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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style and New Style are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January. Related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries; this change was implemented subsequently in Protestant and Orthodox countries at much dates. In England and Wales and the British colonies, the change to the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar Act 1750. In Scotland, the legal start of the year had been moved to 1 January, but Scotland otherwise continued to use the Julian calendar until 1752.

Thus "New Style" can either refer to the start of year adjustment, or to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar. In Russia, new style dates came into use in early 1918. Other countries in Eastern Orthodoxy adopted new style dating for their civil calendars but most continue to use the Julian calendar for religious use. In English-language histories of other countries, the Anglophone OS/NS convention is used to identify which calendar is being used when giving a date; when recording British history it is usual to use the dates recorded at the time of the event, with the year adjusted to start on 1 January. But the start of the Julian year was not always 1 January, was altered at different times in different countries. From 1155 to 1752, the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March so for example the execution of Charles I was recorded at the time in parliament as happening on 30 January 1648. In newer English language texts this date is shown as "30 January 1649"; the corresponding date in the Gregorian calendar is 9 February 1649, the date by which his contemporaries in some parts of continental Europe would have recorded his execution.

The O. S./N. S. Designation is relevant for dates which fall between the start of the "historical year" and the official start date, where different; this was 25 March in England and the colonies until 1752. During the years between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar in continental Europe and its introduction in Britain, contemporary usage in England started to change. In Britain 1 January was celebrated as the New Year festival, but the "year starting 25th March was called the Civil or Legal Year, although the phrase Old Style was more used." To reduce misunderstandings about the date, it was normal in parish registers to place a new year heading after 24 March and another heading at the end of the following December, "1661/62", a form of dual dating to indicate that in the following few weeks the year was 1661 Old Style but 1662 New Style. Some more modern sources more academic ones use the "1661/62" style for the period between 1 January and 25 March for years before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in England.

Scotland had partly made the change: its calendar year had begun on 1 January since 1600. Through the enactment of the British Calendar Act 1750 and of the Irish Parliament's Calendar Act, 1750, Great Britain and the British Empire adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752, by which time it was necessary to correct by 11 days. Wednesday, 2 September 1752, was followed by Thursday, 14 September 1752. Claims that rioters demanded "Give us our eleven days" grew out of a misinterpretation of a painting by William Hogarth; the British tax year traditionally began on Lady Day on the Julian calendar and this became 5 April, the "New Style" equivalent. A 12th skipped Julian leap day in 1800 changed its start to 6 April, it was not changed when a 13th Julian leap day was skipped in 1900, so the tax year in the United Kingdom still begins on 6 April. The European colonies of the Americas adopted the new style calendar when their mother countries did. In what is now the continental United States, the French and Spanish possessions did so before the British colony.

In Alaska, the change took place after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia. Friday, 6 October 1867 was followed by 18 October. Instead of 12 days, only 11 were skipped, the day of the week was repeated on successive days, because at the same time the International Date Line was moved, from following Alaska's eastern border with Canada to following its new western border, now with Russia, it is common in English language publications to use the familiar Old Style and/or New Style terms when discussing events and personalities in other countries with reference to the Russian Empire and the very-early Russian Soviet. For example, in the article "The October Revolution" the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the format of "25 October" to describe the date of the start of the revolution; when this usage is encountered, the British adoption date is not intended. The'start of year' change and the calendar system change were not always adopted concurrently. Civil and religious adoption may not have happened at the same time (o

Michelle de Bruin

Michelle de Bruin is a sculptor and artist, working in stone. She has been based in the Scottish Borders since 1993. Michelle de Bruin studied at the Lincoln School of Art, subsequently at the Glasgow School of Art, graduating from the Sculpture Department of the School of Fine Art in 1990, her early public work is featured in Sculpture in Glasgow - An Illustrated Handbook, Public Sculpture of Glasgow and in the website "Glasgow- City of Sculpture". She began her professional life working in the realm of public art, but became disillusioned with this, struck out on her own, her personal work centres around misinformation, to this end she has created a "Broom Cupboard" of taxonomic misfits from the animal world. "The particular focus of my work is in indeterminacy and areas where material evidence and narrative become confused or contradictory." de Bruin has been the recipient of the JD Fergusson award, which allowed her to travel to Italy and on to Washington DC work with the paleobiologists in the Smithsonian, where she began work on recreating some of the creatures from the Burgess Shale in stone.

She has received a Scottish Crafts Council development award to concentrate on building her skill sets, was the 2013 winner of the Inches Carr Craft Award.de Bruin has exhibited twice at the Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh and Kinross Art Gallery to the Gymnasium Gallery in Berwick upon Tweed. She has work in private collections, in the permanent collections of the JD Fergusson Trust and Perth Museums and Art Galleries. In her professional lettercutting and stonecarving capacity, de Bruin has worked on conservation projects across Scotland, such as the Fisherman's Monument in Dunbar, the £33 Million restoration of McEwan Hall in Edinburgh, once appeared on Time Team where she was commissioned to carve an Anglo-Saxon throne extrapolated from a small found fragment, now permanently on display in Bamburgh Castle, her memorials are to be seen throughout the Scottish Borders and Northern England

Liberal Party of Macedonia

The Liberal Party of Macedonia is a conservative-liberal political party in North Macedonia. The party was a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party but is no longer a member, it is led by Ivon Velickovski. The Liberal Party was established on 5 October 1990 as the Union of Reform Forces in Macedonia. Although it shared its name with the Union of Reform Forces operating in other parts of Yugoslavia and headed by Prime Minister Ante Marković, it was not directly linked to the party. However, due to Marković's popularity, the party performed well in the 1990 parliamentary elections, receiving 13.3% of the vote in the first round and 16.1% in the second, winning a total of 11 seats. The party ran in an alliance with the Young Democratic-Progressive Party in some areas, with the Social Democratic Party in others; the joint SRS–MDPS candidates won six seats, whilst the alliance with the Social Democratic Party failed to win a seat. In 1991 the party merged with the Young Democratic-Progressive Party, was renamed Reform Forces in Macedonia–Liberal Party, before becoming the Liberal Party in June 1993.

It was part of the Alliance for Macedonia in the 1994 general elections. The Alliance won 87 seats in the Assembly, whilst the Liberal Party won a further five seats running alone and one seat where it ran in alliance with the Social Democratic Union. In April 1997 the Liberal Party merged with the Democratic Party to form the Liberal Democratic Party. However, several former members of the Liberal Party broke away from the LDP in December 1999 to re-established the party; the party ran in an alliance with the VMRO-DPMNE for the 2002 elections, but the alliance was defeated by the Together for Macedonia coalition. The two remained in an alliance with the addition of several other parties for the 2006 elections, which it emerged from as the largest bloc in the Assembly with 45 of the 120 seats, of which two were held by the Liberal Party. Prior to the 2008 elections the party joined Sun – Coalition for Europe alongside the Social Democratic Union and several other parties; the coalition lost the elections to the VMRO-DPMNE-led For a Better Macedonia alliance.

The Liberal Party remained in alliance with the SDSM for the 2011 elections, again losing to the VMRO-DPMNE-led alliance. Prior to the 2014 elections the party became part of the Citizen Option for Macedonia coalition. Official website