National Register of Historic Places architectural style categories
In the United States, the National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of architecture. Listed properties are given one or more of 40 standard architectural style classifications that appear in the National Register Information System database. Other properties are given a custom architectural description with "vernacular" or other qualifiers, others have no style classification. Many National Register-listed properties do not fit into the several categories listed here, or they fit into more specialized subcategories; the complete list of the 40 architectural style codes in the National Register Information System—NRIS follows: Obs — ARSTYLCD — ARSTYL 1 — 01 NO STYLE LISTED 2 — 10 COLONIAL 3 — 11 GEORGIAN 4 — 20 EARLY REPUBLIC 5 — 21 FEDERAL 6 — 30 MID 19TH CENTURY REVIVAL 7 — 31 GREEK REVIVAL 8 — 32 GOTHIC REVIVAL 9 — 33 ITALIAN VILLA 10 — 34 EXOTIC REVIVAL 11 — 40 LATE VICTORIAN 12 — 41 GOTHIC 13 — 42 ITALIANATE 14 — 43 SECOND EMPIRE 15 — 44 STICK/EASTLAKE 16 — 45 QUEEN ANNE 17 — 46 SHINGLE STYLE 18 — 47 ROMANESQUE 19 — 48 RENAISSANCE 20 — 49 OCTAGON MODE 21 — 50 LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY REVIVALS 22 — 51 COLONIAL REVIVAL 23 — 52 CLASSICAL REVIVAL 24 — 53 TUDOR REVIVAL 25 — 54 LATE GOTHIC REVIVAL 26 — 55 MISSION/SPANISH REVIVAL 27 — 56 BEAUX ARTS 28 — 57 PUEBLO 29 — 60 LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN MOVEMENTS 30 — 61 PRAIRIE SCHOOL 31 — 62 EARLY COMMERCIAL 32 — 63 CHICAGO 33 — 64 SKYSCRAPER 34 — 65 BUNGALOW/CRAFTSMAN 35 — 70 MODERN MOVEMENT 36 — 71 MODERNE 37 — 72 INTERNATIONAL STYLE 38 — 73 ART DECO 39 — 80 OTHER 40 — 90 MIXED Some selected National Register Information System styles, with examples, include: Federal architecture was the classicizing architecture style built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830.
Examples include: the Old Town Hall in Massachusetts, Plumb House in Virginia. Greek Revival architecture is a Neoclassical movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe, it emerged in the U. S. following the War of 1812 and while a revolutionary war in Greece attracted America's interest. Greek Revival architecture was popularized by Minard Lafever's pattern books: The Young Builders' General Instructor in 1829, the Modern Builders' Guide in 1833, The Beauties of Modern Architecture in 1835, The Architectural Instructor in 1850. Greek Revival in the U. S. includes vernacular versions such as the 1839 Simsbury Townhouse built by an unknown craftsman and the Dicksonia Plantation, high-style versions such as the Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. Plantation houses Many plantation houses in the Southern United States were built in Greek Revival variations, including Millford Plantation, Melrose and Annandale Plantation Examples of the American revival of classical Palladian architecture include: The Rotunda by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland.
Late Victorian architecture is distributed on the register's listings, for many building types in every state. The Carpenter Gothic style was popular for Late Victorian wooden churches; the Queen Anne style was popular in American Victorian architecture, after the earlier Italianate style, is frequent on NRHP residential listings. The Shingle Style is an American variation of Queen Anne. A grouping of historicist architecture Revival styles, with the title Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals, has been applied by the NRHP for many listings. There are numerous listed buildings designed in an amalgam of several to many revival styles that defy a singular or simpler classification title. Mission/Spanish Revival is an amalgam of two distinct styles popular in different but adjacent eras: the late-19th-century Mission Revival Style architecture and early-20th-century Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the combined term, or the individual terms, are used in the style classifications of NRHP listed buildings.
Pueblo Revival Style architecture is a revival style based on traditional Native American Pueblo architecture of adobe dwellings–communities in the Pueblo culture in present-day New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southwestern Colorado. Examples include the Institute of American Indian Arts, La Fonda on the Plaza, the Mabel Dodge Luhan House in New Mexico, the Painted Desert Inn in Arizona. Exotic Revival architecture is another style that may reflect a mix of Moorish Revival architecture, Egyptian Revival architecture, other influences. Just a few of many National Register-listed places identified with this style are El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium, Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery, Fort Smith Masonic Temple, Algeria Shrine Temple. Examples in California include Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose; the Mayan Revival architecture style blends Maya architectural and artistic motifs with those of other Mesoamerican cultures of Aztec architecture. Examples include: the Mayan Theater in Downtown Los Angeles.
