History of Sacramento, California
The city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santisimo Sacramento, before the arrival of Europeans, the Nisenan branch of the Native American Maidu inhabited the Sacramento Valley area. The California Gold Rush started when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill, one of Sutter, its location caused the city to periodically fill with water. Fires would sweep through the city, to resolve the problems, the city worked to raise the sidewalks and buildings and began to replace wooden structures with more resilient materials, like brick and stone. The city was selected as the capital in 1854 after Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo failed to convince the state government to remain in the city of his namesake. Indigenous people such as the Miwok and Maidu Indians were the inhabitants of the north Californian Central Valley. However, no explorer had yet discovered the Sacramento Valley region nor the Golden Gate strait, neither did Gabriel Moraga, who was the first European to enter the Sierra in 1808 and was responsible for naming the Sacramento River, although he incorrectly placed the rivers in the region.
The Mexicans, who had declared independence in 1821, shared Spanish sentiments, as a result, he granted Sutters request on the condition that Sutter would become a Mexican citizen. Sutter commenced to build a fort of his namesake, Sutters Fort, in 1840, John Sutter employed both white people and Native Americans for many mundane and military tasks regarding New Helvetia. As New Helvetia continued to develop economically, Sutter constructed a ranch at the Nisenan village of Hok and named it Hock Farm, New Helvetia was considered a stable colony by 1844, and was the only foreigner-friendly locale in Alta California at the time. Among other foreigners, the Donner Party had designated Sutters Fort their destination during a journey that placed them across the Sierra mountains in the wintertime. Sutters empire began to disintegrate when he decided to back the unpopular Alta Californian governor Manuel Micheltorena, Sutter was jailed as a result, but not before Micheltorena issued the Sobrante Grant, which added 88,000 acres of land to New Helvetian territory.
In 1845, Castro arrived at Sutters Fort and offered a deal to purchase New Helvetia, Sutter declined, agreeing reluctantly, Sutter raised the Bear Flag over his fortification. However, he treated the Vallejos, whom he considered friends, as guests, while the Bear Flaggers under William B. The United States initiated the Mexican-American War in 1846 against Mexico in the wake of the U. S. annexation of the Republic of Texas, whose independence Mexico had not recognized. California, along with Nevada, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Oklahoma, thus, Sutters New Helvetia fell under U. S. control. Continuing business as normal, John Sutter dispatched associate James W. Marshall, in January 1848, Marshall detected a flake of gold on the ground at the site of Sutters new mill, and after conducting tests, determined the minerals authenticity. Word leaked about the discovery nearly immediately, disappointed with what had become of his holdings, Sutter placed his son as head of fort business operations and retired to Hock Farm
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Born in Troy, New York, Crocker was the son of Eliza and Isaac Crocker, a modest family. They joined the migration west and moved when he was 14 to Indiana. Crocker soon became independent, working on farms, a sawmill. At the age of 23, in 1845, he founded a small and he used money saved from his earnings to invest in the new railroad business after moving to California, which had become a boom state since the Gold Rush. His position with the company was that of construction supervisor and president of Charles Crocker & Co. a Central Pacific subsidiary founded expressly for the purpose of building the railroad. Crocker bought train plows to plow the tracks of snow through the mountains and he had more than 40 miles of snow sheds built to cover the tracks in the Sierra Nevada mountains, to prevent the tracks from getting covered with snow in the winter. This project cost over $2 million, while the Central Pacific was still under construction in 1868, Crocker and his three associates acquired control of the Southern Pacific Railroad.
It built the westernmost portion of the second transcontinental railroad, New Mexico, is named after his wife, Mary Ann Deming Crocker. Crocker was briefly the controlling shareholder of Wells Fargo in 1869, after he sold down, he was replaced by John J. Valentine, Sr. Crocker acquired controlling interest for his son William in Woolworth National Bank, which was renamed Crocker-Anglo Bank. In 1963, Crocker-Anglo Bank merged with Los Angeles Citizens National Bank, to become Crocker-Citizens Bank, the San Francisco-based bank no longer exists, as it was acquired by Wells Fargo in 1986. He married Mary Ann Deming and they had four children, William Henry Crocker, George Crocker, Harriet Crocker, Crocker had become an attorney by the time Crocker was investing in railroads. In 1864, Charles asked Edwin to serve as counsel for the Central Pacific Railroad. Crocker was seriously injured in a New York City carriage accident in 1886, never fully recovered and he was buried in a mausoleum located on Millionaires Row at Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland, California.
