Stamford Transportation Center
The Stamford station known as the Stewart B. McKinney Transportation Center or the Stamford Transportation Center, is a major railroad station in the city of Stamford, serving passengers traveling on Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Shore Line East. In addition, it is a major bus terminal for Greyhound, Peter Pan, CTtransit buses. Annual ridership on Metro-North exceeded 8.4 million in 2016, making it the second busiest station in the entire system, after Grand Central Terminal. The station is 33 miles from Grand Central Terminal. Just northeast of the station is the split for the New Canaan Branch. A few Shore Line East trains terminate at Stamford during the morning rush hour, originate there in the evening. United Airlines codeshares with Amtrak to provide service out of Stamford station to the train station at United's Northeast hub, Newark Liberty International Airport; as such, the train station has the IATA airport code ZTF. Downtown Stamford is directly north of the station.
The South End is going through one of the largest redevelopment efforts in the nation, branded Harbor Point. Regular daily train service began in Stamford on January 1, 1849. In 1867, a depot was built one block east of the present location; the railroad at that time passed through town on ground level. In the mid-1890s two more tracks were added to the line and most crossings were elevated and bridged, so the 1867 depot, was razed and replaced. In 1987, the New York Times published a review of the then-new Stamford Transportation Center by architecture critic Paul Goldberger; the station was criticized for "a harshness unequaled in contemporary architecture" as well as for cost overruns and many functional failings, including the lack of shelter for the track platforms. The route from the cross-tracks waiting room to the platform was so long and indirect that passengers who waited indoors until a train's arrival was announced could not get to the platform in time to board it. A complete renovation of the station in the early 2000s, provided for in the original design of the overhead structure, addressed these problems.
The two platforms were made island platforms, capable of serving four tracks. Added features included platform canopies and escalators directly from the waiting room for the tracks, a new platform crossover, connecting to the parking garage; this station has two a 9-car-long side platform on the south side, a 10-car-long platform on the north side and two high-level 12-car-long island platforms. The main station concourse straddles the tracks of the Northeast Corridor, contains the ticket booth, a passenger waiting area, shops. Below the platform level is an MTA police station, other shops, a Greyhound/Peter Pan office and CT Transit Customer Information Center. Stairs and escalators lead to the platform level. On the south side of the station, across an access street, is a large parking garage connected to the concourse by one pedestrian bridge and directly connected to the east end of the platforms by a second bridge. A bus station is located just to the north of the train station, underneath a large bridge carrying Interstate 95.
Taxis lined up by the dozens, pick up passengers at a stand on the south side of the station. A car rental agency is located southwest of the station building. Multiple parking garages are within the area, including a garage, open 24/7 and is linked by air-bridge to the upper level of the train station. In 2012 it was announced by the Connecticut Dept of Transportation that the old parking garage would be demolished. An RFP was issued seeking developers' ideas for what to construct on the site of the old garage with the possibility that replacement parking would be moved to a quarter mile from the rail station. Harbor Point Gateway Garage, at the intersection of Washington Boulevard and West Henry Street, provides indoor parking near the station; the facility includes an electric vehicle charging station as well as a car wash/detail service. A pedestrian bridge over Washington Boulevard provides direct access to the train platform from the garage; the number of people taking Metro-North to Stamford doubled from 2,155 in 1996 to 4,226 in 2006.
In recent years, additional office space has been built near the train station to allow commuters to avoid Interstate 95, very congested during rush hour. For example, The Royal Bank of Scotland completed a $400 million office building in 2008 within 200 yards of the station. Stamford is the busiest Metro-North Railroad station outside of New York City, with the only busier station being Grand Central Terminal; as of 2016, average weekday commuter ridership for the center was 30,000 passengers, ranking among the busiest in the metropolitan area. The station, along with the downtown Greenwich railroad station, is receiving increasing numbers of "reverse commuters" who work in Stamford but live in New York City. Reverse commuting has doubled from 1997 to 2007 and increased 150 percent since 1990, with 1,900 reverse commuters as of 2007. Younger employees single and with enough money to live in Manhattan, for instance, sometimes prefer to live there, although more housing and nightlife have come to Downtown Stamford in recent years.