S. Route 66 in Southern California. "Postmedieval English" architecture is a style term used for a number of NRHP listings, including William Ward Jr. House in Middlefield, Connecticut. "Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements" ar
Luristan bronzes are small cast objects decorated with bronze sculptures from the Early Iron Age which have been found in large numbers in Lorestān Province and Kermanshah in western Iran. They include a great number of ornaments, weapons, horse-fittings and a smaller number of vessels including situlae, those found in recorded excavations are found in burials; the ethnicity of the people who created them remains unclear, though they may well have been Persian related to the modern Lur people who have given their name to the area. They date to between about 1000 and 650 BC; the bronzes tend to use openwork, like the related metalwork of Scythian art. They represent the art of a nomadic or transhumant people, for whom all possessions needed to be light and portable, necessary objects such as weapons, horse-harness fittings, pins and small fittings are decorated over their small surface area. Representations of animals are common goats or sheep with large horns, the forms and styles are distinctive and inventive.
The "Master of Animals" motif, showing a human positioned between and grasping two confronted animals is common but highly stylized. Some female "mistress of animals" are seen. Luristan bronze objects came to the notice of the world art market from the late 1920s and were excavated in considerable quantities by local people, "wild tribesmen who did not encourage the competition of qualified excavators", taken through networks of dealers, latterly illegally, to Europe or America, without information about the contexts in which they were found. Previous sporadic examples reaching the West had been assigned to various places, including Armenia and Anatolia. There is strong suspicion that the many thousands of pieces sourced from the art trade include some forgeries. Since 1938 several scientific excavations have been conducted by American, British and Iranian archaeologists on the cemeteries in areas including the northern Pish Kuh valleys and the southern Pusht Kuh of Lorestān. How these cemeteries related to contemporary settlements remains unclear.
Somewhat curiously, two characteristic Luristan pieces have been excavated in the Greek world, on Samos and Crete, but none in other parts of Iran or the Near East. The term "Luristan bronze" is not used for earlier bronze artifacts from Lorestān between the fourth millennium BC and the Bronze Age, although they are quite similar; these earlier bronze objects, including those from the Elamite Empire, which included Lorestān, were broadly similar to those found in Mesopotamia and on the Iranian Plateau, though as in the pieces, animals are a common subject in small bronze pieces. From before the period of the canonical bronzes, a number of daggers or short swords said to come from Luristan are inscribed with the names of Mesopotamian kings reflecting patterns of military service; the area had, before the period of the bronzes, been the original home of the Kassites, who spoke a non-Iranian language under the control of the Iranian-speaking Medes. For most of the period of the bronzes it was, at least in theory, part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
As a mountainous rural region, what the rise and fall of these empires meant for the region remains uncertain. The few pieces attributed to Luristan that carry inscriptions are unrecorded pieces from the antiquities market. Archaeologists divide the periods producing the bronzes in "Luristan Late Iron" I to III. Luristan Late Iron II was less productive, remains less well understood. Dates for these periods "remain fluid" but "it is possible to suggest that the material from Luristan Iron I was manufactured in the years around 1000 B. C. that of Iron II about 900/800–750, that of Iron III about 750/725–650."The stylistic development of the pieces is now thought to be from naturalistic depictions of humans and animals towards stylization, though it is not yet clear if this was a consistent trend. This reverses the trend proposed by one of the earliest writers on the bronzes. Though there is a wide range of objects, certain types are common and hence "canonical". Among the most characteristic are a range of objects with a hollow socket or open ring, designed to be fixed at the top of a pole or other vertical support using a separate intervening fitting.
These may be described as finials and tubes. Unlike some other types of objects few of this group have been found by the archaeological explorations, they may have been used with perishable elements that have not survived, either as additional decoration or to hold the ensemble together. Many ideas for their function have been suggested, without any general consensus being reached; the numbers surviving suggest that the objects were not rare, may have been affordable by most families. Taking the groups in what is now considered to be their broad chronological sequence, the first are the "animal finials", with two rampant confronted animals a pair of large-horned ibex or felines, facing each other with a central tube or
Idaho Botanical Garden
The Idaho Botanical Garden is a nonprofit botanical garden located on 50 acres at 2355 North Old Penitentiary Road, Idaho, United States. Until 1973 the site served as the Old Idaho State Penitentiary's nursery. After the penitentiary was closed, the land lay dormant for more than a decade, in 1984 the gardens were first created; the facility is operated by a non-profit 501 corporation. To help fund the garden, an admission fee is charged for entry. Alpine Garden - Rock garden with a diverse collection of alpine plants. Cactus Garden - cactus and succulents suited to southwest Idaho. English Garden - plants typical to English gardens, selected to perform in the local climate. Designed by landscape architect John Brookes. Herb Garden - herbs used for medicines, cosmetics and cooking. Idaho Native Plant Garden - representative plants from Idaho's desert and woodland environments, including sagebrush, native dogwood, Idaho fescue. Iris Garden - Dykes Medal iris varieties. Meditation Garden - mature trees planted in the 1930s and 1940s by minimum security prisoners at the old Penitentiary.
