click links in text for more info

Old Town Albuquerque

Old Town is the historic original town site of Albuquerque, New Mexico, for the provincial kingdom of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, established in 1706 by New Mexico governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. It is listed on the New Mexico State Register of Cultural Properties as the Old Albuquerque Historic District, is protected by a special historic zoning designation by the city; the present-day district contains about ten blocks of historic adobe buildings surrounding Old Town Plaza. On the plaza's north side stands San Felipe de Neri Church, a Spanish colonial church constructed in 1793. Old Town is a popular tourist destination with a large number of restaurants and galleries, is home to the Albuquerque Museum of Art and History; the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science and the Explora science center are located a short distance to the northeast. Old Town is known for its luminaria displays during the holiday season on Christmas Eve. Old Town occupies an area of about 0.8 square miles bounded by Rio Grande Boulevard, Mountain Road, 19th Street, Central Avenue.

At the center is Old Town Plaza, surrounded by ten blocks of one- and two-story buildings. The central plaza layout was favored by Spanish colonial authorities and is found in many other cities and towns throughout New Mexico, including Santa Fe, Las Vegas, Mesilla; the area around Old Town was farmland, but it has been covered over by 20th century urban development. The Spanish colonial villa of Alburquerque was founded in 1706 by Francisco Cuervo y Valdés, the governor of New Mexico at the time. Cuervo reported that the new settlement was home to 252 residents and had been laid out with streets, a plaza, a church in accordance with the town planning regulations set forth in the Laws of the Indies, it emerged that much of Cuervo's account had been exaggerated and the original "villa" was just a scattering of farms along the Rio Grande rather than a centralized settlement. Despite a formal investigation, the villa was allowed to keep its title and a more legitimate town was soon established.

Like other Spanish colonial settlements, Albuquerque consisted of a central plaza surrounded by houses, government offices, a church. For much of the 18th century, the homes around the plaza were inhabited only on Sundays as the residents spent the rest of the week on their farms, it was not until the late 1700s. Possession of Albuquerque, along with the rest of New Mexico, passed to Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, U. S. forces under Stephen W. Kearny entered New Mexico and were able to take control of the territory without resistance. Kearny marched into Albuquerque in September to raise the U. S. administer an oath of allegiance to the local residents. Kearny's troops established a U. S. Army post near the plaza, which brought an influx of people over the next twenty years; the 1860 Census showed a population of 1,608. During the U. S. Civil War, Confederate troops under Henry Hopkins Sibley captured the town in March 1862 but were forced to retreat back to Texas after losing most of their supplies at the Battle of Glorieta Pass.

Albuquerque saw minor action when the retreating Confederates were involved in a skirmish with Union troops in the Battle of Albuquerque. For the most part, the town remained a quiet agricultural community; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached Albuquerque in 1880, building a depot about 2 miles east of the plaza. This led to the creation of a rival "New Albuquerque" which boomed thanks to the railroad and was incorporated as the City of Albuquerque in 1891; the original town, now called Old Albuquerque, entered a decline as businesses and institutions moved to New Town. The county courthouse was moved in 1926, by the 1930s any businesses were still operating around the plaza. Old Town's fortunes began to improve in the 1940s as Albuquerque citizens began to take note of Old Town's historic value, the Old Albuquerque Historical Society was established in 1946. Old Town was annexed by the city in 1949, bringing municipal improvements like paved streets and sidewalks for the first time. Since Old Town has developed into a popular tourist attraction, with most of the adobe houses re-purposed into shops and galleries.

Old Town Plaza dates to the original founding of the city in the early 1700s and remains the center of Old Town. It was larger than today, extending to the south and east, but was reduced to its present size by the late 1800s. In the 1850s, a 121-foot flagpole was erected in the center of the plaza by the U. S. Army; the adobe wall surrounding the plaza was replaced with a picket fence in 1881 and a stone wall built by the Works Progress Administration in 1937. The WPA's walls and bandstand were unpopular and were removed just eleven years through a grassroots effort organized by the Old Albuquerque Historical Society; the historical society oversaw construction of a new bandstand, new landscaping, installation of 16 wrought iron benches purchased from Chihuahua, Mexico. At the east end of the plaza is a display of two replica M1835 mountain howitzers. During the Civil War, retreating Confederate forces buried eight howitzers near the plaza in 1862 to prevent them from falling into Union hands.