Metro-North express service to serve these commuters. As financial companies move to Stamford from Manhattan, some employees become reverse commuters. Larger companies that are farther away than a few minutes walk from the station provide shuttle service for their workers. Stamford receives frequent rail s
Newport News station
Newport News station is an Amtrak intercity train station in Newport News, Virginia. The station is the southern terminus of two daily Northeast Regional round trips, it has a single side platform adjacent to a large CSX rail yard. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad under Collis Potter Huntington completed the Peninsula Extension to the small town of Newport News in 1881; this allowed the C&O to transport West Virginia coal to Hampton Roads - the largest warm-water port on the East Coast - and directly compete with the Norfolk and Western Railway. Between the coal exports and Huntington's Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News soon became a major shipping and industrial area. Ferry service between Norfolk and Newport News began in 1883, though the first passenger train station at Newport News was not built until 1892; the multi-story brick structure, Victorian with a large clock tower, was built on the waterfront at 23rd Street. A train shed stretched onto a pier so that passengers could transfer directly between trains and ferries.
By the 1930s, the station was in poor shape, having settled due to the soft soil. It was replaced with a smaller two-story brick station; the new station was constructed on a concrete base 1 foot above the 1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane flood level, its pilings were driven 90 feet underground to prevent settling. When Amtrak took over intercity passenger service in the United States on May 1, 1971, the C&O had served Newport News with three daily round trips: the Newport News sections of the George Washington and Fast Flying Virginian/Sportsman, plus a Newport News-Richmond trip. Amtrak kept only one daily round trip to Newport News - a section of the Newport News-Cincinnati George Washington, it was combined with the James Whitcomb Riley on July 12, 1971 to provide through service to Chicago. The George Washington name was used for the eastbound section until May 19, 1974. On June 14, 1976, the Newport News section of the Riley was replaced with the Washington-Newport News Colonial. Ferry service had been replaced by buses through the Hampton Roads Bridge–Tunnel upon its 1957 opening, making the waterfront location less desirable for a train station.
The current facility is planned to be replaced with two new stations—a large intermodal station near the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport and a smaller station in downtown Newport News. The city plans to begin design work for the larger station in the summer of 2011, for an opening sometime before 2016; as of 2011, the cost is estimated at $24 million. Newport News, VA – Amtrak Newport News Amtrak Station Newport News, VA The Train Station
Estuary Transit District
Estuary Transit District, doing business as 9 Town Transit, is the public transit provider for Connecticut River Estuary region. ETD provides public transit bus service through its 9 Town Transit service to the towns of Chester, Deep River, Essex, East Haddam, Killingworth, Old Lyme, Old Saybrook, Westbrook, Connecticut. Services are provided with no age or disability restrictions. ETD was named the Rural System of the Year in 2011 by the Community Transportation Association of America. ETD is a political sub-division of the State of Connecticut created in 1981 under Chapter 103 of the Connecticut General Statutes by the towns of Chester, Deep River, Killingworth, Old Lyme, Old Saybrook, Westbrook; each member town appoints one Director to the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors sets policies, establishes budgets, provides general direction for the District; each Director receives a weighted vote based on the population of the town which he or she represents. The Board of Directors employs an Executive Director to manage the day-to-day operations of the District.
All services are operated under the 9 Town Transit name. Services include door-to-door demand response transportation. All deviated-fixed routes begin at the Old Saybrook Train Station except Route 645 where free transfers between routes can be made. Deviated-fixed routes will deviate up to 3/4 mile off the published route for drop-offs. Reservations for off-route trips must be made one day in advance. Any trips along the route do not require reservations and can be made by flagging the bus down anywhere along the route. ETD's ridership has more than doubled since 2008. In August 2018, ETD switched to a new route numbering system, as part of a plan to unite all CTDOT services under one system, they utilize numbers 640-649. 9TT's oldest and most utilized deviated-fixed route. It operates Monday through Saturday along Route 1 between the Old Saybrook Train Station and the Scranton Gazebo in Madison. Route 641 serves such points of interest as Clinton Crossing Outlets, Westbrook Tanger Outlets, Water's Edge Resort, Wal-Mart, four grocery stores, four train stations, Old Saybrook's Main Street shopping and dining district, the Estuary Council of Seniors.