Peony Garden - 21 varieties of hybrid peonies. Rose Garden - Heirloom and other old-style roses. Water Garden - water lilies, koi, aquatic insects, occasional water fowl; the IBG hosts may events throughout the year, including special events for children. Garden parties and special tours are announced on the garden's website. List of botanical gardens in the United States Idaho Botanical Garden Official Site Old Idaho Penitentiary Historic Site
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Idaho, is the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census was 205,671, the 99th largest in the United States, its estimated population in 2016 was 223,154. The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a combined population of 709,845, the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho, it contains. Boise is the 80th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Accounts differ regarding the name's origin. One account credits Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville of the U. S. Army as its source. After trekking for weeks through dry and rough terrain, his exploration party reached an overlook with a view of the Boise River Valley; the place where they stood is called Bonneville Point, located on the Oregon Trail east of the city. According to the story, a French-speaking guide, overwhelmed by the sight of the verdant river, yelled "Les bois!
Les bois!" —and the name stuck. The name may instead derive from earlier mountain men. In the 1820s, French Canadian fur trappers set trap lines in the vicinity. Set in a high-desert area, the tree-lined valley of the Boise River became a distinct landmark, an oasis dominated by cottonwood trees, they called this "La rivière boisée", which means "the wooded river." The area was called Boise long before the establishment of Fort Boise by the federal government. The original Fort Boise was 40 miles west, near Parma, down the Boise River near its confluence with the Snake River at the Oregon border; this private sector defense was erected by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1830s. It was abandoned in the 1850s, but massacres along the Oregon Trail prompted the U. S. Army to re-establish a fort in the area in 1863 during the U. S. Civil War; the new location was selected because it was near the intersection of the Oregon Trail with a major road connecting the Boise Basin and the Owyhee mining areas, both of which were booming.
During the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, as a staging area, Fort Boise grew rapidly. The first capital of the Idaho Territory was Lewiston in north central Idaho, which in 1863 was the largest community, exceeding the populations of Olympia and Seattle, Washington Territory and Portland, Oregon combined; the original territory was larger than Texas. But following the creation of Montana Territory, Boise was made the territorial capital of a much reduced Idaho in a controversial decision which overturned a district court ruling by a one-vote majority in the territorial supreme court along geographic lines in 1866. Designed by Alfred B. Mullett, the U. S. Assay Office at 210 Main Street was built in 1871 and today is a National Historic Landmark. Most native and longtime residents use the pronunciation / ˈbɔɪsiː /; the pronunciation is sometimes used as a shibboleth, as outsiders tend to pronounce the city's name as /ˈbɔɪziː/. Boise is in southwestern Idaho, about 41 miles east of the Oregon border, 110 miles north of the Nevada border.
The downtown area's elevation is 2,704 feet above sea level. Most of the metropolitan area lies on a flat plain, descending to the west. Mountains rise to the northeast, stretching from the far southeastern tip of the Boise city limits to nearby Eagle; these mountains are known to locals as the Boise foothills and are sometimes described as the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. About 34 miles southwest of Boise, about 26 miles southwest of Nampa, the Owyhee Mountains lie in neighboring Owyhee County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 80.05 square miles, of which, 79.36 square miles is land and 0.69 square miles is water. The city is drained by the Boise River; the City of Boise is considered part of the Treasure Valley. Boise occupies a large area — 64 sq mi according to the United States Census Bureau. Like all major cities, it has several neighborhoods, including the Bench, the North End, West Boise and Downtown. In January 2014, the Boise Police Department partnered with the folksonomic neighborhood blogging site Nextdoor, the first city in the Northwest and the 137th city in the U.
