The Fairmont Le Château Frontenac and referred to as the Château Frontenac, is a historic hotel in Quebec City, Canada. The hotel is situated within the historic district's Upper Town; the Chateau Frontenac was designed by Bruce Price, was built by the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The hotel is presently managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Opened in 1893, the Châteauesque-styled building is 79.9-metre-tall, containing 18 floors. The building's height is furthered, it is one of the first completed grand railway hotels. The hotel was expanded on three occasions, with the last major expansion taking place in 1993; the building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1981. The Château Frontenac is situated on 1, rue des Carrières, at the eastern edge of Old Quebec's Upper Town, built on the promontory of Quebec, a raised mass of land that projects into the Saint Lawrence River; the hotel property is bounded by rue Saint Louis to the north, rue Mont Carmel to the south. Terrasse Dufferin is a terrace that wraps around the hotel from the northeast to the southeast, overlooking the Saint Lawrence River.
Two public roads run through the hotel, rue du Trésor, rue des Carrières. The hotel building was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada, known as the Château Frontenac National Historic Site of Canada; the area was designated as a National Historic Site in January 1981. Located near the edge of the promontory of Quebec, the Château Frontenac is situated near several major historic attractions within the historic district of Old Quebec's Upper Town. To the northeast of the hotel lies the Ursulines Monastery of Quebec, a 17th century monastery founded by a missionary group of Ursuline nuns, another National Historic Site of Canada. To the south of the hotel lies the Plains of Abraham, a historic area within The Battlefields Park, the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Another major attraction south of the hotel is the Citadelle of Quebec, situated at the atop Cap Diamant, an elevated point of the promontory; the Citadelle serves as an active military installation for the Canadian Armed Forces, as well as a secondary official residence for the Canadian monarch and the Governor General of Canada.
East of the hotel lies the Terrasse Dufferin, Old Quebec's Lower Town directly below it. The Château Frontenac was not the first hotel built on the site; the first hotel was built during the 1780s, was known as the Château Haldimand, named after the Governor of Quebec who ordered the hotel's construction. That hotel was demolished to make way for the present hotel; the Château Frontenac is one of Canada's grand railway hotels built by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The Châteauesque architectural style used throughout the hotel would serve as a template for other Canadian grand railway hotels erected in the late-19th to early-20th century; the central fortress-like tower design is derived from medieval chateaus found throughout France's Loire Valley. Châteauesque elements include the hotel's asymmetrical profile, with steeply pitched roofs, massive circular and polygonal towers and turrets, ornate gables and dormers, tall chimneys; the exterior base of the hotel is made of grey stone ashlar, with steel framing running up the building, Glenboig brick cladding.
Materials that make up the interior of the building includes mahogany panelling, marble staircases, carved stone, wrought iron, glass roundels. However, as opposed the other Châteauesque-styled buildings found in France, the Château Frontenac did not utilize elements of Italianate architecture, instead placing a greater emphasis on Gothic elements; the hotel draws certain elements from Victorian style of architecture, with rich polychromatic surfaces throughout its exterior. Built in 1892–93, the Château Frontenac was designed by architect Bruce Price. Price's plan called for a horseshoe-shaped hotel, made up of four wings of unequal length, connected at obtuse angles. Public rooms made up the majority of the first two floors of Price's designs; the original proposal called for a square structure, however the completion of the Terrasse Dufferin led to the development for a more picturesque building. Since its completion, the hotel has undergone several major expansions and renovations led by several different architects and architectural firms.
