Lisvane is an affluent community in the north of Cardiff, the capital of Wales, located 5 miles north of the city centre. Lisvane is considered to be one of the wealthiest residential areas of Wales, with an average house price £410,000 as of 2011, with many properties worth in excess of £1 million. Lisvane has 3,319 residents, comprises 1,700 dwellings, a local village shop, a primary school, a community cabin library, a park, a nursery, a parish church, a public house, a war memorial, a Scout hall and community or village hall; the Welsh language name Llys-faen means'Stone Court'. There have been several alternative spellings in the English language over the centuries such as: Lysvayen, Llisuine, Lysfayn, Lucyvenye, Leysvayen, Les Ffayne, Lliffeni; the village settled on the present name from around 1630. Each early Welsh kingdom was divided into lesser administrative units, which were further subdivided into Cymydau. In each commote the royal taxation house was a large building made certainly of stone because it had to be permanent, weather proof and thief proof.
The commote of Cibbwr/Kibbor was on land between Cefn Onn ridge and the coast and most historians agree that Llys-faen was its administrative centre, however Roath has staked a claim. There is now no indication of the actual whereabouts of the Llys Faen or Stone Court, although various theories have been advanced; the earthworks at Graig Llwyn is held to be the oldest artificial feature in Lisvane, proposed by several archaeologists to be the remains of an Iron Age stronghold. No definite date or purpose can yet be confirmed for this earthwork. At the start of the 13th century the parish lands of Llanishen and Lisvane had been divided into Norman manors that were expected to provide food for the castle garrisoned at Cardiff; the southern facing slopes of the ridge above Lisvane with their rich agricultural land soon became the grain growing area for the supplies which were transported to Roath Mill for processing. There is a local legend that Oliver Cromwell once stayed at the Black Griffin Inn, prior to the Battle of St Fagans in May 1648 and that the Cromwell family once lived there briefly.
There is no evidence to support this, though Cromwell must have lodged somewhere, but it is more that the Inn's only Cromwellian association is with soldiers of Cromwell's Model army. Cromwell was, however, of Welsh ancestry and his great-grandfather came from this area; the farmhouse, on the Graig slope overlooking the village, was included in the estate of the Lewis family. In 1900 part of the estate was let to Lisvane Golf Club, who established a 9-hole course there but two years the club moved to Radyr, taking the clubhouse with them. From just after the Second World War, the fox hounds of the local Lisvane Hunt were kennelled at Tŷ Mawr until it became a public house in the 1960s; the Llanishen and Lisvane Hunt had several homes over the years with the hunts most latterly setting off from Llan Farm on Graig Llwyn Road. The village hunt disbanded around 1997 on the death of the hunt Master. There is a local tradition that for a period during the 1800s, Erw-wen, on Rudry Road, was a pub or beer house called the Red Cow, although no documentary proof has been found.
Unlike the Norman parish church of St Denys that has stood for over seven hundred years, the first Baptist Chapel in Lisvane was built in 1789 on Chapel Road, now renamed Rudry Road, only stood for less than thirty years until it had to be rebuilt during 1818. Less than forty years the foundations of the second church were becoming unsafe and a third chapel was constructed, but by 1910 further renovations and repairs were necessary as it had become dilapidated. Just a hundred years the Methodist congregation no longer supports a separate chapel building and now holds its weekly services in the Memorial Hall. A few yards away from the Ordnance Survey's triangulation point on the Graig stands Lisvane's only Cold War nuclear bunker. During World War II the Royal Observer Corps observation post stood on the Graig with its clear views over the village and the city of Cardiff; the volunteer ROC observers spotted many German Luftwaffe raids approaching across the channel and activated the air raid warnings in the Cardiff area.
In early 1966 a protected nuclear fallout shelter was completed on the site for the ROC, who by the 1960s had switched from above ground aircraft spotting to underground operations with instruments to detect nuclear explosions and warn the public of approaching radioactive fallout in the event of nuclear war. The only time post members had been mobilised and volunteers spent nearly ten days underground was during the Cuban Missile Crisis as the government prepared the country for potential outbreak of war; the Lisvane nuclear bunker was abandoned by the ROC in 1991 when the Corps itself was disbanded with the end of the Cold War and as a result of recommendations in the governments Options for Change review of UK defence. The Lisvane nuclear bunker still exists but it was purchased by a mobile phone communications company who built a radio mast inside the fenced compound and sited some of their equipment in the underground facility; the village has an elected community council with ten elected members.