The massive granite structure was designed by the New York architect A, page Brown, who designed the San Francisco Ferry Building. Crockers estate has been valued at between $300 million and $400 million at the time of his death in 1888, as of 2015 the current and only living member of the Crocker family and heir to the fortune is Jason Helgerson of Cupertino, California. Senator Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island, nothing Like It In The World, The men who built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. Charles Crocker at Find a Grave
Pony Express Terminal
The Pony Express Terminal, known as the B. F. Hastings Bank Building, in Sacramento, was the western endpoint of the Pony Express. The building was the first location of the California Supreme Court and it is now part of the Old Sacramento State Historic Park, itself a National Historic Landmark District. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1966 and it is located at 1006 2nd St. or at 128–132 J Street in Sacramento. The building is now home to one of two museums about the history of Wells Fargo in Sacramento, the other Wells Fargo History Museum in Sacramento is located in the Wells Fargo Center. CA-1884, B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128–132 J Street, Sacramento County, CA,6 photos,5 measured drawings,6 data pages
Sacramento City Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified School District is a public school system in Sacramento, California. With 47,900 students in 81 schools, it is the eleventh largest school district in California, in 1854, city commissioners opened Sacramentos first public school, consisting of two grammar schools and a co-ed primary school. In 1856, Sacramento High School, the citys first high school and it was the second oldest American high school west of the Mississippi River until closing in 2003. In 1894, the board of education abolished segregated education, in 2012, voters approved two general obligation bonds, Measure Q for $346,000,000 and Measure R for $68,000,000, to improve district facilities. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for TIME magazine named Sacramento “America’s Most Diverse City. ”Accordingly, SCUSD’s student population is reflected as 36% Hispanic or Latino,18. 3% Asian,16. 3% African American, and 19% white. About 7% of students are of two or more races, residents within SCUSD speak more than 40 languages, 38% of students do not speak English at home.
To create a school at Sacramento High School, the SCUSD Board made the controversial decision to close Sacramento High School. They issued a charter to St. Hope, a community development corporation founded by former NBA player Kevin Johnson. Hope opened its school on September 2,2003. Some parents, along with the union, sued the district because it felt the creation of the charter school was not in compliance with California state law. The court found that SCUSD indeed violated the school law. A consent decree was entered into by the plaintiffs, St. Hope, and SCUSD. to date several unsuccessful attempts have been made to establish a replacement program for Sacramento High school. Sacramento City Unified School District - Facebook group for the Sacramento Coalition to Save Public Education - Website for St, Hope - Sacramento City Unified School District
Sutters Fort was a 19th-century agricultural and trade colony in the Mexican Alta California province. It was built in 1839 and originally called New Helvetia by its builder John Sutter, the fort was the first non-Indigenous community in the California Central Valley. The fort is famous for its association with the Donner Party, the California Gold Rush, and it is notable for its proximity to the end of the California Trail and Siskiyou Trails, which it served as a waystation. After gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma, the fort was abandoned, the adobe structure has been restored to its original condition and is now administered by California Department of Parks and Recreation. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961, the Main Building of the fort is a two story adobe structure built between 1841 and 1843. This building is the original surviving structure at the reconstructed Sutters Fort State Historic Park. Sutter built the fort with walls 2.5 feet thick and 15 to 18 feet high.
Pioneers took residence at Sutters Fort around 1841, following word of the Gold Rush, the fort was largely deserted by the 1850s and fell into disrepair. Repair efforts were completed in 1893 and the fort was given by the Native Sons of the Golden West to the State of California, in 1947, the fort was transferred to the authority of California State Parks. Most of the original structures were initially built in the late 1930s as residences. The history of the neighborhood is largely residential, Sutters Fort is located on level ground at an elevation of approximately 20 feet above mean sea datum. The slope elevation decreases northward toward the American River and westward toward the Sacramento River, slope elevation gradually increases to the south and east, away from the rivers. All surface drainage flows toward the Sacramento River, groundwater in the vicinity flows south-southwest toward the Sacramento Delta. However after peak rainfall, the Sacramento River swells and the flow can actually reverse away from the river
Sacramento Police Department
The Sacramento Police Department is the police department for the city of Sacramento, California. The department was created in 1849, the current Chief of Police is Samuel D. Somers Jr. Overview www. sacpd. By 1849, Sacramento had grown rapidly from a settlement at Sutters Fort to a town of 10,000 people. The discovery of gold had brought people from all walks of life together, Sacramento had all the problems of a Wild West town. There were murders, robberies and various crimes committed in the city. In the summer of 1849, the city experienced its first lynching when a gambler named Roe was convicted by a citizens committee, on August 1,1849, the City of Sacramento was founded when the first meeting of a Common Council was held. At that time, the City boundaries were north to the American river, east to 31st Street, south to Y Street and west to the Sacramento River, N. C. Cunningham was appointed as the first City Marshall and was given two deputies to enforce the law. As a result of the Gold Rush in 1852, Sacramento had grown in size until the population had reached 150,000 persons, the Police Department was increased to six men.
