SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Old Scona Academic High School

Old Scona Academic School referred to as Old Scona or OSA, is a high school located in the Old Strathcona district of Edmonton, Alberta. It is a small academic high school with a population of 340 to 360 students; the school's stated purpose is to provide academically inclined students an opportunity to grow in an environment of intellectual stimulation. The school's motto is, "Always to Excel"; the building housing Old Scona Academic was opened in 1908 as Strathcona Collegiate Institute, one of the first high schools in Edmonton. University of Alberta classes were held on the upper floors from 1909 to 1911. In 1912, the name of the school was changed to Strathcona High School. Strathcona High School closed in 1958, following the opening of Strathcona Composite High School in 1955 and of Bonnie Doon High School in 1958.. Following the closure of the high school the building was used as Strathcona Junior High School, it saw use for continuing education, special education, as an annex for MacEwan University when that institution was founded in 1971.

In 1976, the Board of Trustees of Edmonton Public Schools opened Old Scona Academic High School, an academic alternative high school in the original Strathcona Collegiate Institute building. Since June 1980, Old Scona Academic has been an International Baccalaureate World School. Old Scona Academic has been recognized as one of the best high schools in Canada. In addition to its Maclean's ranking, OSA has been ranked by the Fraser Institute as the best high school in Alberta. In 2011, it was featured as the top-ranked high school in the Edmonton Sun's High School Report Card; the 120 students who enter OSA each year are chosen on the basis of set criteria from an excess of applicants. Prospective students are evaluated using a standardized admission exam, in addition to grade 9 marks and a character assessment from a Junior High counselor or principal. Only applications from students with an overall average of at least 80%, from Science, Math and Language Arts, are considered. For grade 10 applicants, an overall average of 80% is required, although summer-school courses are not included.

Old Scona Academic offers the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program in addition to fulfilling the Alberta Education Curriculum. Students begin grade ten enrolled in a pre-I. B. program. During this year, students must elect to either pursue the full I. B. program, a partial I. B. program, or the basic Alberta Education Curriculum. Most OSA students enroll in partial I. B. with ten to twenty students a year opting for the full I. B. program. The Old Scona Academic Higher Level I. B. course offerings as of 2010 are English A1, European History and Physics. Mathematics, Computer Science, French B, Group 6 arts are offered only at the Standard Level. Most courses are offered as regular Alberta 20 and 30 level classes, for those students only taking the basic Alberta Education Curriculum or partial I. B. program. Students who elect to undertake the full two-year I. B. program to receive an I. B. Diploma, must complete all six groups of courses, as per the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program; this includes Group 1: English, Group 2: Second Language, Group 3: Individuals and Societies, Group 4: Experimental Sciences, Group 5: Mathematics and Computer Science, Group 6: Arts.

At least three of these groups must be completed at Higher Level. In addition to these classes, I. B. program students must take the Theory of Knowledge class, complete an extended essay, must document a number of extra-curricular and community involvement hours known as CAS hours. Unlike other Canadian provinces, Alberta does not allow completion of the I. B. Diploma program to be used in lieu of the provincial diploma; as a result, on top of their I. B. course load, full I. B. program students must fulfill the requirements of the Alberta Education Curriculum that do not get covered by the I. B. program, such as the Career and Life Management course, physical education, ten credit 30-level course requirements. Additionally, many post-secondary institutions will not use the I. B. program for acceptance. Many, for example, require completion of Chemistry and Physics at the 30-level; as the I. B. program only requires one of these courses for Group 4, students must take the remaining two outside of the I.

B. program. These combined requirements lead to lengthy course loads and extended class hours / homework; as a result of these demands, most students at Old Scona Academic choose to pursue a partial I. B. program. While this does not grant the student any I. B. Diploma status, there are benefits to completing many 30-level classes in I. B. Higher Level. Many post-secondary institutions will view completion of these higher level classes, as equivalent to completing comparative introductory classes in the post-secondary level. Therefore, students can use partial I. B. to get credit for many introductory post-secondary classes like Biology and English, saving both time and tuition on. Because OSA is a small school, it has a limited selection of elective classes; these include choral music, instrumental music, jazz band, performing arts, debate, theory of knowledge, computer applications, computer programming. Physical education at the 20 and 30 level is not required by the Alberta Education Curriculum, but is offered as electives for students.

In the past, many students hav

Supreme Decree 21060

Supreme Decree 21060, promulgated by Bolivian President Víctor Paz Estenssoro on 29 August 1985, was a legal instrument that imposed neoliberal economic policies in order to end Bolivia's twin crises of international debt and hyperinflation. In 1985, under the fourth term of President Paz Estenssoro, the economic situation in Bolivia was undermined with a galloping hyperinflation and the country was unable to pay its debt to the International Monetary Fund. A plan was drawn by Jeffrey Sachs, Professor at Harvard University, at that time active as economic adviser to the Bolivian government. Bolivia was the first country; the IMF gave the Bolivian government $57 million in credit. Additionally, the World Bank began lending money to the country again; the main "shock therapy" measures of decree 21060 in Bolivia were: The linking of the Bolivian economy to the US Dollar. The Bolivian peso devaluated with 93 percent over one night, in fact installing the US Dollar as currency and denying the country to commit an own monetary policy.