The guns were rediscovered in 1889 with the help of the former Confederate artillery commander, who still remembered their location. Two of the howitzers were put on display in the plaza but were moved to the Albuquerque Museum of Art and History and replaced with

Egyptian Air Force

The Egyptian Air Force, is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all military aircraft, including those used in support of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy and the Egyptian Air Defense Forces. The latter was created as a separate command in the 1970s and it coordinates with the Air Force to integrate air and ground-based air defense operations; the EAF is headed by an Air Marshal. The commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Mohamed Abbas; the force's motto is'Higher and higher for the sake of glory'. The Egyptian Army Air Service was formed in 1932, became an independent air force in 1937, it had little involvement in the Second World War. From 1948 to 1973 it took part, with mediocre results, in four separate wars with Israel, as well as the quasi-War of Attrition, it supported the Egyptian Army during the North Yemen Civil War and the Libyan–Egyptian War of 1977. From 1977 to 2011 it saw no combat, but has participated in numerous exercises, including Operation Bright Star.

Since 1992 the EAF has provided aviation support for the police and other national security organizations engaged in the war against terrorism. In recent years the Air Force has acted in the Sinai insurgency, the Second Libyan Civil War and the Intervention in the Yemen; the EAF primary role is the air defence of the nation, with secondary tasks of strike and army support operations. The EAF provides official government transport and carries out international search-and- rescue operations in the desert, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea. In 2014 the IISS estimated the total active manpower of the Egyptian Air Force at 30,000 personnel, including 10,000 conscripts, with reserves of 20,000 personnel; this contrasts with an estimate of some 35,000 personnel, with most aircrew being long-term professionals, in 2010. In late 1928, the Parliament of Egypt proposed the creation of an Egyptian Air Force; the Egyptian ministry of war announced that it needed volunteers for the new arm to become the first four Egyptian military pilots.

Over 200 Egyptian officers volunteered, but in the end only three succeeded in passing strict medical tests and technical examinations. These three went to No. 4 Flying Training School RAF at RAF Station Abu Sueir near the Suez Canal, where they were trained on a variety of aircraft. After graduation, they traveled to the United Kingdom for specialised training. On 2 November 1930, the King of Egypt and Sudan, Fuad I announced the creation of the Egyptian Army Air Force. On 27 May 1931 the Egyptian Council of Ministers approved the purchase of five aircraft and the building of an airfield at Almaza with a budget of 50,000 pounds; the aircraft chosen was the British de Havilland Gipsy Moth trainer, the five modified aircraft were flown from England to Egypt and on arrival in May 1932 the air force was founded and the Almaza airfield was formally opened. The first commander of the EAAF was Squadron Leader Victor Hubert Tait RAF, a Canadian, former Senior Air Advisor on the British Military Mission in Egypt.

Tait selected staff and initiated building a number of airfields. In 1934 the British government provided ten Avro 626 aircraft, which were the first real Egyptian military planes. A further 17 626s together with Hawker Audaxes for army cooperation and close support and Avro Ansons for VIP work followed shortly afterward. In 1937 the Egyptian Army Air Force was separated from the Army Command and became an independent branch named the Royal Egyptian Air Force. New stations were built in the Suez Canal Zone, the Western Desert. During 1938 the REAF received two squadrons of Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters and a squadron of then-modern Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft, Egypt was the last state to use the Lysander in action, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War; as the Egyptian border was threatened by an Italian and German invasion during the Second World War, the Royal Air Force established more airfields in Egypt. The Royal Egyptian Air Force was sometimes treated as a part of the Royal Air Force, at other times a strict policy of neutrality was followed as Egypt maintained its official neutrality until late in the war.

As a result, few additional aircraft were supplied by Britain, however the arm did receive its first modern fighters, Hawker Hurricanes and a small number of Curtiss P-40 Tomahawks. In the immediate post-war period, cheap war surplus aircraft, including a large number of Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IXs were acquired. A 1946 order of battle for the Air Force can be found in Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. Following the British withdrawal from the British Protectorate of Palestine and the establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, Egyptian forces crossed into Palestine as part of a wider Arab League military coalition in support of the Palestinians against the Israelis; the Egyptian Air Force contribution included the Short Stirling bomber, Douglas C-47 Dakotas performing as light bombers and Spitfires. Two Israeli aircraft were shot down and on 22 May 1948, Egyptian Spitfires attacked the RAF Ramat David airfield, believing that it had been taken over by Israeli forces; the first raid surprised the British, resulted in the destruction of several RAF aircraft on the ground, the deaths of four airmen.