It is represented by Conservatives on the city council. The electoral ward of Lisvane elects a single councillor to Cardiff Council. Since 1999 this has been David Walker for the Conservative Party. Before 1999, Lisvane was, with St Mellons and Pontprennau, part of the ward of Lisvane and St Mellons, which elected a single councillor to Cardiff Council. At the 1
Tongwynlais is a village and community in the north of Cardiff, north of the M4 motorway in the Taff Valley. It is notable as the location of Castell Coch. Tongwynlais is believed to have obtained its name from the word ton meaning ley land, i.e. pasture, grassland or unploughed land, Gwynlais, the name of a local family, thus "pasture of Gwynlais". Tongwynlais lies in the River Taff Valley, its population was 1946 at the 2001 census. Tongwynlais is located near Junction 32 of the M4 motorway, east of Bridgend and west of Newport, the A470 trunk road, it is situated 7 miles south of Pontypridd. The surrounding towns and villages are Pentyrch and Radyr to the west, Taffs Well and Caerphilly to the north, Rhiwbina and Whitchurch to the south. Tongwynlais became part of Cardiff In 1974. Many consider Tongwynlais as the entrance to the South Wales Valleys from Cardiff, with its famous landmark, Castell Coch, on a hillside; the main route to the Valleys, beyond to Mid Wales, the A470, runs alongside the village.
To the north of the village is a forest of about 100 hectares or 250 acres called Fforest Fawr, run by the Forestry Commission. Tongwynlais is separated from the rest of Cardiff by the M4 and the A470 to the south and west and hills and forestry to the east. Tongwynlais is considered to be part of the Cardiff North Rural Area. Tongwynlais is home to two pubs, several shops, a football club, a rugby club, a 9-hole golf course, Tongwynlais Library; the Taff Trail cycle route passes through the village, it is a popular resting point between sections. The Cardiff Railway once ran through Tongwynlais, it passed through a tunnel just beneath Castell Coch. Tongwynlais railway station opened in 1911 and closed in 1931; the nearest station on the Coryton Line is Coryton railway station. Radyr railway station is nearby. National Assembly Tongwynlais is in the Cardiff North constituency for the National Assembly for Wales represented by Julie Morgan AM, a member of the Welsh Labour Party. Houses of Parliament Cardiff North is represented by Anna McMorrin MP, a member of the Labour Party.
Local Government Tongwynlais is part of the Whitchurch & Tongwynlais electoral ward of Cardiff City Council and is represented by 4 councillors all of the Conservative Party. In addition, Tongwynlais is governed by a community council. Tongwynlais' most notable building is the Victorian era folly castle called Castell Coch English: Red Castle, open to the public, it was built on top of the ruins of a 13th century castle thought to belong to Ifor Bach, a local Welsh ruler. It was rebuilt and transformed in the late 1870s into a fantasy castle by William Burges for the 3rd Marquess of Bute. There is a parish church and two Nonconformist chapels still open to worshippers in the village: St Michael and All Angels Ainon Baptist Church Bethesda United Reformed Church There were once two other chapels in the village, which have since closed and been converted into private residences; the band RocketGoldStar wrote a song about the village. They recorded it for a BBC Radio 1 Maida Vale Session. Tongwynlais Brass Band has been in existence since the 19th century and continues to compete in national competitions as well as performing concerts.
Castell Coch Choral Society does a lot of charitable work and has performed in the Czech Republic. The Welsh glam metal band Tigertailz named a song on Disc 1 of their Thrill Pistol album "Tongwynlais Fly". Hutton, J. An Illustrated History of Cardiff Docks. Volume 3: The Cardiff Railway Company and the docks at war. Silver Link 2009 GENUKI page www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Tongwynlais and surrounding area tongwynlais.org Community Council website tongwynlais.com Independent hyperlocal website Map sources for Tongwynlais
Butetown is a district and community in the south of the city of Cardiff, the capital of Wales. It was a model housing estate built in the early 19th century by John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute, for whose title the area was named. Known as "Tiger Bay", this area became one of the UK's first multicultural communities with people from over 50 countries settled here by the outbreak of the First World War, working in the docks and allied industries; some of the largest communities included the Somalis and Greeks, whose influence still lives on today. A Greek Orthodox church still stands at the top of Bute Street, it is known as one of the "five towns of Cardiff", the others being Crockherbtown, Grangetown and Temperance Town. The population of the ward taken at the 2011 census was 10,125. In the 1960s, most of the original housing was demolished including the historic Loudoun Square, the original heart of Butetown. In its place was a typical 1960s housing estate of low-rise courts and alleys, two high rise blocks of flats.