Accounts in any currency were authorized and interest rates were freed. A drastic pushing back of the government shortage; this meant adapting tariffs and prices to the "reality", resulting in a price explosion of goods and services. The government ended all subsidies to the public sector. Two thirds of the employees of the tin and oil companies managed by the government and scaling back the salaries of the remaining third part and public sector salaries were frozen till December 1985; the liberalization of the market. This include the end of protection of certain destitute sectors by the government; the Bolivian Development Corporation, one of the largest state enterprises, the National Transportation Authority were dissolved, passing their property on to regional development corporations. These in turn had the task of privatization of enterprises. Restrictions on foreign commerce were abolished with the elimination of quotas. Above that a single duty of 20 percent was fixed for all importations.

This resulted in the local production of goods and services coming under enormous press and mainly succumbed. In order not to place the Bolivian economy under unnecessary pressure the payment of the foreign debt was stopped for some years; this agreement between Bolivia and the IMF was done under the strict condition that the complete economic reforms, as drawn by Jeffrey Sachs would be implemented without condition. In the short term, the decree smothered hyperinflation. Within a few months, inflation had dropped from peaks of 20,000 to between 10–20 percent; when Jeffrey Sachs left the country in 1987 it had fallen to 11 percent. Economy of Bolivia Shock Therapy: Bolivia, Russia - Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada Shock Therapy on the Altiplano

Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin, known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd. After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo. Kalinin remained head of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence, he died in the same year. The former East-Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him; the city of Tver was known as Kalinin until the end of the Soviet Union in 1990.

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was born to a peasant family of ethnic Russian origin in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Tver Governorate, Russia. He was the elder brother of Fedor Kalinin. Kalinin worked for a time on a farm, he moved to Saint Petersburg, where he found employment as a metal worker in 1895. He worked as a butler and as a railway worker at Tbilisi depot, where he met Sergei Alliluyev, the father of Stalin's second wife. In 1906, he married the ethnic Jew Ekaterina Lorberg who originated from Estonia (Russian: Екатерина Ивановна Лорберг. Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898, the year of its foundation, he came to know Stalin through the Alliluyev family. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Kalinin worked for the Bolshevik party and on the staff of the Central Union of Metal Workers, he became active on behalf of the RSDLP in Tiflis, Reval and Moscow. In April 1906 he served as a delegate at the 4th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Kalinin was an early and devoted adherent of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, headed by Vladimir Lenin. He was a delegate to the 1912 Bolshevik Party Conference held in Prague, where he was elected an alternate member of the governing Central Committee and sent to work inside Russia, he did not become a full member. Kalinin was arrested for his political activities in 1916 and freed during the February Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the tsarist state. Kalinin joined the Petrograd Bolshevik committee and assisted in the organization of the party daily Pravda, now legalized by the new regime. In April 1917 Kalinin, like many other Bolsheviks, advocated conditional support for the Provisional Government in cooperation with the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP, a position at odds with that of Lenin, he continued to oppose an armed uprising to overthrow the government of Alexander Kerensky throughout that summer. In the elections held for the Petrograd City Duma in autumn 1917, Kalinin was chosen as mayor of the city, which he administered during and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 7 November.

In 1919, Kalinin was elected a member of the governing Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party as well as a candidate member of the Politburo. He was promoted to full membership on the Politburo in January 1926, a position which he retained until his death in 1946; when Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov died in March 1919,Kalinin replaced him as President of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the titular head of state of Soviet Russia. The name of this position was changed to Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1922 and to Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1938. Kalinin continued to hold the post without interruption until his retirement at the end of World War II. In 1920, Kalinin attended the Second World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow as part of the Russian delegation, he took an active part in the debates. Kalinin was a factional ally of Stalin during the bitter struggle for power after the death of Lenin in 1924, he delivered a report on Lenin and the Comintern to the Fifth World Congress in 1924.

Kalinin was one of the comparatively few members of Stalin's inner circle springing from peasant origins. The lowly social origins were publicised in the official press, which habitually referred to Kalinin as the "All-Union headman", a term hearkening to the village commune, in conjunction with his role as titular head of state. In practical terms, by the 1930s, Kalinin's role as a decision-maker in the Soviet government was nominal, he held little influence beyond receiving diplomatic letters from abroad. Recalling him, future Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said, "I don't know what practical work Kalinin carried out under Lenin, but under Stalin he was the nominal signatory of all decrees, while in reality he took part in government business. Sometimes he was made a member of a commission, but people didn't take his opinion into account much, it was embarrassing for us to see this.