The British were uncertain whether the attacking Spitfires had come from Israeli forces. When second and third raids followed shortly afterwards, the British were ready and the entire Egyptian force was shot down – the last aircraft being baited for some time as the RAF pilots a

Beat the Teacher

Beat the Teacher is a British children's game show that aired on BBC1 from 24 September 1984 to 27 October 1988. It was first hosted by Howard Stableford in 1984 hosted by Paul Jones from 1985 to 1986 and Bruno Brookes from 1987 to 1988; each edition featured two contestants. Both were tested on general knowledge questions and logic puzzles. Correct answers won the contestant moves on a giant Noughts and Crosses board made from rotating cubes. Questions awarded two or three moves of the board, based upon their difficulty. Control of the board was determined by the use of buzzers. After answering the question the contestant was given the choice of which blocks on the board to turn over. For example, if a square displayed a "nought", one rotation would see the square turn blank. Tactical play would lead to the contestant building up lines of noughts or crosses, for which points were awarded. A special "joker card" could be played once in each game by either contestant, reversing each square on the board so that all crosses became noughts and vice versa.

A bonus was awarded for a full board of noughts or crosses, after which each square on the board would be randomised. Question styles included puzzles, "true or false," or "identify the picture"; the last round of the show before the winner was declared was a special "wrong answer round" in which aim was for the contestants to give as many incorrect answers as they could within 60 seconds. Each "wrong" answer would earn the contestant a move on the board, while if they gave answered a question then they would lose one move per "correct" answer; the player with the highest score at the end would be crowned champion and participate in the "final" round. The board was cleared, the winning contestant had to try to fill all nine squares up by answering nine questions within 60 seconds. If they accomplished this, they would win a prize. Whether they won or not they were invited to come back again the next episode. A "Beat the Teacher" Failure Mug was the consolation prize awarded to a majority of the show's unsuccessful contestants.

Once a contestant won five games in a row, they would "retire" undefeated. The best four students and the best four teachers from each series in terms of total number of wins and total scores achieved in their episodes would return for the quarter finals at the end of the series Beat the Teacher at

Ramshorn Dude Ranch Lodge

The Ramshorn Dude Ranch Lodge in Grand Teton National Park was built after 1935 by mountaineers Paul Petzoldt, founder of the National Outdoor Leadership School, Gustav Koven. The property that became the Ramshorn Ranch was established by Ransom Adams at the mouth of Gros Ventre Canyon near Ditch Creek. By 1921 the property was acquired by Jack and Dollye Woodsman, who established the Flying V dude ranch, featuring a large central lodge. In 1932 the lodge burned, prompting the Woodsmans to sell the ranch to Koven and Petzoldt in 1935, who planned to expand the dude ranch as a climbing school and hunting camp. Petzoldt withdrew from the partnership in 1937 after suggesting the name be changed to the Ramshorn Ranch; the present lodge was completed in 1937 by the Woodward brothers. A variety of owners and partners ensued until 1956, when the ranch was sold to the National Park Service; the Park Service leased the ranch back to concessioners who operated it as the Elbo Ranch until 1973, replacing the former Elbo Ranch purchased by the Park Service.

The Teton Science School was established on the property in 1974 under a special use permit. The lodge is now the main building of the Kelly Campus of the Teton Science School, retains its rustic character. Structures from the nearby Hunter Hereford Ranch designed by Ogden, Utah architect Eber Piers were moved from the Hunter ranch when the Hunter residential complex was removed in the 1990s; the Ramshorn was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 19, 1998. Manges Cabin Hunter Hereford Ranch directly adjacent to the Ramshorn Historical buildings and structures of Grand Teton National Park Ramshorn Lodge at Grand Teton National Park Kelly Campus, Teton Science School Grand Teton Historic Resource Study: The Dude Wranglers National Park Service Ramshorn Dude Ranch Lodge at the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office


Kahatowita is one of a village in Attanagalla electorate, Gampaha District, Western Province, Sri Lanka. Kahatowita lies at an elevation of 37meters above sea level. North and North Eastern border of the kahatowita formed by the Attanagalla oya river. Kahatowita features a tropical rain forest climate under the Köppen climate classification. Kahatowita’s climate is temperature all throughout the year. Kahatowita’s average temperature is 28 degrees Celsius. Kahatowita is a village being administered by Attanagalla Divisional Secretariat. Which is one of electorate division administered under Gampaha District, it has been divided into two divisions for two different "Grama Niladari" for easy administration. They are Kahatowita West; the first mosque of the village was built closing to Attanagalla Oya in 1688. When the days goes on, the mosque had to be replaced to another area as it was affected by flood. Now this Mosque called as Kahatowita Grand Masjidh; the second mosque Masjidun Noor was built in 1975.