In the 1980s, the new Atlantic Wharf development was built on the reclaimed West Bute Dock, has involved the construction of some 1,300 new houses. Together with the developments in the Inner Harbour and Roath Basin, it was hoped this would spur redevelopment and employment in Butetown, but it seems not to have; the divide between the wealthy Cardiff Bay, the poor Tiger Bay seems as wide as although some of the surviving areas of historic Butetown are becoming prime office and retail locations. With the new Century Wharf development to the west on the banks of the Taff, the housing estate is becoming a little'boxed in', increasing feelings of exclusion. Over the next few decades, the 1960s housing will require renewal and it is hoped that new development will be more suitable of the urban context of the area and will provide a better mix of private and public housing to help integrate the community with the rest of the city. A three-year £13m project to redevelop a shopping parade, community hub, health centre and homes in Butetown began in 2010.
The Loudoun Square development will include environmental aspects such as harvesting rain water. The project is a collaboration between Cardiff Community Housing Association, Cardiff Council and Cardiff and Vale University Health Board; the facilities and 62 new homes will follow four years of consultation with local residents. The 2011 census included the following demographic information: Overall Population: 10,125 White: 65.7% Black: 11.3% Asian: 9.7% Mixed Ethnicity: 5.7% Other Ethnic Groups: 7.7%People identifying themselves as Welsh: 42.8% The growth of the docks in the mid 19th century attracted a significant Welsh-speaking community to the area. To serve this community three Welsh-language chapels were opened: Bethania, Loudon Square. A Welsh-speaking Anglican church opened in the area in 1856. One of the members of Butetown’s Welsh-speaking community was Evan Rees, a worker in the Bute Docks in the 1870s and a future Archdruid of Wales; the 1891 census showed that 15% of Butetown’s population could speak Welsh higher than the Cardiff average of 10.7%.
Some parts had a high percentage, such as the Loudon Square/James Street area. During the 20th century, the percentage declined, although Welsh-speakers remained a recognised part of the local community. In the 2011 census it was recorded that 9.6 % of Butetown residents could speak Welsh. This was a significant increase on the figures for the 2001 census, which were 356 and 8.3%. The area is served by Cardiff Bay railway station with shuttle services every 12 minutes to Cardiff Queen Street. Cardiff Bus operates the 11 service to Pengam Green via Central station and Tremorfa and the 35 service to Gabalfa via Central Stn and Cathays, it on the 1/2 Bay Circle route connecting the area with Grangetown, Fairwater, Gabalfa, Cathays, Tremorfa and the City Centre. Butetown enjoys the incorporating Cardiff Bay, thus benefiting from its public transport opportunities such as the Baycar bus route. Bute Street and Lloyd George Avenue, running parallel, link the area to the city centre; the A4232 links it to Culverhouse Cross and the M4 J33 Cardiff West to the west and to Adamsdown in the east.
The electoral ward of Butetown is located in the parliamentary constituency of Cardiff South and Penarth. It is bounded by the wards of Adamsdown to the north. On Cardiff Council, the Butetown ward has been represented since 2017 by Cllr Saeed Ebrahim. Butetown History and Art Centre Listed buildings in Butetown Sailortown "Butetown: Industries and Buildings". Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Gabalfa is a district and community in the north of the city of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It is characterised by a four-lane fly over road at the Gabalfa Interchange, where the A48 road meets the A470 road which leads from Cardiff to northern Wales, the A469 road; the area is the site of the All Nations Centre. The name is derived from the Welsh'Ceubalfa', translated as'place of the boat', it was the site of a ferry crossing across the River Taff, upon which a school is now built. The area around St. Joseph's Church near to Companies' House is known as'the Colonies' due to the number of street names after former British colonies, such as Australia Road, Newfoundland Road and many more; the electoral ward of Gabalfa lies within the parliamentary constituency of Cardiff North, represented since 2017 by Welsh Labour MP Anna McMorrin. In the Welsh Assembly, Cardiff North is represented by Welsh Labour AM Julie Morgan. Gabalfa was served by two councillors: Ed Bridges, elected in 2004, Gareth Holden, elected in 2012.
Holden was elected as a Liberal Democrat but resigned from the party in 2013. He lost out to a Liberal Democrat candidate in the May 2017 election, it is bounded by Birchgrove and Heath to the north and Maindy to the south, Llandaff North to the northwest. The area is known for the Gabalfa Interchange where the A48 Eastern Avenue, A470 North Road, the A469 Whitchurch Road /Caerphilly Road meet. Cardiff Bus' service 35 bus circles the area before heading to Cardiff Bay via Cathays and Central station. Services 1/2 Bay Circle run along Western Avenue towards Heath or Llandaff. Additionally, the following services stop at the Gabalfa Interchange: 8 or 21 or 23 or 24 25 27 Capital City Green or 35 or There are no railway stations located within Gabalfa, although a new railway station serving the ward has been proposed as part of the county council's local transport plan; the nearest railway stations are Heath Low Level and Heath High Level to the north of the ward, Cathays to the south. Llandaf railway station is in reasonable distance of western parts of Gabalfa, with services northbound to either Treherbert, Merthyr Tydfil or Aberdare via Pontypridd or southbound to Cardiff Central via Queen Street.
Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Gabalfa and surrounding area
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
Llandaff is a district and coterminous electoral ward in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It was incorporated into the city in 1922, it is the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, whose diocese within the Church in Wales covers the most populous area of South Wales. Most of the history of Llandaff centres on its role as a religious site. Before the creation of Llandaff Cathedral, it became established as a Christian place of worship in the 6th century AD because of its location as the first firm ground north of the point where the river Taff met the Bristol Channel, because of its pre-Christian location as a river crossing on a north-south trade route. Evidence of Romano-British ritual burials have been found under the present cathedral; the date of the moving of the cathedral to Llandaff is disputed, but elements of the fabric date from the 12th century, such as the impressive Romanesque Urban Arch, named after the 12th century Bishop, Urban. It has had a history of continual destruction and restoration, as a result of warfare and natural disaster.
Llandaff has been a focal point of devastating attacks by Oliver Cromwell. It was the second most damaged cathedral in the UK, following Luftwaffe bombing during World War II, subsequently restored by the architect George Pace. One of its main modern points of interest is the aluminium figure of Christ in Majesty, by Jacob Epstein, suspended above the nave. In 2007, a lightning strike to its spire sent a surge through the building, its replacement, the largest to be built in the UK for over 40 years, was inaugurated in 2010. A bishop's palace, now in ruins, lies to the south of the cathedral, it is believed it was constructed at a similar date in the late 13th century. It is believed it was abandoned after being attacked and damaged by Glyndŵr in the 15th century; the gatehouse of the Palace survives, the courtyard is now a public garden. Llandaff never developed into a chartered borough, by the 19th century, was described as "reduced to a mere village... It consists of little more than two short streets of cottages, not lighted or paved, terminating in a square, into which the great gateway of the old palace opened, where are still several genteel houses."
Llandaff was informally known as a'city', because of its status as the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff. This city status was never recognised because the community did not possess a charter of incorporation; the ancient parish of Llandaff included a wide area. Apart from Llandaff itself, it included the townships of Canton, Ely and Gabalfa. During the development of the South Wales coalfield and Cardiff Docks, the parish was absorbed into the Borough of Cardiff during the 19th and 20th centuries. Seen as a clean and green up-market countrified village location close to the fast developing city, many of the better-off coal merchants and business people chose to live in Llandaff, including the Insole family; the house now known as Insole Court dates from 1856. Llandaff itself became a civil parish, from 1894 to 1922, was part of the Llandaff and Dinas Powis Rural District. On 9 November 1922, the county borough of Cardiff was extended to include the area. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Llandaff was 8,997.
91.6% were recorded as being of various white ethnicities. 65% of the population were returned as Christian, with about 1.5% each being Hindu or Muslim, 30% having no religion or no stated religion. In the 2011 census, 15.3% of the population over 3 years old in Llandaff were recorded as speaking Welsh, or 1,337 people. This was a small drop compared to the 2001 census figure, 15.4%. The headquarters of BBC Cymru Wales is in Llandaff. Research by Owen John Thomas shows the historical strength of the Welsh language in Llandaff. According to his book:'Yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Nghaerdydd c. 1800–1914’, the nonconformist church in Cardiff Road was a Welsh-language church in 1813. His work shows that Welsh was the main language of the street in Llandaff in the 17th century. Llandaff is both an electoral ward, a community of the City of Cardiff. There is no community council for the area; the electoral ward of Llandaff is bounded by Morganstown to the north west. The ward is represented by two councillors on Cardiff Council, Sean Driscoll and Philippa Hill-John, both members of the Conservative Party.
In the UK Parliament, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West. Its most prominent MPs were former Speaker of the House of Commons; the current MP is Labour's Kevin Brennan, elected in 2001. In the Welsh Assembly, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West, whose current AM since 2011 is Mark Drakeford of Labour; the constituency falls within the electoral region of South Wales Central, whose four current AMs are Conservatives Andrew R. T. Davies and David Melding. Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff campus St. Michael's College, Anglican theological college Bishop of Llandaff Church in Wales High School, English medium. Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf, Welsh medium. Danescourt Primary School, English medium. Ll
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion