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Old Toronto

Old Toronto is an administrative district and the retronym of the area within the original city limits of Toronto, Canada, from 1834 to 1998. It was first incorporated as a city in 1834, after being known as the town of York, became part of York County. In 1954, it became the administrative headquarters for the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the city expanded in size by annexation of surrounding municipalities, reaching its final boundaries in 1967. In 1998, it was amalgamated with the other cities of Metropolitan Toronto, it was not a traditional annexation of the surrounding municipalities in which a city absorbs the said municipalities but remains the same city, but it was rather a new municipal entity, the successor of the original city. "Old Toronto" referred to Toronto's boundaries before the Great Toronto Fire of 1904, when much of city's development was to the east of Yonge Street. Since the amalgamation, the former city is variously referred to as the "former city of Toronto" or "Old Toronto."

It is sometimes referred to as "downtown" or as "the core." Old Toronto has a population density of 8,210 people per square kilometre, which would rank it as the densest in Canada among cities with a population over 100,000 if it were still a separate city. The former town of York was incorporated on March 6, 1834, reverting to the name Toronto to distinguish it from New York City, as well as about a dozen other localities named "York" in the province, to dissociate itself from the negative connotation of "dirty Little York", a common nickname for the town by its residents; the population was recorded in June 1834 at 9,252. In 1834, Toronto was incorporated with the boundaries of Bathurst Street to the west, 400 yards north of Lot Street to the north, Parliament Street to the east. Outside this formal boundary were the "liberties", land pre-destined to be used for new wards; these boundaries were today's Dufferin Street to the west, Bloor Street to the north, the Don River to the east, with a section along the lakeshore east of the Don and south of today's Queen Street to the approximate location of today's Maclean Street.

The liberties formally became part of the city in 1859 and the wards were remapped. William Lyon Mackenzie, a Reformer, was Toronto's first mayor, a position he only held for one year, losing to Tory Robert Baldwin Sullivan in 1835. Sullivan was replaced by Dr. Thomas David Morrison in 1836. Another Tory, George Gurnett, was elected in 1837; that year, Toronto was the site of the key events of the Upper Canada Rebellion. Mackenzie would lead an assault on Montgomery's Tavern, beginning the Upper Canada Rebellion; the attacks were ineffectual, as British regulars, the Canadian militia in Toronto went out to the rebel camp at Montgomery's Tavern and dispersed the rebels. Mackenzie and other Reformers escaped to the United States, while some rebel leaders, such as Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were hanged. Toronto would elect a succession of Tory or Conservative mayors, it was not until the 1850s that a Reform member would be mayor again. Shortly after the rebellion, Toronto was ravaged by its first great fire in 1849.

The fire was one of two great fires to occur in the city, with the other occurring in 1904. In their efforts to control the city and its citizens, the Tories were willing to turn to extra-governmental tools of social control, such as the Orange Order in Canada; as historian Gregory Kealey concluded, "Following the delegitimation of Reform after the Rebellions were suppressed, the Corporation developed into an impenetrable bastion of Orange-Tory strength." By 1844, six of Toronto's ten aldermen were Orangemen, over the rest of the 19th century, twenty of twenty-three mayors would be as well. A parliamentary committee reporting on the 1841 Orange Riot in Toronto concluded that the powers granted the Corporation made it ripe for Orange abuse. Orange influence dominated the emerging police force, giving it a "monopoly of legal violence, the power to choose when to enforce the law." Orange Order violence at elections and other political meetings was a staple of the period. Between 1839 and 1866, the Orange Order was involved in 29 riots in Toronto, of which 16 had direct political inspiration.

At its height in 1942, 16 of the 23 members of city council were members of the Orange Order. Every mayor of Toronto in the first half of the 20th century was an Orangeman; this continued until the 1954 election when the Jewish Nathan Phillips defeated radical Orange leader Leslie Howard Saunders. The boundaries of Toronto remained unchanged into the 1880s. Toronto expanded into the west by annexing the Town of Brockton in 1884, the Town of Parkdale in 1889, properties west to Swansea by 1893. In the 1880s, Toronto expanded to the north, annexing Yorkville in 1883, The Annex in 1887, Seaton Village in 1888. In the 1900s, Toronto expanded again to the north, annexing Rosedale in 1905, Deer Park in 1908, the City of West Toronto and Wychwood Park in 1909, Dovercourt Park and Earlscourt in 1910, Moore Park and North Toronto in 1912. To the east, Toronto annexed Riverdale in 1884, a strip east of Greenwood in 1890, Town of East Toronto in 1908, an extension east to Victoria Park Avenue in 1909, the Midway in 1909.