It provides connections to CTtransit Route 201 to New Haven and to Shoreline East Railroad. In December 2010, an additional evening trip was added and the schedule was improved to provide hourly service. In December 2011, Saturday hours were expanded and connections to CTtransit Route 201 were added. At the end of August 2018, it was renumbered from Route 1 to Route 641. Route 642 operates Monday through Saturday along Route 154 between the Old Saybrook Train Station and Chester Center. Route 642 serves such points of interest as Bokum Shopping Plaza and Memorial Medical Center, Essex Village, Centerbrook Industrial Park, Essex Steam Train, Deep River Center, Chester Center. In December 2010, the hours were expanded on weekdays to accommodate commuters, connections to the Route 1 were improved. At the end of August 2018, it was renumbered from Route 2 to Route 642. Starting out as Route 3, service began July 6, 2010, providing service along Route 1 between the Old Saybrook Train Station and the New London Transportation Center in downtown New London Monday through Friday.
It serves such points of interest as the Old Lyme Shopping Center, the Old Lyme Shore, Old Lyme Senior Center. Free transfers can be made to Southeast Area Transit bus service throughout the Norwich/New London region. In April 2012, the hours were extended to accommodate commuters. At the end of August 2018, it was renumbered from Route 3 to Route 643. Starting out as Route 4, service began in June 2009, connecting the Old Saybrook Train Station to the Middletown Bus Terminal in downtown Middletown Monday through Friday, it serves such points of interest as the Essex and Chester Park and Ride lots, Chester Center, Higganum Center, Middlesex Community College, Middlesex Hospital, downtown Middletown. Free connections may be made to Middletown Area CT Transit Hartford bus services. In April 2012, additional hours were added to fill the mid-day gap. At the end of August 2018, it was renumbered from Route 4 to Route 644. Route 645 began operation on August 27th, 2018, connecting the Scranton Gazebo in Madison to the Middletown Bus Terminal.
Points of interest include the train station in Clinton, Clinton Crossing Mall, Killingworth Town Hall, Haddam High School, Higganum Center and Middlesex Community College. Free connections may be made to Middletown Area CT Transit Hartford bus services. For those traveling in areas not served by routes, ETD offers door-to-door demand response service anywhere within Chester, Deep River, Essex, East Haddam, Killingworth, Old Lyme, Old Saybrook and Westbrook. Service must be reserved at least one day in advance. Dial-A-Ride is available to the general public with no age restrictions. Effective January 2, 2017, cash fares are $1.75 for all bus routes and $3.50 for Dial-A-Ride and off-route trips. Seniors 65+ and people with disabilities pay just $.85 on all routes with a Medicare card or Connecticut statewide reduced fare I. D. Pre-paid fares, such as 10-ride tickets and monthly passes are available for purchase online, at the main office or at many local supermarkets. Senior citizen residents age 60 and over may ride for a suggested donation of $.85 on-route and $1.75 off-route/Dial-A-Ride by registering with ETD in advance.
Transfers to other ETD routes or to connecting
Connecticut Transit Hartford
Connecticut Transit Hartford is the largest division of Connecticut Transit, providing service on 43 local routes, 5 "flyer" limited stop routes and 19 express routes throughout 27 towns in Hartford County, including Bloomfield, East Hartford, Glastonbury, Middletown, New Britain, Rocky Hill, South Windsor, West Hartford and Windsor, in addition to Hartford. Service is provided seven days a week with routes centered on Hartford; the Hartford Division provides connections with local routes in Bristol and New Britain Since 1979, the Hartford, New Haven and Stamford divisions of CTtransit have been operated by First Transit. For CTfastrak Routes 101-161 and Express Routes 923-925 & 928, see the CTfastrak page. Express Routes All routes in the CTtransit system, regardless of the operator, are numbered 901-999 Local routes All local CTtransit buses in the Hartford area, except for Routes 91 and 92, stop in their Downtown Hartford destinations. Other routes Connecticut Transit New Britain and Bristol Connecticut Transit New Haven Connecticut Transit Stamford Northeast Transportation CompanyAll of the above provide CTtransit route service.
CTtransit Hartford Bus Routes CT Dept. of Transportation: Local Bus Service
Boston Post Road
The Boston Post Road was a system of mail-delivery routes between New York City and Boston, that evolved into one of the first major highways in the United States. The three major alignments were the Lower Post Road, the Upper Post Road, the Middle Post Road. In some towns, the area near the Boston Post Road has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places, since it was the first road in the area, some buildings of historical significance were built along it; the Boston Post Road Historic District, including part of the road in Rye, New York, has been designated a National Historic Landmark. The Post Road is famous for milestones that date from the 18th century, many of which survive to this day. In parts of Connecticut, it is known as Route 6; the Upper Post Road was called the Pequot Path and had been in use by Native Americans long before Europeans arrived. Some of these important native trails were in many places as narrow as two feet. What is now called the Old Connecticut Path and the Bay Path were used by John Winthrop the Younger to travel from Boston to Springfield in November 1645, these form much of the basis for the Upper Post Road.
