alluvial soils have much better native fertility, these have always been intensively cultivated.
In the extreme northeast is a small section of the Monaro Tableland used for grazing beef cattle. Gippsland possesses few deposits of metallic minerals. However, the deep underground gold mines operated at Walhalla for a fifty-year period between 1863-1913. Gippsland has no deposits of major industrial nonmetallic minerals, but it does feature the world's largest brown coal deposits and, around Sale and offshore in the Bass Strait, some of the largest deposits of oil and natural gas in Australia. Like the rest of Australia, the seas around Gippsland are of low productivity as there is no upwelling due to the warm currents in the Tasman Sea. Nonetheless, towns such as Marlo and Mallacoota depended for a long time on the fishing of abalone, whose shells could fetch high prices because of their use for pearls and pearl inlays. For Australian federal elections
An open-air museum is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors. It is frequently known as a museum of buildings or a folk museum; the concept of an open-air museum originated in Scandinavia in the late 19th century and spread widely. A comprehensive history of the open-air museum as an idea and institution can be found in Swedish museologist Sten Rentzhog's 2007 book Open Air Museums: The History and Future of a Visionary Idea. Living-history museums, including living-farm museums and living museums, are open-air museums where costumed interpreters portray period life in an earlier era; the interpreters act as if they are living in a different time and place and perform everyday household tasks and occupations. The goal is to demonstrate older pursuits to modern audiences. Household tasks might include cooking on an open hearth, churning butter, spinning wool and weaving, farming without modern equipment. Many living museums feature traditional craftsmen at work, such as a blacksmith, silversmith, tanner, cooper, miller, cabinet-maker, printer and general storekeeper.
Open air is “the unconfined atmosphere…outside buildings…” In the loosest sense, an open-air museum is any institution that includes one or more buildings in its collections, including farm museums, historic house museums, archaeological open-air museums. Mostly,'open-air museum is applied to a museum that specializes in the collection and re-erection of multiple old buildings at large outdoor sites in settings of recreated landscapes of the past, include living history, they may, therefore, be described as building museums. European open-air museums tended to be sited in regions where wooden architecture prevailed, as wooden structures may be translocated without substantial loss of authenticity. Common to all open-air museums, including the earliest ones of the 19th century, is the teaching of the history of everyday living by people from all segments of society; the idea of the open-air museum dates to the 1790s. The first proponent of the idea was the Swiss thinker Charles de Bonstetten, was based on a visit to an exhibit of peasant costumes in the park of Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark.
He believed that traditional peasant houses should be preserved against modernity, but failed to attract support for the idea. The first major steps towards the creation of open-air museums was taken in Norway in 1867, when a private citizen transferred some historic farm buildings to a site near Oslo for public viewing. This, in turn, inspired King Oscar II in 1881 to establish his own collection nearby inherited by the Norwegian Folk Museum; the similar Nordic Museum was founded in Stockholm, soon afterwards. In 1891, the first major open-air museum was founded at Skansen, in Stockholm, as a part of the Nordic Museum; the Skansen museum included farm buildings from across Scandinavia, folk costumes, live animals, folk music, demonstrations of folk crafts. The success of Skansen ensured. Most open-air museums concentrate on rural culture. However, since the opening of the first town museum, The Old Town in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1914, town culture has become a scope of open-air museums. In many cases, new town quarters are being constructed in existing rural culture museums.
The North American open-air museum, more called a living-history museum, had a different later origin than the European, the visitor experience is different. The first was Henry Ford's Greenfield Village in Dearborn, where Ford intended his collection to be “a pocket edition of America”. Colonial Williamsburg, had a greater influence on museum development in North America, it influenced such projects through the continent as Mystic Seaport, Plimoth Plantation, Fortress Louisbourg. The approach to interpretation tends to differentiate the North American from the European model. In Europe, the tendency is to focus on the buildings. In North America, many open-air museums include interpreters who dress in period costume and conduct period crafts and everyday work; the living museum is, viewed as an attempt to recreate to the fullest extent conditions of a culture, natural environment, or historical period. The objective is immersion, using exhibits so that visitors can experience the specific culture, environment or historical period using the physical senses.