By 1908, the named wards were abolished, replaced by a sim

Thomas Thoroton

Thomas Thoroton, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons for 25 years between 1757 and 1782. Thoroton was the son of Robert Thoroton of Screveton and his wife Mary Levett, daughter of Sir Richard Levett Lord Mayor of London and widow of Abraham Blackborne, merchant of London, he was educated at Westminster School in 1736 and was admitted at Trinity Hall, Cambridge as scholar on 30 December 1741 and at Lincoln's Inn on 22 May 1745. He became political agent to John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland and married his illegitimate daughter Roosilia Drake in October 1751. Thoroton was returned as Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge in a by-election in 1757. In the 1761 general election he was returned as MP for Newark on Duke of Newcastle’s interest, he was Secretary to the Board of Ordnance from 1763 to 1770. He stood in the 1768 general election contesting Bramber on Granby’s interest. Though defeated in the poll he was seated on petition in 1769, he was returned unopposed at Bramber in 1774 and 1780.

He took a great part in managing the affairs of Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland. During the Gordon riots in 1780 he was active and rescued several victims from the mob. In 1789 Thoroton sold his estates at Alfreton and Swanwick and purchased Flintham House and land at Flintham, close to Screveton, he was buried at Screveton. Several of his children were bound up in the affairs of the Dukes of Rutland, his daughter Mary eloped with and married Charles Manners-Sutton Archbishop of Canterbury, his son Thomas sat in parliament for Grantham on the Rutland interest between 1802 and 1812

Sam Johnson (rugby union)

Sam Johnson is an Australian-born Scotland international rugby union player who plays for Glasgow Warriors as a centre. Johnson first made a name for himself at schoolboy level, representing Queensland Schoolboys and Australia Schoolboys A after winning the Associated Independent Colleges competition with St. Edmund's College in 2011, his first rugby union club was GPS in Brisbane. He was to switch codes to Rugby League. On moving to Scotland, he played for Stirling County when not in use by Glasgow Warriors. Johnson was drafted to Ayr in the Scottish Premiership for the 2017-18 season. Johnson has been drafted to Glasgow Hawks in the Scottish Premiership for the 2018-19 season, he returned to rugby union for the 2013–14 season, when he joined the Queensland Reds wider training squad, returned to his former club GPS. Johnson impressed the Queensland Reds coaching staff in 2014 as a regular in the midfield for Reds A and GPS, which led to him making his Queensland Reds debut off the bench against the Western Force in Perth.

He went on to play five matches for Queensland Country in Australia's National Rugby Championship in the season 2014–15. Johnson made two Super Rugby appearances for the Reds in total and was named on the bench a further three times. On 28 April 2015, it was announced that Sam Johnson would be joining the Pro12 champions Glasgow Warriors in an initial contract to May 2017. In October 2018, after qualifying to play for Scotland on residency grounds, he was called up to the senior squad for the Autumn Internationals, he was named in the squad for the 2019 Six Nations tournament and started in the opening game, a 33–20 win against Italy, to claim his first cap. He scored his first international try in the 13-22 loss to Ireland the next week. Johnson played Rugby League for the Gold Coast Titans under-20s after school, his favoured position in rugby league was as a forward in the back row but he was played at as a back at centre instead and was tagged a utility player. He sometimes played for the Gold Coast Titans feeder club Tweed Heads Seagulls in New South Wales at this time.

Warriors sign Johnson Warriors sign Sam Johnson & Greg Peterson

Ohio in the War of 1812

During the War of 1812, Ohio was on the front lines in the conflict between the United States, Great Britain and the Native American allies of each side. Fighting raged on the adjacent Lake Erie. Ohio figured prominently in pre-war discussions about war with Canada. Should war break out, a three-pronged attack would occur from the west, the center and the east into Canada. William Hull, the governor of the Michigan territory, who had traveled to Washington, D. C. in late 1811 for consultations, was appointed brigadier-general and assigned the responsibilities of leading the North West Army to reinforce Detroit, protect Michigan, coordinate with other expeditions. Hull's army gathered in May 1812, before the United States declared war on Great Britain, it was to consist of the Fourth Regiment, a regular U. S. Army unit based in Vincennes and three regiments of Ohio militia; these were the First Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, under Col. Duncan McArthur; the Ohio volunteer units gathered around the small community of Dayton, with Col. McArthur's First Regiment south of Dayton and the other two regiments north of town along the Mad River.

On May 25, 1812, the regiments gathered together and Governor Return J. Meigs, Jr. handed over command to Brigadier General Hull. Ohio militia participating in the war were killed at two early battles of the war, the Battle of Brownstown, Monguagon. In February, construction on Fort Meigs, next to the Maumee River in Perrysburg, began. Gen. William Henry Harrison provided these orders; the fort would undergo two sieges. The first was in May; the British assaulted the fort, the Americans held the fort. The second siege was in July. Tecumseh, leading the Native American allies to the British, tried to ambush the Americans; however this did not work, the British and Natives were forced to leave, letting the Americans win again. In September, the Battle of Lake Erie took place, with the Americans led by Oliver Hazard Perry; the British overpowered the Americans in strength and number of guns, but Perry forced the British to surrender by getting closer, as their guns were more powerful up close. Brigadier General William Hull Col. Duncan McArthur Col. James Findlay Col. Lewis Cass Major General Henry Procter Indiana in the War of 1812 Kentucky in the War of 1812 Alec R. Gilpin, The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest.

