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Old Saxon

Old Saxon known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German. It is a West Germanic language related to the Anglo-Frisian languages, it is documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken throughout modern northwestern Germany in the coastal regions and in the eastern Netherlands by Saxons, a Germanic tribe who inhabited the region of Saxony, it shares Anglo-Frisian's Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law which sets it apart from Low Franconian and Irminonic languages, such as Dutch and German. The grammar of Old Saxon was inflected with five grammatical cases, three grammatical numbers and three grammatical genders; the dual forms referred to groups of two. Old Saxon and Old Dutch were considered to be distinct dialects of an otherwise unitary language rather than two languages because they were linked through a dialect continuum spanning the modern Netherlands and Germany. However, while these two languages both shared the same historical origins and some similar writing styles, Old Saxon shows a reduced morphology compared to Old Dutch, which retained some grammatical distinctions that Old Saxon abandoned.

There are various differences in their phonological evolution, Old Saxon being classified as an Ingvaeonic language, whereas Old Dutch is one of the Istvaeonic languages. In the Middle Ages, a dialect continuum existed between Old Dutch and Old Saxon, a continuum which has only been interrupted by the simultaneous dissemination of standard languages within each nation and the dissolution of folk dialects. Although they share some features, a number of differences separate Old Saxon, Old English, Old Dutch. One such difference is the Old Dutch utilization of -a as its plural a-stem noun ending, while Old Saxon and Old English employ -as or -os. However, it seems that Middle Dutch took the Old Saxon a-stem ending from some Middle Low German dialects, as modern Dutch includes the plural ending -s added to certain words. Another difference is the so-called "unified plural": Old Saxon, like Old Frisian and Old English, has one verb form for all three persons in the plural, whereas Old Dutch retained three distinct forms.

Old Saxon evolved from Ingvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic in the 5th century. However, Old Saxon considered as an Ingvaeonic language, is not a pure Ingvaeonic dialect like Old Frisian and Old English, the latter two sharing some other Ingvaeonic characteristics, which Old Saxon lacked. This, in addition to the large number of West-Germanic features that Old Saxon displayed, had led some philologists to mistakenly think that Old Dutch and Old Saxon were variations of the same language, that Old Saxon was an Istvaeonic language. Old Saxon evolved into Middle Low German over the course of the 11th and 12th century, with a great shift from Latin to Low German writing happening around 1150, so that the development of the language can be traced from that period; the most striking difference between Middle Low German and Old Saxon is in a feature of speech known as vowel reduction, which took place in most other West Germanic languages and some Scandinavian dialects such as Danish, reducing all unstressed vowels to schwa.

Thus, such Old Saxon words like gisprekan or dagō became dāge. Old Saxon did not participate in the High German consonant shift, thus preserves stop consonants p, t, k that have been shifted in Old High German to various fricatives and affricates; the Germanic diphthongs ai, au develop into long vowels ē, ō, whereas in Old High German they appear either as ei, ou or ē, ō depending on the following consonant. Old Saxon, alone of the West Germanic languages except for Frisian preserves Germanic -j- after a consonant, e.g. hēliand "savior". Germanic umlaut, when it occurs with short a, is inconsistent, e.g. hebbean or habbian "to have". This feature was carried over into the descendant-language of Old Saxon, Middle Low German, where e.g. the adjective krank had the comparative forms krenker and kranker. Apart from the e, the umlaut is not marked in writing; the table below lists the consonants of Old Saxon. Phonemes written in parentheses are not independent phonemes. Notes: The voiceless spirants /f/, /θ/, /s/ gain voiced allophones when between vowels.

This change is only faithfully reflected in writing for. The other two allophones continued to be written as before. Fricatives were devoiced again word-finally. Beginning in the Old Saxon period, stops became devoiced word-finally as well. Most consonants could be geminated. Notably, geminated /v/ gave /bb/, geminated /ɣ/ gave /ɡɡ/. Geminated /h/ resulted in /xx/. Germanic *h is retained as in these positions and thus merges with devoiced /ɣ/. Notes: Long vowels were rare in unstressed syllables and occurred due to suffixation or compounding. Notes: The closing diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/ sometimes occur in texts under the influence of Franconian or High German dialects, where they replace Old Saxon developments /ɛː

Ludmila Bášová

Ludmila Lida Bášová known as Ludmila Šimáková is a former Czech female badminton player who has represented both Czechoslovakia and Czech Republic in international badminton competitions. She has participated in several European Championships, World Championships in from 1991 to 2000, she won the Czechoslovak National Badminton Championships women's doubles title along with Alena Horáková in 1992, her first national Championship title win in her badminton career. She played for Czechoslovakia from 1991-1993 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia with the birth name Ludmila Šimáková, she was married to Petr Báša in 1993 with the name Ludmila Bášová. Ludmila Bášová went onto represent Czech Republic in badminton competitions from 1993-2000 which became an independent nation after the dissolution of the Czechoslovakia. Ludmila won women's doubles titles on 4 consecutive occasions at the Czech National Badminton Championships from 1997 to 2000 partnering with Markéta Koudelková before her retirement from playing badminton.

Her daughter Alžběta Bášová is a professional badminton player represents Czech Republic at the international badminton Championships. Ludmila Bášová at BWF.tournamentsoftware.com Badminton player at PDF

Fanula Papazoglu

Fanula Papazoglu was a Yugoslav and Serbian classical scholar and academic. She was an expert in Ancient history of the Balkans, she founded the Centre for Ancient Epigraphy and Numismatics in 1970. Papazoglu was born into a Greek Aromanian family, she finished secondary school in Bitola, before attending the University of Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy, where she studies classical philology, ancient history, archeology. During the Axis occupation of Serbia she supported the Yugoslav Partisans as a member of the student organization, spent a year in the Banjica concentration camp from 1942 to 1943, she graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy in 1946, worked at the Department for Ancient History at the Faculty of Philosophy from 1947. Her Ph. D. thesis in 1955 was Macedonian towns during the Roman period. She became a full professor in 1965. On March 21, 1974 she was elected to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts as a corresponding member, became a full member on December 15, 1983. At the Belgrade University Papazoglu met and married the prominent Yugoslav Byzantologist of Russian origin, George Ostrogorsky, with whom she had a daughter - Tatyana, a son - Alexander.

Papazoglou retired in 1979. She died in Belgrade in 2001. Makedonski gradovi u rimsko doba, 1955, thesis Prilozi istoriji Singidunuma i srednjeg Podunavlja Gornje Mezije, 1957 Makedonski gradovi u rimsko doba, 1957 Srednjobalkanska plemena u predrimsko doba, 1969, 1978 Rimski građanski ratovi, 1991 Istorija helenizma, 1995 October Prize of the City of Belgrade July 7 Award SANU. "Фанула Папазоглу". SANU. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-03-08. OLGA PELCER-VUJAČIĆ. "FANULA PAPAZOGLU I RAZVOJ GRČKE EPIGRAFIKE". "Identity: Fanula Papazoglu". Worldcat