The colonists first used this trail to deliver the mail using post riders. The first ride to lay out the Upper Post Road started on January 1, 1673; the newly blazed trail was widened and smoothed to the point where horse-drawn wagons or stagecoaches could use the road. The country's first successful long-distance stagecoach service was launched by Levi Pease along the upper road in October 1783. During the 19th century, turnpike companies improved pieces of the road. Large sections of the various routes are still called Boston Post Road. Much of the Post Road is now U. S. Route 1, U. S. Route 5, U. S. Route 20. Mileposts were measured from the intersection of Broadway and Wall Street in New York and from the old Boston city-line on Washington Street, near the present-day Massachusetts Turnpike; the Metropolitan Railroad Company was chartered in 1853 to run streetcars down the stretch of the road on Washington Street in Roxbury, now served by the MBTA Silver Line. The Upper and Lower Boston Post Roads were designated U.
S. Routes 1 and 20 in 1925. Much of the route in Manhattan, where it was known as the Eastern Post Road, was abandoned between 1839 and 1844, when the current street grid was laid out as part of the Commissioners' Plan, advanced in 1811; the following sections of the road still exist: Broadway – Park Row – Bowery – Fourth Avenue – Broadway from Wall Street to Madison Square Park There is a large gap in midtown Manhattan before Post Road resumes its course north of Central Park St. Nicholas Avenue-Broadway: St. Nicholas Avenue from 110th Street, switching to Broadway at 169th Street and continuing to 228th Street 228th Street-Kingsbridge Avenue from Broadway to the old Kings Bridge over the old Harlem River bed; these milestones were once present in Manhattan: 1 – the west side of Bowery near Rivington Street 2 – southwest corner of Astor Place and Fourth Avenue 3 – Madison Avenue and 26th Street 4 – east side of Third Avenue, halfway between 45th Street and 46th Street 5 – west side of Second Avenue at 62nd Street 6 – northwest corner of Third Avenue and 81st Street 7 – in Central Park, west of Fifth Avenue, between 97th Street and 98th Street 8 – St. Nicholas Avenue, west side, between 115th Street and 116th Street 9 – St. Nicholas Avenue, west side, opposite north line of 133rd Street 10 – southwest corner of St. Nicholas Avenue and 152nd Street 11 – Broadway, west side, near 170th Street or 171st Street 12 – Broadway, west side, at or near 189th Street 13 – east side of Broadway between Academy Street and 204th Street 14 – Broadway, west side, between 225th Street and 228th Street In southwestern Westchester County, now the Bronx, the Boston Post Road came off the Kings Bridge and turned east, with the Albany Post Road continuing north to Albany, New York.
It passed over the Bronx River on the Williams Bridge, left The Bronx on Bussing Avenue, becoming Kingsbridge Road in Westchester County. In more detail, it used the following modern roads: Kingsbridge Avenue – 230th Street – Broadway – 231st Street Albany Post Road continued north on Albany Crescent Albany Crescent – Kingsbridge Terrace – Heath Avenue gap across Jerome Park Reservoir Van Cortlandt Avenue gap at Williamsbridge Reservoir Reservoir Place – Gun Hill Road – White Plains Road gap from near 217th Street to near 231st Street Bussing Avenue gap from Grace Avenue to De Reimer Avenue Bussing Place – Bussing Avenue Pelham Manor New Rochelle Larchmont Mamaroneck Rye Port ChesterThe Boston Post Road entered what is now Westchester County on Kingsbridge Road, turned north on Third Avenue-Columbus Avenue, forking off onto Colonial Place, it continued across Sandford Boulevard where there is no longer a road, curved east and southeast around the hill, hitting Sandford Boulevard-Colonial Avenue at the Hutchinson River Parkway interchange.