Western Reserve Historical Society. Northern Ohio during the war of 1812. Cleveland, Ohio. Retrieved 2013-06-08

William Cameron Sproul

William Cameron Sproul was an American politician who served as a Republican member of the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1897 to 1919 and as the 27th Governor of Pennsylvania from 1919 to 1923. He served as chair of the National Governors Association from 1919 to 1922. Sproul was born at John Douglass House to William Hall and Deborah Dickinson Sproul in Colerain Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania on September 16, 1870; the family relocated to Chester, Pennsylvania in 1883 and Sproul graduated from Chester High School in 1887. He attended Swarthmore College, was a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity and graduated with honors in 1891. After graduation, Sproul acquired an interest in the Franklin Printing Company of Philadelphia. Sproul purchased a half interest in the Chester Times newspaper. Sproul was employed in the field of newspaper publishing, rose to the rank of president of the Chester Daily Times. Additionally, he made a substantial profit through investments in railroads and manufacturing interests.

In 1895, Sproul was elected a director of the First National Bank of Chester. In 1898, he became vice president of the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding and Engine Works but resigned a year when he organized the Seaboard Steel Casting Company and served as president. In 1900, he was elected president of the Chester Shipping Company, he was president of the Ohio Valley Electric Railway Company, the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad Company and of the General Refractories Company. He was director of the Philadelphia and Washington Railroad Company, the Delaware County Trust and Title Insurance Company, the Commercial Trust Company of Philadelphia and the American Railways Company. A prominent Republican, Sproul served in the Pennsylvania State Senate for the 9th District from 1897 to 1919. At age 26, he was the youngest member of the senate and the youngest man to become senator from Delaware County. In 1911, he drafted the landmark Sproul Road Bill. In 1918, Sproul was elected as the 27th Governor of Pennsylvania and served until 1923.

As governor, he focused on expanding funding for education, roadway construction, veterans' services. He spurred an effort to expand state forest land in order to replenish the state's woodlands after years of depletion by lumber companies. Sproul was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1920, he was offered the nomination for vice president on a ticket with Warren Harding, but he declined. In 1926, Sproul chaired the bi-state committee that organized the construction of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge between Philadelphia and Camden. On January 21, 1892, Sproul married the daughter of shipbuilder John Roach, they had two children, Dorothy Wallace Sproul and John Roach Sproul, who married Henry D. Hatfield's Hazel Bronson Hatfield. Although Sproul was a millionaire, he died intestate on March 21, 1928, he is interred at the Chester Rural Cemetery in Pennsylvania. His birthplace is known as the John Douglass House and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.

The following are named in his honor: Sproul Hall, a Penn State University residence hall built in 1964 Governor Sproul Apartments in Broomall, Pennsylvania Sproul Estates, a residential development in Wallingford, Pennsylvania built on the site of his former residence Sproul State Forest in Clinton and Centre counties Sproul Road, which parallels much of PA Route 320 in between Wayne and Marple Sproul Observatory at Swarthmore College PHMC: William Cameron Sproul biography Pennsylvania Governors Past to Present: Governor William Cameron Sproul Works by or about William Cameron Sproul at Internet Archive


Vadavalli is a neighborhood in Coimbatore in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on Marudamalai road and comes under the Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation limits since 2007. Located at the foothills of the Western Ghats, Vadavalli has a pleasant climate all through the year and has good ground water resources. Vadavalli is about 9 km from both the Railway station and 14 km from Gandhipuram bus stand, 19 km from Coimbatore International Airport; the Siruvani River, which supplies drinking water to most parts of Coimbatore, is about 35 km away. Traditionally an agricultural community is now a popular housing colony. Anna University Regional Campus, Bharathiar University and the Government Law College are located 4 km from Vadavalli, it has many government and private schools on its surroundings. MHSS and Kalveeram palayam government school are one of the good government schools Which was located in vadavalli. According to the 2001 India census, Vadavalli has a population of 44,700. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%.

Vadavalli has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5% - male literacy is 83%, female literacy is 74%. 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. In 2011 Vadavalli has merged with coimbatore corporation limit, it was special town panchayat and Narayanasamy nagar, is sample smart city and its clean and tidy. From Vadavalli the link road is to Thondamuthur. A famous Lord Muruga temple in Tamil Nadu. Anuvavi Temple, another Lord Murugan temple, is about 15 km away and can be reached via a mountain trail from Maruthamalai, it houses the Vellingiri Hills Lord Shiva site. The 2000-year-old Perur Temple is close by