And in 1997, Jamiuth Tawheed masjid was built as the 3rd Jumma Masjidh. In early The majority of the Villagers followed Sufi Tariqas namely, Qadiriyatun Nabawiyya, badheebiyyatul Qadiriyya, Shaduliyah majority of the villagers adhere to follow the quran and sunnah. Assayed Ahmed Mubarak, scholar from Hadramaut, Yemen who introduced Qadiriyatun Nabawiyya tariqa, visited Kahatowita in 1857 while As sheikh Abdullah Ibn Umar Badeeb al Yamani, a scholar from Hadramaut, Yemen visited the village In 1859 to preach Islam and to educate the people of village. Badheebiyyatul Qadiriyya tariqa was introduced by the people in respect of his visit, he established a takkiya, near to Muhiyiddeen Jumma mosque and formed and started Zikr Majlise and Islamic Classes to attract the people towards Masjidhs. He founded Kahatowita Al-Badriya Maha Vidyalaya, the first school in Kahatowita in 1891, he was a founder of Zahira College, Colombo. The people who followed Shaduliya tariqa was brought to the village by As sheikh Ibrahimul Makki in 1928.

He opened a zaviya in Kahatowita. The government owned. Al Badriya Maha Vidyalaya - Al- Badriya Maha Vidyala founded in 1891 by As sheikh Abdullah Ibn Umar Badeeb al Yamani, it advanced government school in 1920. Al-Badriya Maha Vidyalaya provides education up to GCE Advanced Level. Kurawalana Kanishta Vidyalaya Muslim Balaika Primary School - Muslim Balika Vidyalaya was established in 1946, it provides education for Muslim girls up to GCE Ordinary Level. Ogodapola Kanishta Vidyalaya Kahatowita is much popular for Sports Activities. Cricket and volley Ball was the main two games. Football became much popular for the youngsters in early 2000. Attanagalla Divisional Secrertarat Local Government Member

Mark Stock

Mark Stock was born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1951. The son of an Army officer, Stock lived in many states across America before settling in St. Petersburg, Florida, he received his Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of South Florida in Tampa where he studied under Theo Wujcik. Upon graduating in 1976, Stock was hired to work at Gemini G. E. L. in Los Angeles as a lithographer. While there, he printed for notable artists such as Jasper Johns, David Hockney, Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein before leaving to paint full-time. Mark's final resting place is at the Mountain View Cemetery in California, his tombstone depicts an image. The backstory of this image is explained by Mark in this video: In 1977, Stock began studying ballet and modern dance. His work expanded to include designing sets for various Los Angeles-based dance companies, he started to paint the figure in 1983 and has become known for his narrative paintings. From the 2000 book, Mark Stock: Paintings, by Barnaby Conrad III: "Mark Stock's paintings connect viewers to the euphoria and sometimes fatal entanglements of romance.

Melodramatic and tinged with irony, Stock's images illustrate love's power to provoke our best - and most illicit - behavior. A well-dressed voyeur peeks through a mansion window and intent on the object of his desire. Picknicking lovers lock into each other's eyes. An attractive woman smokes a cigarette as she sits next to a man's corpse, rolled neatly in a carpet, ready for disposal. A butler steals a moment to treasure lipstick left on a glass by the woman. Stock's paintings tell each character's story with remarkable clarity and, in many cases, with humor. A master of the realist narrative style, Stock uses color and line to amazing effect. Details in facial inflection, body language, background tell you there's more going on here than rapture and dangerous liaisons; these paintings keep you coming back for another look, for clues to life's charged moments." Stock's works can be found in the permanent collections of Brooklyn Museum, Museum of Modern Art, The Library of Congress and The National Gallery of Art.

Besides painting, Mark Stock was a jazz drummer. He was an accomplished magician and a champion golfer, he resided in California. An avid amateur magician, Stock was known for performing his floating dollar bill trick. Los Angeles Times - December 2013 review by Leah Ollman Los Angeles Times - January 2000 review by Suzanne Muchnic 34th Telluride Film Festival poster artist Mark Stock: Paintings. 2000, Duane Press. ISBN 978-0-942627-64-0. Hollywood Uncovered Actor and writer The Butler's in Love based on the Mark Stock painting Fleshtone writing contributor. Directed by Harry Hurwitz Obituary from Tallahassee Democrat Los Angeles Times Obituary San Francisco Chronicle Obituary