William Sutherland Maxwell led two major expansions to the hotel, one in 1908–09, another in 1920–24. Renovations in the 1990s was led by a architectural firm based in Montreal; the hotel was again expanded with the addition of a new wing. Access to the hotel's main entrance is marked by several porte-cochère with large dormers and a cupola; the porte-cochère leads guests into the hotel's centre courtyard, as well as the entrance to the hotel's main lobby. The building stands 80-metre-tall, containing 18 floors made up of guest rooms and other hotel amenities. After the addition of the tallest tower in 1924, the hotel became the tallest building in Quebec City, it remained the city's tallest building until 1930, when Édifice Price was completed just northeast of the hotel. Although several buildings in Quebec City are taller, the hotel continues to hold a prominent position in the city's skyline, as it is perched atop a tall cape overlooking the Saint Lawrence River; the Château Frontenac includes 611 guest suites spread throughout the hotel building.
Eight executive suites were renovated into specialty "themed rooms". Most of the suites are themed to the heads of state and government that have visited the hotel, such as the Trudeau-Trudeau Suite, named after two Canadian Prime Ministers, Pierre Elliott Trude
Gare du Palais
Gare du Palais is a train and bus station in Quebec City, Canada. Its name comes from its proximity to the Palace of the Intendant of New France, it is served by Via Rail, Canada's national passenger railway, by the private coach company Orléans Express. Built in 1915 by the Canadian Pacific Railway, the two-storey châteauesque station is similar in design to the Château Frontenac hotel; the station had no passenger rail service from 1976 to 1985, although it once again hosts regular daily services west to Montreal's Central Station and Ottawa via Drummondville. It was designated a Heritage Railway Station in 1992. From 1850, the rail revolution is expanding through all of Canada. Quebec City stays isolated on St-Lawrence River north shore. Quebec City grants 1 $ million to North Shore Railway, founded by Quebec's bourgeoisie, to connect Quebec and Montreal by rail. Around 1872, the NSR builds the first Palais Station. In 1875, the lack of funds drives the NSR to transfer its assets to the Quebec Government which founds the Quebec, Ottawa & Occidental Railway.
By the end of 1877, the QMO&OR had built the railway between Ottawa. From 1880 to 1890, the Quebec and Lake St-John Railway joined the QMO&OR to enter Quebec City from the west and reach Palais Station as indicated on the time tables of the period. In 1882, the QMO&OR sells the Montreal-Ottawa line to the Canadian Pacific Railway and, the Quebec-Montreal line in 1885. In 1915, the CPR built the actual station designed by architect H. E. Prindel in the "Château de la Loire" style. "The exterior of the building was of Argenteuil granite, Deschambault limestone and Citadel brick with high sloping roofs of copper. A 40 foot window over the entrance contained the arms of seven of the historic names of Quebec: Montmagny, de Tracy, Montcalm, Wolfe and Talon. At the bases of its turrets were cartouches bearing the French fleur de lys, the Tudor rose, the Scottish thistle and the Irish shamrock, respectively. High upon the roof was an ornamental clock with a dial eight feet in diameter topped with the city’s arms.
The ticket lobby measured 65 x 45 feet with a clearance of 60 feet to a stained glass skylight inset with a map of the CPR. The concourse/waiting room measured 40 feet high. Cast into the interior brickwork on the walls were embossed heraldic symbols of the founding races". After Quebec Bridge construction in 1917, Palais Station is called a Union Station because the Canadian Pacific shares the facilities with the National Transcontinental Railway and the Quebec Central Railway; the Quebec Railway Light and Power had its station nearby. In fact, both Palais Stations received passengers from seven different railways: the Quebec, Montreal,Ottawa & Occidental Railway, the Quebec and Lake St-John Railway from 1880, the Great Northern Railway of Canada in 1900, the Quebec, Montmorency & Charlevoix after construction of the swinging bridge on St-Charles River in 1891, the Canadian Northern Railway buys the Great Northern in 1907 and, in 1909, builds a line from Garneau Junction north of Shawinigan to Hedley Junction of QLSJR, the National Transcontinental Railway in 1917 and the Quebec Central Railway which use a ferry from Levis to reach Quebec before the Quebec Bridge.
In 1918, many railways are near bankrupt and the Canadian Government must found the Canadian National Railway to rationalize the rail industry and nationalize the QLSJR, the CNoR, the NTR and the Grand Trunk. In 1976, the Palais Station is expropriated by the city to build the Dufferin-Montmorency highway; the rails are removed to St-Malo industrial park, where the CPR builds a new station. The CNR uses its Ste-Foy Station, west of Quebec's bridge. On December 2, 1979, Ste-Foy Station becomes the passenger station of Via Rail. On November 8, 1985, Palais Station reopens after 28 millions$ renovations; as the rails south of St-Charles river were removed, the trains have to run on the north side from Allenby crossing on CNR Lairet division to Hedley Junction turns south and crosses St-Charles River and reach Palais Station. The Canadian Pacific Railway no longer reaches Palais Station since it sold its rails north of St-Lawrence River to Québec-Gatineau. Montreal Central Station Gare d'autocars de Montréal Media related to Gare du Palais at Wikimedia Commons Via Rail station page for Gare du Palais
National Assembly of Quebec
The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs; the Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems. The National Assembly was the lower house of Quebec's legislature and was called the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. In 1968, the upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished and the remaining house was renamed; the office of President of the National Assembly is equivalent to speaker in other legislatures. The Coalition Avenir Québec has the most seats in the Assembly following the Quebec general election, 2018; the Legislative Assembly was created in Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was abolished from 1841 to 1867 under the 1840 Act of Union, which merged Upper Canada and Lower Canada into a single colony named the Province of Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1867, which created Canada, split the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was thus restored as the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec; the original Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. In 1968, Bill 90 was passed by the government of Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand, abolishing the Legislative Council and renaming the Legislative Assembly the "National Assembly", in line with the more strident nationalism of the Quiet Revolution. Before 1968, there had been various unsuccessful attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, analogous to the Senate of Canada. In 1978, television cameras were brought in for the first time to televise parliamentary debates; the colour of the walls was changed to suit the needs of television and the salon vert became the salon bleu. Constructed between 1877 and 1886, the Parliament Building features the Second Empire architectural style, popular for prestigious buildings both in Europe and the United States during the latter 19th century.
Although somewhat more sober in appearance and lacking a towering central belfry, Quebec City's Parliament Building bears a definite likeness to the Philadelphia City Hall, another Second Empire edifice in North America, built during the same period. Though the building's symmetrical layout with a frontal clock tower in the middle is typical of legislative institutions of British heritage, the architectural style is believed to be unique among parliament buildings found in other Canadian provincial capitals, its facade presents a pantheon representing significant people of the history of Quebec. Additional buildings were added next to the Parliament Buildings: Édifice André-Laurendeau was added from 1935 to 1937 to house the Ministry of Transport. Édifice Honoré-Mercier was added from 1922 to 1925 to house the Ministries of the Treasury, the Attorney General and the Secretary General of the National Assembly. Édifice Jean-Antoine-Panet was added from 1931 to 1932 for the Ministry of Agriculture.
Édifice Pamphile-Le May added from 1910 to 1915 for the Library of the National Assembly, various other government offices and for the Executive Council. General elections are held every five years or less. Any person holding Canadian citizenship and who has resided in Quebec for at least six months qualifies to be on the electoral list; the leader of the political party with the largest number of elected candidates is asked by the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec to form the government as premier.. Quebec's territory is divided into 125 electoral districts. In each riding, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected and becomes a Member of the National Assembly; this is known as the first-past-the-post voting system. It tends to produce strong disparities in the number of seats won compared to the popular vote best exemplified by the 1966, 1970, 1973, 1998 elections. Quebec elections have tended to be volatile since the 1970s, producing a large turnover in Assembly seats. Existing political parties lose more than half their seats with the rise of new or opposition political parties.