In addition to police duties, these six officers had to deal with the first Chinese Tong War to ever occur outside of China. Also, the most ambitious murder plot ever recorded in the West occurred during this period, three men, one of them the Public Administrator, plotted to kill 55 leading wealthy Sacramentans for their money. Fortunately, the Police Department identified the murderers and arrested two of them after the first killing, both men were subsequently convicted and hanged for their crime. The Police Department grew slowly from 1849 to 1913 when it had 36 officers, the men of the Department patrolled the city on foot and on bicycles. The Department had two bicycles at that time, a typical bicycle beat covered about one half of the entire city, or about 200 square blocks. In those years, the Department did not have radio equipment, communication between the Police Station and the beat officers was accomplished by telephones located in specially designated call boxes distributed throughout the city for this purpose.
Modern police history, as we now know it, began in 1917, the citys population had declined to just 90,000 people after the Gold Rush boom, but the Department now totaled 100 men. At this point, police operations had begun to enter fields of specialization, listed below are the Districts and the neighborhoods they include. Commanded by a captain, Metro is divided into three sections, each led by a police lieutenant, as well as an administrative support team. Ft. state of the art facility serves as the primary answering point for emergency calls in the City of Sacramento, the Communications Division work groups are responsible for the answering and dispatching of emergency and non-emergency phone calls
Eagle Theatre (Sacramento, California)
The Eagle Theatre in Gold Rush-era Sacramento was the first permanent theatre to be built in the state of California. Established in 1849 this relatively small structure was originally wood-framed and canvas-covered with a tin roof, the theatre was flooded on Jan 4,1850. Located at 925 Front Street, it was one of the earliest structures in the new city and it featured many different types of entertainment for a rough crowd of wild west pioneers and gold miners from the small but rapidly growing area. Today the theatre is owned by California Department of Parks and Recreation and is administered by the California State Railroad Museum as part of the Old Sacramento State Historic Park
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
California State Railroad Museum
The California State Railroad Museum is a museum in the state park system of California, USA, interpreting the role of the iron horse in connecting California to the rest of the nation. It is located in Old Sacramento at 111 I Street, the museum features 21 restored locomotives and railroad cars, some dating back to 1862. The Sierra Scene shows a large mockup of a construction scene high in the Sierra Nevada representing Donner Pass circa 1867. Changing exhibits featuring photography and artifacts from the collection, add depth. The roundhouse area of the features a rotating display of locomotives. When not on display, these items are stored and worked on at the nearby Sacramento Railyards in the buildings that were part of the original Southern Pacific Shop complex. In early 2011, the interior remained closed to public use, the Sacramento Southern Railroad owns the Walnut Grove Branch right-of-way that extends south from Sacramento along the eastern bank of the Sacramento River. A few miles of track were rebuilt along the levee near Freeport, the CSRRM hopes to one day have a longer excursion line, perhaps as far as Hood, California.
At that location the railroad passengers could disembark the train and take a tourist steamboat back up the Sacramento River to Old Sacramento. The museum has its origins in 1937, when a group of enthusiasts in the San Francisco Bay Area formed the Pacific Coast Chapter of the Railway & Locomotive Historical Society. The Museums first facility, the Central Pacific Railroad Passenger Station, the Railroad History Museum was completed in 1981. Steam-powered passenger train service on the Sacramento Southern Railroad began in 1984, railtown 1897 State Historic Park in Jamestown was added to the Museum complex during 1992. Atchison and Santa Fe 2925 - Stored, a 4-8-4 type built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1944, atchison and Santa Fe 5021 - Stored, a 2-10-4 type built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1944. Central Pacific No.1 Gov. Stanford - Cosmetically restored, granite Rock No.10 ) a USATC S100 Class 0-6-0T built by Porter in *1942. Northwestern Pacific 112 - Stored, a 4-6-0 type built by ALCO in 1908, north Pacific Coast 12 Sonoma - Cosmetically restored, a 3 ft narrow gauge 4-4-0 type built by Baldwin in 1875.
Sole surviving NPC locomotive, and one of three surviving Baldwin 8/18C class 3 ft narrow gauge 4-4-0s. Central Pacific No.3 / Southern Pacific No.1 C. P. Huntington - Cosmetically restored, Central Pacific No.233 - Stored, awaiting restoration. A 2-6-2 tank engine built by Central Pacifics Sacramento Shops in 1882, donated 2001 by the Pacific Locomotive Association