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Old Kingdom of Egypt

In ancient Egyptian history, the Old Kingdom is the period spanning c. 2686–2181 BC. It is known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid builders of the Fourth Dynasty— among them King Sneferu, who perfected the art of pyramid-building, the kings Khufu and Menkaure, who constructed the pyramids at Giza. Egypt attained its first sustained peak of civilization during the Old Kingdom—the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley; the concept of an "Old Kingdom" as one of three "golden ages" was coined in 1845 by German Egyptologist Baron von Bunsen, its definition would evolve throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Not only was the last king of the Early Dynastic Period related to the first two kings of the Old Kingdom, but the "capital"—the royal residence—remained at Ineb-Hedg, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis; the basic justification for a separation between the two periods is the revolutionary change in architecture accompanied by the effects on Egyptian society and economy of large-scale building projects.

The Old Kingdom is most regarded as the period from the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty. Information from the Fourth through Sixth Dynasties of Egypt is scarce, historians regard the history of the era as "written in stone" and architectural in that it is through the monuments and their inscriptions that scholars have been able to construct a history. Egyptologists include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. While the Old Kingdom was a period of internal security and prosperity, it was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period. During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt became a living god who ruled and could demand the services and wealth of his subjects. Under King Djoser, the first king of the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the royal capital of Egypt was moved to Memphis, where Djoser established his court. A new era of building was initiated at Saqqara under his reign.

King Djoser's architect, Imhotep, is credited with the development of building with stone and with the conception of the new architectural form—the step pyramid. The Old Kingdom is best known for the large number of pyramids constructed at this time as burial places for Egypt's kings; the first King of the Old Kingdom was Djoser of the Third Dynasty, who ordered the construction of a pyramid in Memphis' necropolis, Saqqara. An important person during the reign of Djoser was his vizier, Imhotep, it was in this era that independent ancient Egyptian states became known as nomes, under the rule of the king. The former rulers were forced to assume the role of governors or otherwise work in tax collection. Egyptians in this era worshiped their Pharaoh as a god, believing that he ensured the annual flooding of the Nile, necessary for their crops. Egyptian views on the nature of time during this period held that the universe worked in cycles, the Pharaoh on earth worked to ensure the stability of those cycles.

They perceived themselves as a specially selected people. The Old Kingdom and its royal power reached a zenith under the Fourth Dynasty, which began with Sneferu. After Djoser, Pharaoh Snefru was the next great pyramid builder. Snefru commissioned the building of three pyramids; the first is called the Meidum pyramid, named for its location in Egypt. Snefru abandoned it; the Meidum pyramid was the first to have an above-ground burial chamber. Using more stones than any other Pharaoh, he built the three pyramids: a now collapsed pyramid in Meidum, the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur, the Red Pyramid, at North Dahshur. However, the full development of the pyramid style of building was reached not at Saqqara, but during the building of'The Great Pyramids' at Giza. Sneferu was succeeded by his son, who built the Great Pyramid of Giza. After Khufu's death, his sons Djedefra and Khafra may have quarrelled; the latter built the Sphinx in Giza. Recent re-examination of evidence has led Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev to propose that the Sphinx had been built by Djedefra as a monument to his father Khufu.

Alternatively, the Sphinx has been proposed to Khufu himself. There were military expeditions into Canaan and Nubia, with Egyptian influence reaching up the Nile into what is today the Sudan; the kings of the Fourth Dynasty were king Menkaure, who built the smallest pyramid in Giza and Djedefptah. The Fifth Dynasty began with Userkaf and was marked by the growing importance of the cult of sun god Ra. Fewer efforts were devoted to the construction of pyramid complexes than during the Fourth Dynasty and more to the construction of sun temples in Abusir. Userkaf was succeeded by his son Sahure. Sahure was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai, Sahure's son. Neferirkare introduced the prenomen in the royal titulary, he was followed by two short-lived kings, his son Neferefre and Shepseskare, the latter of uncertain parentage. Shepseskare may have been deposed by Neferefre's brother Nyuserre Ini, a long l

Virendra Rathore

Virendra Rathore is an Indian Filmmaker, director, YouTube creator and an entertainment Industry mentor, well known for his support and mentorship to young artists. Who founded a film production house under the banner of JoinFilms Productions, he is the producer of short film - "Stripped", directed by Srivinay Salian. His company, JoinFilms, has disrupted the Entertainment Industry by making Film-based training & education affordable and accessible to all who dream of a career in Film Industry; the company runs periodic contests enabling aspiring talents a shot at Bollywood career. Virendra Rathore was born in Madhya Pradesh, where he received his formal education. Virendra has always been interested in entertainment industry since childhood, he was quite young when he started applying for various entertainment agencies and become News Anchor for a local News Channel in Bhopal. He worked as an anchor with “City cable” and “Doordarshan” –prominent Indian channels, afterwards. Besides, Viranda focused on continuing his script writing and gained experience in the direction.

He created many add-ons in the advertising field. In 2001, Virendra decided to go to Mumbai to become a filmmaker, he had started his career as a writer and Since he has pursued his career through various stages of progress. From being Actor to becoming a Film Director and a Film Producer, he has been in the Entertainment Industry for over 20 years and now serves as a Mentor for aspiring Talents as well as a Trade Analyst consulting Investors in Film Finance. He is founder of the production company “JoinFilms” which trains people how to get into the film industry smartly without being caught in the hands of fraudsters, he has emerged as a notable trainer and an online mentor for various programme among the Indian mentors for any media programmes. “Dadasaheb Phalke Award-Best mentor” He is best known for his TV series “Sunday Night”, not a huge success but gained good popularity. Critics claimed, it got a review of 4.7/10 review on IMDB. He had released a Bhojpuri drama film “Dulha Babu in ”-, appreciated well by Bhojpuri drama admirers and “9 roads 2 peace” which gained him a great recognition for the philosophical plot.

His followers reckon him as a “Youth artist mentor” for his huge support and obligation towards his students. To which Virendra says- “I am obliged towards everyone to the people of Bhopal without whose love and support, I wouldn’t have been able to succeed so far, wouldn’t have been able to celebrate this achievement and would have never been able to cope with different problems when technology was just advancing in Bhopal.” Virendra owns a YouTube channel, a Face-book page and is active on several social sites where he has got more than 5 millions followers. Virendra Rathore on IMDb Joinfilms Website ZEE News Interview on Dainik Bhaskar

Richard Harrington Levet

Richard Harrington Levet was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Born in Geneva, New York, Levet received an Artium Baccalaureus degree from Colgate University in 1916, an Artium Magister degree from the same institution in 1917, a Juris Doctor from New York University School of Law in 1925, he was in the United States Army as a private from 1918 to 1919. He was a teacher in New York and Connecticut from 1922 to 1926, he was in private practice in White Plains, New York from 1926 to 1956. He was a member of the Westchester County Board of Supervisors in New York from 1938 to 1956, serving as Chairman from 1945 to 1946. Levet was nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 26, 1956, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by Judge John C. Knox, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 6, 1956, received his commission on March 8, 1956. He assumed senior status on July 1, 1966.

Levet retired on May 3, 1976. He died on February 1980, in White Plains. Richard Harrington Levet at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center