Old Prussians, Baltic Prussians or Prussians were the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia. This region lent its name to the state of Prussia, it was located on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea between the Vistula Lagoon to the west and the Curonian Lagoon to the east. The people followed pagan Prussian mythology. During the 13th century, the Old Prussians were conquered by the Teutons; the former German state of Prussia took its name from the Baltic Prussians, although it was led by Germans. The Teutonic Knights and their troops transferred the Baltic Prussians from southern Prussia to northern Prussia. Many Old Prussians were killed in crusades requested by Poland and the popes, while others were assimilated and converted to Christianity; the old Prussian language was extinct by early 18th century. Many Old Prussians emigrated due to Teutonic crusades; the land of the Old Prussians was larger before the arrival of the Polans, consisting of central and southern East Prussia and West Prussia.
In post 1945 terms, the Old Prussian territory is equivalent to the modern areas of Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, the Kaliningrad Oblast and the southern Klaipėda Region. The territory was inhabited by Scalovians, a tribe related to the Prussians and Eastern Balts; the names of the Baltic Prussian tribes all reflected the theme of landscape. Most of the names were based on water, an understandable convention in a land dotted with thousands of lakes and swamps. To the south, the terrain runs into the Pripet Marshes at the headwaters of the Dnieper River; the original pre-Baltic settlers named their settlements after the streams, seas, or forests by which they settled. The clan or tribal entities into which they were organized took the name of the settlement; this root is the one used in the name of Prusa, for which an earlier Brus- is found in the map of the Bavarian Geographer. In Tacitus' Germania, the Lugii Buri are mentioned living within the eastern range of the Germans. Lugi may descend from Pokorny's *leug-, "black, swamp", while Buri is the "Prussian" root.
The name of Pameddi tribe is derived from the words meddin or meddu. Nadruvia may be a compound of the words na and drawē or nad and the root *reu-; the name of the Bartians, a Prussian tribe, the name of the Bārta river in Latvia are cognates. In the 2nd century AD, the geographer Claudius Ptolemy listed some Borusci living in European Sarmatia, separated from Germania by the Vistula Flumen, his map is confused in that region, but the Borusci seem further east than the Prussians, which would have been under the Gythones at the mouth of the Vistula. The Aesti, recorded by Tacitus, were 450 years recorded by Jordanes as part of the Gothic Empire. Folk etymology led to the belief that each Prussian tribe was named after a tribal leader or his wife, such as the mythical leader Warmo ruling the Warmians. At the beginning of Baltic history, the Old Prussians were bordered by the Vistula and the Memel – earlier Mimmel – river, which outside of Prussia is called Neman, with a southern depth to about Thorn at the Vistula river, Prussian, the line of the river Narew.
The Kashubians and Pomeranians were by the year AD 1000 on the west, the Poles on the south, the Sudovians on the east and further south, the Skalvians on the north, the Lithuanians on the northeast. The Sudovians began at about Suwałki. At the end of the 1st century, Prussian settlements were divided into tribal domains, separated from one another by uninhabited areas of forest and marsh. A basic territorial community was called a laūks, a word attested in Old Prussian as "field"; this word appears as a segment in Baltic settlement names Curonian, it is found in Old Prussian placenames such as Stablack, from stabs + laūks. The plural is not attested in Old Prussian. A laūks was formed by a group of farms, which shared a desire for safety; the supreme power resided in general gatherings of all adult males, who discussed important matters concerning the community and elected the leader and chief. The term laūks must have included the fortifications, if any, the social superstructure, but the village itself went by another name: kāims.