S. to do so. Since the app, which enables the city's police and parks departments to post to self-selected localized areas, first became available in October 2011, 101 neighborhoods and sections of neighborhoods have joined. Downtown Boise is Boise's cultural home to many small businesses and a few mid-rises. While downtown Boise lacks a major retail/dining focus like Seattle and Portland, the area has a variety of shops and growing option for dining choices. Centrally, 8th Street contains a pedestrian zone with sidewalk restaurants; the neighborhood has many local restaurants and boutiques and supports a vibrant nightlife. The area contains the Basque Block, which gives visitors a chance to learn about and enjoy Boise's Basque heritage. Downtown Boise's main attractions include the Idaho State Capitol, the classic Egyptian Theatre on the corner of Capitol Boulevard and Main Street, the Boise Art Museum on Capitol in front of Julia Davis Park, Zoo Boise on the grounds of Julia Davis Park. Boise's economy was threatened in the late 1990s by commercial development at locations away from the downtown center, such as Boise Towne Square Mall and at shopping centers near new housing developments.
Cultural events in Dow
The Territory of Idaho was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1863, until July 3, 1890, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as Idaho. The territory was organized on March 3, 1863, by Act of Congress, signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln, it is a successor region, created by areas from existing territories undergoing parallel political transitions beginning with disputes over which country owned the region. The original newly organized territory covered all of the present-day states of Idaho and Montana, all of the present-day state of Wyoming, omitting only a corner in the state's extreme southwest portion, it was wholly spanned east-to-west by the bustling Oregon Trail and by the other emigrant trails, the California Trail and Mormon Trail which since hitting stride in 1847, had been conveying settler wagon trains to the west, incidentally, across the continental divide into the Snake River Basin, a key gateway into the Idaho and Oregon Country interiors.
The first territorial capital was at Lewiston from the inception in 1863 to 1866. Boise was made the territorial capital from 1866 by a one-vote margin of the Territorial Supreme Court; the upheaval caused by the Civil War and Reconstruction was a distant concern to those in the comparatively stable Idaho Territory, a situation which in turn encouraged settlement. In 1864, the Montana Territory was organized from the northeastern section of the territory east of the Bitterroot Range. Most of the southeastern area of the territory was made part of the Dakota Territory. In the late 1860s, Idaho Territory became a destination for displaced Southern Democrats who fought for the Confederate States of America during the Civil War; these people were well represented in the early territorial legislatures, which clashed with the appointed Republican territorial governors. The political infighting became vicious in 1867 when Governor David W. Ballard asked for protection from federal troops stationed at Fort Boise against the territorial legislature.
By 1870, the political infighting had decreased considerably. In 1868, the areas east of the 111th meridian west were made part of the newly created Wyoming Territory. Idaho Territory assumed the boundaries of the modern state at that time; the discovery of gold and other valuable natural resources throughout Idaho beginning in the 1860s, as well as the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, brought many new people to the territory, including Chinese laborers who came to work the mines. As Idaho approached statehood and other extractive industries became important to its economy. By the 1890s, for example, Idaho exported more lead than any other state. Construction began on the Idaho Territorial Prison in 1870 and was completed by 1872; the prison was in use by the territory the state until 1973. The Old Idaho State Penitentiary was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 for its significance as a Territorial Prison; the site contains museums and an arboretum. After Idaho Territory was created, a public school system was created and stage coach lines were established.
Regular newspapers were active in Lewiston and Silver City by 1865. The first telegraph line reached Franklin in 1866, with Lewiston being the first town linked in northern Idaho in 1874; the first telephone call in the Pacific Northwest was made on May 1878, in Lewiston. Although forming a sizeable minority, Mormons in Idaho were held in suspicion by others in Idaho. By 1882 notable and powerful Idahoans disenfranchised Mormon voters in Idaho Territory, citing their illegal practice of polygamy. Idaho was able to achieve statehood some six years before Utah, a territory which had a larger population and had been settled longer, but was majority LDS with voting polygamists. There were four thousand Chinese living in the Idaho Territory from 1869 to 1875. Like many Chinese immigrants, they came to "Gold Mountain" to work as miners, or found work as laundrymen and cooks; the 1870 census reported there were 1,751 Chinese in Idaho City who were nearly half of city residents. Annie Lee was one legendary Idaho city woman who like Polly Bemis, escaped enslavement from the "world's oldest profession".