Performance and historiographic practices at American living museums have been critiqued in the past several years by scholars in anthropology and theater for creating false senses of authenticity and accuracy, for neglecting to bear witness to some of the darker aspects of the American past. Before such critiques were published, sites such as Williamsburg and others had begun to add more interpretation of difficult history. Sculpture garden Historical reenactment Human zoo List of Renaissance fairs List of tourist attractions providing reenactment Hurt, R. Douglas. "Agricultural Museums: A New Frontier for the Social Sciences". The History Teacher. 11: 367–75. JSTOR 491627. Association for Living History and Agricultural Museums Revista Digital Nueva Museologia Latin American Theory Main open-air museums in Britain European Open-air Museums An extensive list of Open-air museums in Europe. America's Outdoor History Museums Photos from Museum of Folk Architecture and LifeMuseum websitesOpen Air Museum Bokrijk Leading open-air museum of Belgium, Flanders.
Přerov nad Labem open-air museum – photo gallery Valachian Ethnographic Museum in Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Rep
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, the communion has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion; the traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles. The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares, but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England; the Anglican Communion was founded at the Lambeth Conference in 1867 in London, under the leadership of Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. The churches of the Anglican Communion consider themselves to be part of the one, holy and apostolic church, to be both catholic and reformed. Although aligned with the Church of England, the communion has a multitude of beliefs and practices, including evangelical and Anglo-Catholic; each retain their own legislative process and episcopal polity under the leadership of local primates.
For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without guiding figure such as Luther, Calvin, Zwingli or Wesley, or for yet others a combination of the two. Most of its 85 million members live in the Anglosphere of former British territories. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant members. Due to their historical link to England, some of the member churches are known as "Anglican", such as the Anglican Church of Canada. Others, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches have official names which do not include "Anglican"; the Anglican Communion has no official legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, but it only serves in a supporting and organisational role; the communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology and ethos and by participation in international consultative bodies.
Three elements have been important in holding the communion together: first, the shared ecclesial structure of the component churches, manifested in an episcopal polity maintained through the apostolic succession of bishops and synodical government. The Church of England was self-contained and relied for its unity and identity on its own history, its traditional legal and episcopal structure and its status as an established church of the state; as such Anglicanism was, from the outset, a movement with an explicitly episcopal polity, a characteristic, vital in maintaining the unity of the communion by conveying the episcopate's role in manifesting visible catholicity and ecumenism. Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, called the Book of Common Prayer. Unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian, nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine. Instead, Anglicans have appealed to the Book of Common Prayer and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and practise.
This had the effect of inculcating the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession. Protracted conflict through the 17th century with radical Protestants on the one hand and Catholics who recognised the primacy of the Pope on the other, resulted in an association of churches that were both deliberately vague about doctrinal principles, yet bold in developing parameters of acceptable deviation; these parameters were most articulated in the various rubrics of the successive prayer books, as well as the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion. These articles have shaped and continue to direct the ethos of the communion, an ethos reinforced by their interpretation and expansion by such influential early theologians such as Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes and John Cosin. With the expansion of the British Empire, hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the communion sought to establish new vehicles of unity; the first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communion's bishops, first convened in 1867 by Charles Longley, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
From the beginning, these were not intended to displace the autonomy of the emerging provinces of the communion, but to "discuss matters of practical interest, pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action." One of the enduringly influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, but it had the ancillary effect of establishing parameters of Anglican identity, it establishes four principles with these words: That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion: The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. The Apostles'
Meeniyan is a small country town on the South Gippsland Highway between Leongatha and Foster in Australia. The Post Office opened on 16 August 1890; the town centre is marked by a wide tree-lined median strip and a number of craft and food shops along both sides. The Meeniyan Store, Trulli Woodfire Pizzeria, Moos Cafe, Pandesal Bakery and the Meeniyan Pantry and Cellar are big foodie draw cards for the town; the annual Meeniyan Garlic Festival brings over seven thousand produce enthusiasts into the town in mid February. Meeniyan Square hosts monthly Farmers Markets and weekly Friday Twilight Markets through the summer season; the town has a golf course, the Meeniyan Golf Club on Buffalo Road. Music is a big part of local life in the Meeniyan Hall: Lyrebird Arts presents international touring artists and the Tavern talent nights are held every couple of months. Meeniyan is now known for the filming of Bed of Roses a mini-series on ABC1; the town in conjunction with neighbouring township Dumbalk has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Alberton Football League.
Meeniyan railway station Promaccom Meeniyan Website