For instance, the 1970 and 1973 saw the demise of the Union Nationale and rise of the Parti Québécois which managed to take power in 1976. The 1985 and 1994 elections saw the Liberals lose power in landslide elections; the 2018 elections saw the rise of the Coalition Avenir Québec which managed to take power for the first time. Cabinet ministers are in bold, party leaders are in italic and the president of the National Assembly is marked with a †. Last update: March 21, 2019 Members of the National Assembly swear two oaths: one to the Canadian monarch as Quebec's head of state, a second one to the people of Quebec. Previous Parti Québécois premier René Lévesque added the second oath. One of the members of the National Assembly is chosen as the President of the Assembly
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Séminaire de Québec
The Seminary of Quebec is a Roman Catholic community of priests in Quebec City founded by Bishop François de Laval, the first bishop of New France in 1663. The Séminaire de Québec is a Society of diocesan priests founded on March 26, 1663 by Bishop François de Laval, first bishop of New France, in order to sustain the mission of the Church in North America. In 1665, he joined this community to that of the Seminary of Foreign Missions of Paris under the name of the Seminary of Foreign Missions of Quebec, from, derived the acronym SME, still in use today; the first role of the Séminaire de Québec was to prepare young men for ordination and ministry in parishes and missions as far away as Louisiana. The Seminary was thus founded together with the Major Seminary, where future priests received their training. In 1668, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV's top minister, initiated an attempt to impose French language and culture on local aboriginal people. Bishop de Laval therefore opened the Seminary to local aboriginal people as well as children of settlers with studious dispositions and a desire to enter the priesthood.
This was the beginning of the Petit Séminaire de Québec. Until the English conquest in 1760, the Minor Seminary was a boarding school for students. Classes were held at the Jesuit College on the site of the present City Hall; when the Jesuits were suppressed after the Conquest, the directors of the Seminary took over. The Minor Seminary became a full-fledged teaching institution, a college, open to all boys interested in studying. In 1852, the high quality of teaching was recognized in a Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, leading to the founding of Université Laval, the first Catholic French-language university in North America. Université Laval and the Minor Seminary no longer have any legal ties with the Quebec Seminary; the Seminary spun off Université Laval into its own corporation in 1970 and the same was done with the Minor Seminary in 1987. The services of the Séminaire de Québec include the Major Seminary, a vocations centre, a new diocesan Minor Seminary, the Catholic centre at Université Laval, the training of priests and other pastoral leaders, parish service, theology studies.
François de Laval's vision is at the root of the Séminaire de Québec's influence and success in education. His bequest of a large tract of lakes and forests northeast of the city known today as the Beaupré Seigneury, purchased from the Compagnie des 100 Associés, has funded the work of the institution since. Nowadays, since 1987 the Petit Séminaire de Québec is a private Roman Catholic secondary school separated from the Séminaire de Québec. Many French-Canadian clergy of the 18th and 19th century, as well as innumerable academics, went through the Petit Séminaire before higher education became accessible; until 1970, the Superior of the Seminary was the Rector of Université Laval, an offshoot of it. The historical site of the Séminaire de Québec in Old Quebec includes a vast number of buildings, some of which date back to the 17th century and are witnesses of the French occupation, while the others were constructed anywhere from the 18th to the 20th century; the ensemble is made up of two groups of buildings: the Vieux-Séminaire constructed under the model of 17th century French colleges, the second group of buildings that have been added over the years to meet the needs of Laval University, the Grand Séminaire and the Petit Séminaire, whose most important buildings are the Camille-Roy Building and the Jean-Olivier-Briand Building.