The head of a household was the buttataws. In the natural course of competition and heredity, some chiefs must have become powerful, acquiring various laūks and kāims as subordinate entities; the Balts entered history in the early 2nd millennium BC and were organized into these larger social entities, one of, termed a "duchy" by non-Baltic writers. Because the Baltic tribes inhabiting Prussia never formed a common political and territorial organisation, they had no reason to adopt a common ethnic or national name. I
Alfred Horn was an American mathematician notable for his work in lattice theory and universal algebra. His 1951 paper "On sentences which are true of direct unions of algebras" described Horn clauses and Horn sentences, which would form the foundation of logic programming. Horn was born on Manhattan, his parents were both deaf, his father died when Horn was three years old. At this point, the children moved in with their grandparents on the mother's side, they would move to Brooklyn where Horn spent most of his childhood, raised by his extended family. Horn attended the City College of New York, New York University where he earned a Master's degree in mathematics, he went on to earn his Ph. D. at University of California, Berkeley in 1946. A year he started work at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he stayed until his retirement in 1988, he died in 2001 in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles after eight years of battling prostate cancer. Alfred Horn, Palisadian Since 1954 and Noted UCLA Math Professor – obituary from UCLA Publications of Alfred Horn – a list compiled by Dimiter Skordev Alfred Horn – the information about him in the Mathematics Genealogy Project
The Assembly of Kosovo adopted the flag of the Republic of Kosovo following the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo from Serbia of 17 February 2008. The flag design emerged from an international competition, organized by the United Nations-backed Kosovo Unity Team, which attracted one thousand entries; the current design was proposed by Muhamer Ibrahimi. It shows six white stars in an arc above a golden map of all on a blue field; the stars symbolize Kosovo's six major ethnic groups. Before the declaration of independence, Kosovo had come under the administration of the United Nations and used the UN flag for official purposes; the Serb and Albanian populations had used their own national flags since the 1945-1992 Socialist Yugoslavia period. The Serbs use a red and white tricolor, which forms the basis of the current flag of Serbia; the Albanian population have used the flag of Albania since the 1960s as their ethnic flag. Both these flags can still be seen in use within Kosovo. Serbia has not recognized the independence of Kosovo and claims the area as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.
Unlike the case of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, the Serbian authorities have not adopted a unique flag to represent this claimed province, using the flag of Serbia instead. The flag of Kosovo has a blue background, charged with a map of six stars; the stars are meant to symbolize Kosovo's six major ethnic groups: Albanians, Turks, Gorani and Bosniaks. Unofficially, the stars are sometimes said to represent the six regions, which according to Albanian ultra nationalist ideology, make up Greater Albania: Albania, western parts of North Macedonia, parts of northern Greece, parts of Montenegro and Preševo Valley in southern Serbia; the flag of Kosovo resembles that of Herzegovina in terms of colors and shapes used. The flag is unusual among national flags in using a map as a design element; the ratio of the flag was announced during the contest as 2:3, however with the passage of a diplomatic protocol law in Kosovo in April 2009, the ratio was set as 1:1.4. The colors and construction of the Kosovo flag have not yet been defined.
The unofficial RGB values of the flag have been manually extracted since 2009. The use of the Kosovo flag is regulated by the law: "Law on the Use of Kosovo State Symbols". However, the Serbian government objects to the use of the Kosovo flag at international meetings and gatherings; the Albanian flag remains popular with Kosovar Albanians. As Serbia does not recognize the 2008 secession of Kosovo and considers it a United Nations-governed entity within its sovereign territory, the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, as defined by the 2006 Constitution of Serbia. Months after Kosovo's declaration of independence, the Serbian flag was still seen at official government buildings until replaced by the Kosovar government. Flags of Serbia and Serbian Orthodox Church were used in protests against Kosovo independence and still can be seen in Serb-majority areas in the north. However, a person was sentenced by a panel of EULEX judges on November 19, 2009, for inciting hatred by raising a Serbian flag on a mosque in the southern part of Mitrovica.
Until 2008, Kosovo did not have a flag of its own. However, during different periods of history, different flags were flown in Kosovo. Before 1969, the only flags that could fly over Kosovo were those of SFR Yugoslavia and SR Serbia. If a nationalist flag were flown, such as Albanian, Serbian or Croatian, a person could go to prison for doing so. In 1969, the Kosovar Albanian population was able to use the Albanian flag as its national flag. However, the flag had to be charged with a red star, since this was a common symbol of the Yugoslav nation. Without this requirement, the flag of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania at the time had a red star, outlined in gold, above the double headed eagle. On, different nationalities in Kosovo could use their own national flags in accordance with legislation. Before the death of Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito and the breakup of SFR Yugoslavia, there were calls for the Albanian flag to be banned because residents in Kosovo did not want to live under a foreign flag.
This sentiment culminated in the "Petition of the 2016", which called for, among other items, a greater statehood status for Serbia and the removal of all Albanian symbols. The Serbian side began to remove the red star from the Yugoslav flag, using it for protests to counterbalance the Albanian population and to promote a "Greater Serbia"; when Kosovo was under the administration of the United Nations, the UN flag was flown in Kosovo. However, the flag used by the Kosovar Albanian population was the Albanian flag; the Albanian flag was used on public buildings though it was against UN regulations. Regulations stated only the UN flag and other authorized flags, like those of cities, could fly on public buildings. If the Albanian flag did have to go up the Serbian flag must go up too, according to UN regulations. However, this was never done in practice and the flag of Albania was ever-present in Kosovo during the UNMIK period. A competition for a new flag, held in June 2007, received 993 entries.
Under the terms of UN talks, all such symbols would