It continued east on Colonial Avenue-Kings Highway, merging with U. S. Route 1. From there to the Connecticut border, the Post Road used US 1, except for several places, where Post Road used the following roads: The southboun
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Northeast Corridor is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States. Owned by Amtrak, it runs from Boston through Providence, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia through Wilmington, Baltimore to Washington, D. C; the NEC parallels Interstate 95 for most of its length, is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency as of 2013. The NEC carries more than 2,200 trains daily. Branches to Harrisburg, Springfield and various points in Virginia are not considered part of the Northeast Corridor, despite frequent service from routes that run on the corridor; the corridor is used by many Amtrak trains, including the high-speed Acela Express, intercity trains, several long-distance trains. Most of the corridor has frequent commuter rail service, operated by the MBTA, Shore Line East, Metro-North Railroad, New Jersey Transit, SEPTA, MARC. Several companies run freight trains over sections of the NEC. Much of the line is built for speeds higher than the 79 mph maximum allowed on many U.
S. tracks. Amtrak operates intercity Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains at up to 125 mph, as well as North America's only high-speed train, the Acela Express, which runs up to 150 mph on a few sections in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Acela covers the 225 miles between New York and Washington, D. C. in under 3 hours, the 229 miles between New York and Boston in under 3.5 hours. Under Amtrak's $151 billion Northeast Corridor plan, which hopes to halve travel times by 2040, trips between New York and Washington via Philadelphia would take 94 minutes; the Northeast Corridor was built by several railroads between the 1830s and 1917. The route was consolidated under two railroads: the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad between Boston and New York, the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington. Boston–Providence: Boston and Providence Railroad opened 1835 realigned in 1847 and in 1899. Became part of the Old Colony Railroad in 1888. Providence–Stonington: New York and Boston Railroad opened 1837.
Stonington–New Haven: New Haven, New London and Stonington Railroad opened 1852–1889, realigned in New Haven, 1894. New Haven–New Rochelle: New York and New Haven Railroad opened 1849. New Rochelle–Port Morris: Harlem River and Port Chester Railroad opened 1873. Port Morris–Sunnyside Yard: New York Connecting Railroad: opened 1917. Sunnyside Yard–Manhattan Transfer: Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal Railroad opened 1910. Manhattan Transfer–Trenton: United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company opened 1834–1839, 1841. Trenton–Frankford Junction: Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad opened 1834. Frankford Junction–Zoo Tower: Connecting Railway opened 1867. Zoo Tower–Grays Ferry Bridge: Junction Railroad opened 1863–1866. Grays Ferry–Bayview: Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad opened 1837–1838, 1866, 1906. Bayview Yard–Baltimore Union Station: Union Railroad opened 1873. Baltimore Union Station–Landover: Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road opened 1872. Landover–Washington, D. C.: Magruder Branch opened 1907 The New York Central Railroad began planning electrification between Grand Central Terminal and the split at Mott Haven after the opening of the first electrified urban rail terminal in 1900, the Gare d'Orsay in Paris, France.
Electricity was in use on some branch lines of the NYNH&H for interurban streetcars via third rail or trolley wire. An accident in the Park Avenue Tunnel near the present Grand Central Terminal that killed 17 people on January 8, 1902 was blamed on smoke from steam locomotives; the NH announced in 1905 that it would electrify its main line from New York to Stamford, Connecticut. Along with the construction of the new Grand Central Terminal, opened in 1912, the NYC electrified its lines, beginning on December 11, 1906 with suburban multiple unit service to High Bridge on the Hudson Line. Electric locomotives began serving Grand Central on February 13, 1907, all NYC passenger service into Grand Central was electrified on July 1. NH electrification began on July 24 to New Rochelle, August 5 to Port Chester and October 6, 1907 the rest of the way to Stamford. Steam trains last operated into Grand Central on June 30, 1908, after which all NH passenger trains into Manhattan were electrified. In June 1914, the NH electrification was extended to New Haven, the terminus of electrified service for over 80 years.
At the same time, the PRR was building its Pennsylvania Station and electrified approaches, which were served by the PRR's lines in New Jersey and the Long Island Rail Road. LIRR electric service began in 1905 on the Atlantic Branch from downtown Brooklyn past Jamaica, in June 1910 on the branch to Long Island City, part of the main line to Penn Station. Penn Station opened September 8, 1910 for LIRR trains and November 27 for the PRR. PRR trains changed engines at Manhattan Transfer. On July 29, 1911, NH began electric service on its Harlem River Branch, a suburban branch that would become a main line with the completion of the New York Connecting Railroad and its Hell Gate Bridge; the bridge opened on April 1, 1917, but was operated by steam with an engine change at Sunnyside Yard east of Penn Station until 1918. Electrification of the portion north of New Haven to Providence and Boston had been planned by the N