The Camille-Roy Building has several pinnacles on which continuously fly the flag of the coat of arms of founder of the Séminaire de Québec, Bishop François de Laval, the Jean-Olivier-Briand Building houses the priests’ residence and the Grand Séminaire. The Seminary was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1929. Moulin du Petit-Pré, a water-powered flour mill built for the seminary PROVOST, Honorius, Le Séminaire de Québec: documents et biographies, Québec, Séminaire de Québec, 1964. 542 p. Cap-aux-Diamants, N° hors série, Québec, Société historique de Québec, 1993. 70 p. History of the Seminary of Quebec Act of foundation
City Hall of Quebec City
The City Hall of Quebec City is located in the heart of Old Quebec in Quebec City, Canada. It was inaugurated on September 15, 1896; the building slopes downward as it was built on a hill and was once home to the Jesuit College from the 1730s to 1878. The city hall was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1984; the building is located within the "Arrondissement historique du Vieux-Québec", a district, designated under provincial heritage legislation in 1963 and listed as a World Heritage Site in 1985. Located on rue des Jardins and designed by architect Georges-Émile Tanguay, it is the second permanent city hall for the old city. From 1842 to 1896 City Hall sat at home of British Army Major General William Dunn, son of former administrator Thomas Dunn. Prior to 1842 the city government sat a various sites; the formal city council was established in 1833. The building used a mixture of Medieval and Châteauesque elements. Montreal City Hall Media related to City Hall of Quebec City at Wikimedia Commons
Vieux-Québec–Cap-Blanc–Colline Parlementaire is one of the 35 districts of the City of Quebec, one of six that are located in the borough of La Cité-Limoilou. The district is the most toured location in the city, it is in this fortified area where a building that symbolizes Canada to the world, the Château Frontenac, is found, with its large terrace overlooking the city of Lévis, across the Saint Lawrence River. A large concentration of cafes, tourist shops, restaurants and inns are situated in the district. In its most recent census count in 2016, Statistics Canada reported that the district had a population of 5,770 residents, whom comprise 1.1% of the city's total population. The district comprises four distinct areas within the centre of Quebec City: Vieux-Québec, which includes the space within the old town walls. Vieux-Québec, including Place Royale, the Old Port and the area around the Gare du Palais. Colline Parlementaire, including the area of Place D'Youville and the Parliament Building.
Cap Blanc, a thin strip of land between Cap Diamant and the Saint Lawrence River, centred on the Church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde. Rue Saint-Jean Rue de Buade Rue Saint-Louis and Grande-Allée Boulevard Champlain Rue Saint-Paul Avenue Honoré-Mercier / Autoroute Dufferin-Montmorency The Battlefields Park / Plains of Abraham Artillery Park National Historic Site Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site — this site consists of the walls and gates of Quebec, the Governors' Garden, Montmorency Park, Terrasse Dufferin, the Governors' Walkway. Old Port of Quebec Place Royale Château Frontenac Édifice Price Citadelle of Quebec Séminaire de Québec Hôtel-Dieu de Québec and its accompanying church Cathedral-Basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church Cathedral of the Holy Trinity Chalmers-Wesley United Church St. Andrew's Church St. Patrick's Church — the first Irish Catholic church to be built in the city, it was abandoned in 1914, burned in 1971, its façade is now part of an annex to the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec.
Notre-Dame de la Garde, Cap Blanc Capitole de Québec Palais Montcalm Musée de la civilisation The Institut canadien de Québec building, occupying the old church Wesleyan Church. Includes a performance hall and a branch of the Quebec City Library. Parliament Building Quebec City Hall Édifice Marie-Guyart — the tallest building in Quebec City; the 132 m skyscraper is the tallest building in Canada east of Montreal, has at its top the Capital Observatory. Ministry of Finance of Quebec Palais de Justice de Québec Headquarters of the Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec Headquarters of the Société des traversiers du Québec There are no longer any public schools in the district, due to the small number of families with children living there; the few private schools that are there serve clients who live exclusively outside the city center. Private schools École Saint-Louis de Gonzague Petit Séminaire de Québec École des Ursulines CDI College Quebec Oral School for Deaf Children School of Architecture at the Université Laval Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec Quebec City Old Quebec Plains of Abraham Cap Diamant Vieux-Québec–Cap-Blanc–Colline Parlementaire interactive map Vieux-Québec–Cap-Blanc–Colline Parlementaire District Council Presentation on La Cite