She escaped from a member of the Yeong Wo Company in the 1870s to Boise to marry her lover, another Chinese man. Charged by her owner with grand larceny, she told a judge who granted her freedom "me want to stay in Boise City"; the story of Polly Bemis who helped settle the Idaho territory became the basis for the novel and fictionalized 1991 film A Thousand Pieces of Gold, set in California. After the capital relocation controversy proposals to split the two regions became widespread. In 1887 Idaho Territory was nearly legislated out of existence, but as a favor to Governor Edward A. Stevenson, President Grover Cleveland refused to sign a bill that would have split Idaho Territory between Washington Territory in the north and Nevada in the south. In 1889, the University of Idaho was awarded to the northern town of Moscow instead of its original planned location at Eagle Rock in the south; this served to alleviate som
Albert Edward Horsley, best known by the pseudonym Harry Orchard, was a miner convicted of the 1905 political assassination of former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg. The case was one of the most sensational and reported of the first decade of the 20th century, involving three prominent leaders of the radical Western Federation of Miners as co-defendants in an alleged conspiracy to commit murder. Albert Edward Horsley was born March 18, 1866, in Wooler, Canada, the son of English and Irish parentage. One of eight children in a poor farm family, Albert was only able to attend formal school through the third grade, helping to support the family by working as soon as he was able. Albert worked as a farmhand for neighbors, either on a daily or monthly basis, with his parents receiving the income from his work until he was 20 years old. At the age of 22, Horsley left home to work as a logger in Michigan, he returned to Canada and married around 1889. The Horsleys spent some time as cheesemakers, both independently and in the employ of others.
His wife gave birth to a daughter, removing her from their cheese factory, while Albert recalled that he "lived away beyond my means, was some in debt, my credit was not so good."Seeking to run away with another woman, Horsley burned his cheese factory and collected the insurance money, thereby settling his debts. Horsley abandoned his family and, together with his girlfriend, headed west to Pilot Bay, about twenty miles from Nelson, British Columbia; the pair spent three months together there before they split up and went their separate ways, with Horsley landing in Spokane, Washington. In April 1897 Horsley was employed driving a milk wagon to the mining communities around Wallace, Idaho, he worked through 1897, saving his money so that he was able to invest $500 for a 1/16 share of the Hercules silver mine near the town of Burke towards the end of the year. Horsley quit his milk route and moved to Burke, borrowing money to buy a wood and coal business there. In the spring of 1898 Horsley had to sell his share of the Hercules mine in order to pay the debts he had incurred taking a partner into his business to raise funds.
His accumulated gambling debts forced him to sell out his share of his business in March 1899, he had to take a job as a "mucker" in the Tiger-Poorman mine near Burke. It was in this way. Over the next few years Horsley worked as a miner in various locales throughout the American West, he recalled in his autobiography:During all this time I did not save any money, though I worked nearly all the time and always got the highest wages... I made many good resolutions and saved up a few hundred dollars and thought I would get into some little business for myself; when I would get away from town, as I did, in some out-of-the-way place, I would save my money and make good resolutions. My money would burn my pocket. There were many other attractions, money always soon got away. I always bought plenty of good clothes and lived well." Orchard confessed to numerous crimes having nothing to do with labor conflicts. He admitted that he was a bigamist, having abandoned wives in Cripple Creek, he had burned businesses for the insurance money in Cripple Canada.
Orchard had burglarized a railroad depot, rifled a cash register, stole sheep, had made plans to kidnap children over a debt. He sold fraudulent insurance policies. Orchard confessed to playing a violent, decisive, role in the Colorado Labor Wars. Orchard's confession to McParland claimed responsibility for seventeen or more murders. Orchard described in his confession that during the Cripple Creek miners' strike he told a railroad detective that the WFM was planning to derail a train along a certain section of track, for which the detective gave him $45 and a train ticket to Denver, According to Orchard, he informed out of jealousy that the WFM had not hired him to do the job, he told a companion, G. L. Brokaw, that he had been a Pinkerton employee for some time. On December 30, 1905, Frank Steunenberg, former Governor of Idaho, was killed by a bomb rigged to the gate of his house in Caldwell. After midnight on the evening of Steunenberg's murder, Harry Orchard walked with Clinton Wood, the desk clerk at the hotel in Caldwell, to the site of the assassination at 1602 Dearborn Street, now hours past.
Although he didn't seem to know the way to the murder scene, Orchard expressed the belief that the governor had been given a "big wad" of money by Idaho mine owners after he had left office. Such a view was common among miners, as reflected in a 1908 union pamphlet on the 1899 Coeur d'Alene mine strike. Within an hour of the explosion, the sheriff had deputized 100 townspeople, stationed them at all roads and paths leading out of town. Orchard made no effort to escape, slept in his hotel room that night in Caldwell; the next day, December 31, he was suspected and placed under parole, was arrested for the assassination on New Year's Day. He raised suspicion; when his room #19 was searched, evidence related to the murder was discovered. Aside from using aliases, Orchard made little attempt to conceal his activities. Historian Melvyn Dubofsky has theorized that Orchard may have suffered from a "psychotic personality disorder" that caused him not o